Development of Education System in Malaysia : Pre-Independence
DEVELOPMENT OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM IN MALAYSIA : PRE-INDEPENDENCE ZELA ZULFIKAR & NORHIDAYU ROSMAN
PHASE 1BEFORE THE BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD (1400 – 1786)
PHASE IIDURING THE BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD (1786 – 1956)
STAGE ONEBEFORE THE SECONDWORLD WAR(1786 – 1941)
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN MALAYA EDUCATION SYSTEM IN SABAHEDUCATION SYSTEM IN SARAWAK
EDUCATIONSYSTEM IN MALAYA Primary Education Secondary Tertiary Education Education Vocational & Technical Teacher Training Education
PRIMARY & SECONDARY EDUCATION• Malays were given 6 years of basic education to achieving these objectives : – Provide arithmetic skills for the males to start small businesses upon completion of their edu. – Promote awareness regarding the importance of moral values. – Ensure the proficiency of children of the royal family in the English language
• Indians - same basic edu – after complete their schools - employed as labourers in the rubber estates and railway tracks.• Chinese - autonomy of setting up their own schools and designing their curriculum + employing teachers + text books from China. – It was not the British Colonial Government’s responsibility to provide edu for the citizens of this country. (Resident General of the Federation of Malay States Report, 1901)
Bayan Lepas Malay SchoolGelugor Malay Ayer HitamSchool, Penang Malay (1826) School, Penang Malay Schools (branches of Penang Free School)
Telok Kampung Belanga GelamMalay School School Malay Schools (in Singapore – 1856)
PROBLEM, SOLUTION & CONSEQUENCES• Problem : Malay parents were not interested to send their children to school even those schools provided schooling until Standard Five using Malay language as the medium of instruction.• Solution : A. M. Skinner (Inspector of Schools) started Qur’an recitation classes in these school.• Consequence : Increasing number of Malay schools being built in the Malay States.
DEVELOPMENT OF MALAY SCHOOLS• British colonial Government enforced the Compulsory Education Act : – compulsory for parents to send their children to school. – Otherwise, they’ll be fined. – British appealed to the Malay leaders to encourage parents to register their children for schooling. – Due to good response, more Malay schools were built.
• However, due to small number of Malay parents who willing to send their daughters to school thus took longer time to set up schools for girls.• 1940 : increased number of pupils registered in Malay schools but the British colonial Government did not endeavour to set up Malay secondary school. – British adhered the policy of educating Malay children to become farmers & fishermen only. – Worried that highly educated Malays would initiate anti-British feelings amongst the people.
CHINESE SCHOOLS • Responsibility of the Chinese community.Founding & • Expenditure for building – businessmen & funding Chinese leaders. • Teachers brought from China. • System based totally from China.Education • Used Chinese dialects. Chinese • Chinese Government paying attention to Chinese education abroad.Revolution • Chinese schools frequently visited & monitored 1911 by edu officers from China
Chinese Education System Type of School Schooling Duration Primary School Six YearsLower Secondary School (Junior Middle Three) Three YearsUpper Secondary School (Senior Middle Three) Three Years
DEVELOPMENT OF CHINESE SCHOOLS: 1920 1913 : • Abolition of the usage of • Setting up the first Chinese different dialects. secondary school in Malaya • Endorsement of the Schools (Singapore) Registration enactment to restrict the spread of political influences in Chinese schools.1945 : 1924 :- Review of the syllabi in all Chinese • Focus of the British Governmentschools to ensure that the new on the development of Chinesesyllabi centered on local context. education arising from an awareness that nationalist- Introduction of English & Malay factions were beginning to spreadlanguage in all Chinese schools. anti-British campaigns in Chinese schools
TAMIL SCHOOLS• Tamils were the biggest group of Indian migrants to Malaya at that time.• Forced the plantation owners to set up Tamil schools for their workers’ children.• Examples of schools : – Tamil School in Penang (1816) – Anglo-Tamil School in Malacca (1850) *exist for only 10 years – St. Xavier Malabar School in Singapore (1859)
DEVELOPMENT OF TAMIL SCHOOLS 1914 : 1912 : - Setting up of Tamil - Enforcement of Labour schools in urban areas with Laws. Indian residents. 1930 : - Setting up of Tamil Schools Inspectorate & conducting teachertraining courses to overcome the shortage of trained Tamil teachers.- Introduction of a Malayan syllabus using Tamil, Malayalam & Telegu.
ENGLISH SCHOOLS• Also known as mission schools. – Because were founded and managed by Christian missionaries like the Anglicans, Roman Catholics and Methodists. – Founded in the Straits Settlements & the Malay Federated States. – Most of them has the word “Free” because they were given the autonomy to accept pupils of different races & religious backgrounds.
Anglo-Chinese Bukit Bintang School Girls School and (Methodist) – St. Mary now SMK (Anglican) Methodist Ipoh Anglo-Tamil Convent schools School in KL (girls) & St.(1897) – changed schools (boys) – to Methodist RC missionaries Boys School Other English Schools
Characteristi cs :Located in town areas. Compulsory for Non-Muslim to study Religious Knowledge Use the English as the MOI Received the financial aid & assistance from the British colonial gov.
