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A short description of what constitutes blood

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  1. 1. Blood Paracetomoxyfrusebendroneomycin (sorry, wrong presentation)
  2. 2. What is Blood made up of? <ul><li>Red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Whit blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the function of red blood cells? <ul><li>Supply oxygen to tissues (oxygen is bound to the haemoglobin in the lungs, and then released in body tissue </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the function of white blood cells? <ul><li>To help in the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells can help, because when they are lysed (broken open) by pathogens, the haemoglobin in red blood cells releases free radicals which break down pathogen cell walls and membranes, killing them. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrophils deal with defense against bacterial or fungal infection and other very small inflammatory processes and are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and death in large numbers forms pus. (they make up about 65% of human white blood cells) </li></ul>
  5. 5. How are red blood cells adapted to carry out their function? What is the importance of surface area to volume ratio of red blood cells? <ul><li>Biconcave disc gives a large surface area to volume ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Higher surface area to volume ratio means oxygen binds quicker to the haemoglobin </li></ul>
  6. 6. How are white blood cells adapted to carry out their function? <ul><li>Some are flexible, so that they can engulf (the process is technically know as phagocytosis) foreign objects, viruses, bacteria and fungal infections </li></ul><ul><li>Some can 'remember' dangerous infections, and therefore protect against them better the next time </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is transported in the plasma? <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic end (waste) products </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen (O 2 ). </li></ul>
  8. 8. What are the names of the different blood vessels, and what do they do? <ul><li>Arteries (provide high pressure, oxygenated blood to the body, from the heart) </li></ul><ul><li>Veins (take low pressure, de-oxygenated blood from the body to the heart) </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is the relationship between haemoglobin and oxygen? <ul><li>Haemoglobin contains heme groups whose iron atoms temporarily link to O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Some CO 2 is carried in the red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>However, less than 2% of the total O 2 and most of the CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The O 2 is only carried because of specific amino acid residue near the heme molecule. This is called histadine, and becomes positively charged under acidic circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Acidic circumstances are created by increased CO 2 production, which creates carbonic acid, meaning more oxygen is realised to the places that need it most </li></ul>
  10. 10. How are different blood vessels adapted to their function? <ul><li>Arteries (thick elastic walls to cope with the high pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>Veins (large hole for the blood (lumen) to pass through (since blood is at a lower pressure) and valves (to mean the low pressure blood still gets to the heart)) </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries (latticed network of small blood vessels (ensures nutrients gets to all cells)) </li></ul>