Oppgavegiveren: Quality of the diaries in the finnish and swedish time use surveys - part 1
Quality of the diaries in the
Finnish and Swedish Time Use
Mikael Fredberg Statistics Sweden
Hannu Pääkkönen Statistics Finland
Nordiskt Statistikermöte, Bergen 15.–17.
Survey modes in the Finnish Time Use Survey
Face-to-face interviews (CAPI) Full-scale survey
Telephone interviews (CATI) Full-scale survey
Mail questionnaire Light diary survey
+ Self-completion paper diary in the full-scale survey
In order to save costs, the sample of Statistics Finland's
Time Use Survey for 2009 to 2010 was randomly divided
into two for face-to-face interviews and telephone
In Statistics Finland's earlier Time Use Surveys face-to-
face interviews have been used.
The impact of the interview mode has been researched at
Statistics Finland both quantitatively (Väisänen 2011, 2012)
and qualitatively (Okkonen 2012).
The response rates of household interviews were higher in
telephone interviews (62%) than in face-to-face interviews
More diaries were collected from households through face-
to-face interviews (76%) than through telephone interviews
However, the total non-response was higher in face-to-face
interviews than in telephone interviews.
Quality of the diaries
The average of episodes in diaries explained during face-
to-face interviews was 26.9 and 26.8 in diaries explained
during telephone interviews.
No differences in the number of episodes based on the
The average duration of secondary activities in diaries
explained during face-to-face interviews was 155 minutes
and 175 minutes in diaries explained during telephone
80 diaries were selected for qualitative examination, one-
half of which had been explained during face-to-face
interviews and one-half over the telephone.
The quality of the diaries was examined based on six
No quality differences were found based on the interview
However, there were differences in how the diaries had
been filled in by women and men.
The Finnish light diary pilot survey 2010
The light diary was tested with a sample of 1,000 persons
in connection with the Finnish time use survey in 2010.
The data collection took place by mail and the respondents
filled in the diary with 35 pre-coded activities.
The persons kept the diary for one day.
The age of the target persons was limited to between 25
There were two data collection periods in March, each
lasting one week.
The response rate was low, 17.4 per cent.
Something could be retrieved by using the available
Post-stratification according to age group and gender
combined with calibration estimators were used.
Number of activities
The respondents were asked to record only one activity for
each time slot.
If the respondents were doing two things simultaneously,
they were to select only the one they themselves regarded
as the main activity.
At least two activities per episode were recorded in 79 per
cent of the diaries.
Thirty-one per cent of the respondents recorded three
activities per episode.
Comparison of results
The diaries produced estimates that were close to each
other at the main time use category level with the exception
of domestic work.
There are differences particularly in the classes Home
maintenance and Child care.
The high non-response rate may, however, have an impact
on these differences.
Assistance from interviewers would be needed to reach a
satisfactory response rate and to guarantee the quality of
the filled in diaries.
In future, the use of a web questionnaire could be tested as
an alternative to a light paper diary.
This could also improve the quality of the diaries.