TEACHER TRAINING Reason &Problems Consequences Ways BcG brought Low wages - teachers from Aware of importance resign England of pro development training for teachers Wooley Small num of Committee (1870)female teachers being set up Shortage of trained Urgent need for teachers in Malay Lack of trained more trained and schools being teachers highly qualified considered teachers
Telok Belanga TTC, Singapore (1878) Taiping Malay Malay Girls TTC, TTC, Perak Malacca (1935) (1878) Teacher Training Raffles Colleges Malacca MalayCollege, Singap TTC, Malacca ore (1928) (TTC) (1900) Sultan Idris TTC, Matang Malay Tanjong Malim, TTC, Perak Perak (1922) (1913)
VOCATIONAL & TECHNICAL EDUCATION 1900 1905 1918 Establishment of Treacher Formation of the Malay Technical School Technical &handicrafts made in KL – train Industrial Edu its first technical Commission – appearance – assistants in the study need forMalays with skills Public Works vocational & were employed Department, Tech edu in the in schools Survey Dept & Malay states Malayan Railway
1923 • Set up the Agricultural Training Centre • Establishment of the Technical School1926 – Technical TTC (1941) – UTM (1972) • Establishment of the Agriculture1931 School in Serdang – train agricultural officers • Agriculture School -> Agriculture1946 College -> Uni Pertanian M’sia (1972) -> UPM (now)
TERTIARY EDUCATION 1938 1905 Formation of commision toEstablishment of 1929 study the status of 1941King Edward VII Establishment of higher edu centres Medical School Establishment if Raffles College in in M’sia under the(S’pore) –> King UM in S’pore Singapore leadership of Sir Edward VII William Maclean.Medical College *merging the KE VII MC & RC to Uni
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN• SABAHBefore the administration of North Borneo Smelting Company Christian missionaries played a vital role.• many ethnic groups did not have opportunity to receive any formal edu.• Malays – religious edu.• Dusun and others – traditional edu of their descendants. After the administration of North Borneo Smelting Company• Edu developed at fast rate.• Missionaries especially from RC began to set up schools in Papar (1981) & Sandakan such as St. Mary’s Primary School (1883), St. Michael’s Boys School (1888) and Convent School for Girls (1891)• English as the MOI in most schools in Sabah.• Mandarin & Dusun also used as MOI
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLS 1930s : 49 mission schools 1941 : 52 mission schools 1920 (KB) : a primary school established – use Malay as MOI (Gov-aided) 1930 : Gov-aided schools reached 21 + 7 by 1941 Establishment of Chinese national type primary schools in Jesselton, 79 private schools (1939) which included a school in Ladang Getah, Tawau – Japanese as MOI
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN SARAWAK before• Had its own traditional edu system Brooke family colonisation era.• People of S’wak (Ibans, Melanau & Kelabit) did not receive any formal edu. – basic skills such as hunting.• Malays – taught Islamic edu. in religious schools
DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOLS RC missionaries – Edu managed by Kuching & ChristianDuring Brooke Kanowit, Anglicans missionaries,administration – Sibu & Kuching Brooke Gov & (used english as Chinese MOI) community Brooke Gov :Hammond Report 1924 : Brooke outside : ethic-based Gov set up an Edu Kuching –schools were also dept to Malay, established in administer the mandarin & 1940 edu system in english as Srwk MOI
STAGE TWO after THESECOND WORLD WAR (1946 - 1956)
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION • Before 1941, the registration of pupils increased but after Japanese Occupation, both the registration of pupils and quality of teaching in schools declined • The centers of high learning (e.g. ;King Edward VII Medical College and Raffles College) cannot operate – used by Japanese Government • Students had no choice but to give up studies• In 1946, these colleges reopened but required a lot of money for restoration (facilities/amenities/infrastructure)• The British colonial Government restructuring the education system – Cheeseman Plan (1946)
CHEESEMAN PLAN (1946) English language, Malay language, Mandarin andFree basic education in all Tamil language as themedia of instruction for all medium of instruction in secondary school *Did not focus on the issue of social integrationEnglish language to be a amongst the multi-ethniccompulsory subject in all groups – vanished in 1949 vernacular schools with the abolition of the Malayan Union
BARNES REPORT (1951) Barnes Committee (1950) – to study and improve the education systems for the Malays Chairman – L.J. Barnes, Director of Social Training Division, Oxford University Failed to bring about an improvement to the Malay schools without having to revamp the whole education system Barnes Report put forward
Conversion of Malay, Chinese and Tamil school to national-type schools Establishment of bilingual schools Replacement of Jawiwith the Malay and Scripts with Islamic English as the Education medium of instruction Recommendations
FENN-WU REPORT (1952) Fenn-Wu Report – focused on Chinese Schools 1951 – Fenn-Wu Committee was set up : Dr Fenn and Dr WuRecommendation : The Malay language, Mandarin and the English language became the medium of instruction in vernacular schools
EDUCATION ORDINANCE (1952)Central advisory Committee – to study the recommendations contain in Barnes Repot and Fenn-Wu Report and seeking a compromise for all concerned parties.
Recommendations • English schools (English language as the medium of instruction)Five types of • Malay schools (Malay language schooling as the medium of instruction) systems • Chinese schools • Tamil schools • Religious school Curriculum according to individual school systems
RAZAK REPORT (1956) Cabinet Committee (Tun Haji Abd. Razak b. Hussien, Minister of Education, Federation of Malaya) : – Examine existing education policies including those pertaining to the Education Ordinance 1952 – Recommend educational changes as deemed appropriate
Recommendation Malay language as the medium of instructionfor all stages of schooling One common school system for all Centralized curriculumand school examination
TEACHER TRAINING1. Kirkby Teachers Training College Set up in Kirkby, Lancashire, Liverpool, England Reasons : i. To train teachers from the Federation of Malaya ii. To overcome the shortage of trained teachers2. Brinsford Lodge In Wolverhampton Responsible to train teachers for lower secondary schools To train potential lectures for the local teacher training colleges
TERTIARY EDUCATIONUniversity Malaya was established in Singapore in 1949 to fulfill the needsand aspirations of the young men and women for higher education