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Assignment on
Managing Human Resource

Submitted by:

Submitted to
Date of Submission:

1
Table of Content
Executive Summary

iii

Task 1: Different Perspective of Human Resource Management

4

1.1 Guest’s Model ...
Executive Summary
Human Resources Management (HRM) is the strategic management of the employees, who
individually and coll...
Task 1: Different Perspective of Human Resource Management

1.1Guest’s Model of HRM
David Guest developed a Human Resource...
1.2Difference Between Definitions HRM, Personnel and IR Practices
HRM

Personnel Management

Industrial Relationship

Huma...
1.3Development of Strategic Approaches of HRM and its Implication on
Employees
The whole approach toward HRM has undergone...
personalneeds, work style, individual and group differences in employment and ensuring
equalopportunities for all.

Task 2...
2.2 Types of Flexibility that Increases Productivity
Flexible working gives employees flexibility on how long, where and w...
2.3 Flexibility Working Practices from Employer and Employee perspective
Flexible work programs are work arrangements wher...
2.4 Impact of Implementing Flexible working Practices
The majority of efforts to introduce and establish employment flexib...
Task 3: Impact of Equal Opportunities in Workplace

3.1 Various Forms of Discrimination in Workplace
Discrimination" means...
3.2 Practical Implication of Equal Opportunity Legislation for Organizations
Equal opportunity is a stipulation that all p...
Task 4: Approaches of Human Resource Practice

4.1 Various Methods of Performance Management
Performance appraisal is a fo...
4.2 Approaches of Managing Employee Welfare
Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of empl...
ongoing training and resources about occupational health and safety. In the links below, we've
included the body responsib...
References

Barney, J.B. (1991) Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage.Journal of
Management, 17(1): 99–120.
B...
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  1. 1. Assignment on Managing Human Resource Submitted by: Submitted to Date of Submission: 1
  2. 2. Table of Content Executive Summary iii Task 1: Different Perspective of Human Resource Management 4 1.1 Guest’s Model of HRM 4 1.2 Difference between Story’s Definition of HRM, Personnel and IR Practices 5 1.3 Development of Strategic Approaches and its Implication on Line Managers 6 Task 2: Ways of Developing Flexibility within workplace 7 2.1 Atkinson’s Model 7 2.2 Types of Flexibility that increases Productivity 8 2.3 Flexible Working Practices from Employee and Employers perspective 2.4 Impact of implementing in Flexible Working Practices 9 10 Task 3 Impact of Equal Opportunities in Workplace 11 3.1 Various Forms of Discrimination in Workplace 11 3.2 Practical Implication of Equal Opportunities Legislation for Organization 12 3.3. Difference between Managing Equal Opportunities and Managing Diversity 12 Task 4: Approaches of Human Resource Practice 13 4.1 Various Methods of Performance Management 13 4.2 Approaches of Managing Employee Welfare 14 4.3 Health and Safety Legislation on Human Resources PracticesImplication14 4.4 Impact of Topical Issues on HR Practices 15 Conclusion 15 References 16 2
  3. 3. Executive Summary Human Resources Management (HRM) is the strategic management of the employees, who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the strategic objectives of the organization. Assuming that the employees of an organization are individuals with own mental maps and perceptions, own goals and own personalities and as such they cannot be perceived as a whole, HRM holds that the organization should be able to employ both individual and group psychology in order to commit employees to the achievement of organizational goals. Aiming to enable the organization to achieve its strategic goals by attracting, retaining and developing employees, HRM functions as the link between the organization and the employees. New challenges arise even now for the organization, and it is certain that new challenges will never cease to emerge. Therefore, the use of proper Human Resources techniques is a really powerful way for organizations to overcome these challenges, and to improve not only their quantitative goals but also their organizational culture, and their qualitative, cognitive aspects iii 3
  4. 4. Task 1: Different Perspective of Human Resource Management 1.1Guest’s Model of HRM David Guest developed a Human Resource Management Model that shows the relationship between HRM activities and organizational strategy more clearly. The central idea of his model is that HRM practices should be designed to produce high-quality employees who are flexible and committed to their organization (Budhwar, P, 2000). Guest sees employee commitment as a vital HRM outcome that is concerned with binding employees to the organization and obtaining the behavioral outcomes of increased effort, co-operation, involvement and what he calls organizational citizenship. Guest’s Model is based on the perception that HRM is distinctly different from traditional Personal Management and rooted in strategic management. David Guest’s model has 6 dimensions of analysis: HR Strategy, HR Practice, HR Outcomes, Behavior Outcomes, Performance Outcomes, and Financial Outcomes. Unilever is a multinational company and the module is rather complicated to calculate the specific HRM strategic and it’s rather concern on individual performance than social index. Unilever uses Guest’s Model of HRM as a measure critically classifies the HRM input and out puts that encourages its human resources to upgrade the performance so that organization’s goal can be achieved ensuring large market share and customer. 4
  5. 5. 1.2Difference Between Definitions HRM, Personnel and IR Practices HRM Personnel Management Industrial Relationship Human resource management Personnel Management is thus Industrial is concerned with the basically development administrative multidisciplinary and record-keeping function, at the studies implementation strategies, of with the are Management corporate maintain attempts fair terms is field a that employment people operational level. Personnel relationship. which integrated an relation Industrial to relations is increasingly being and called employment relations strategies, and ensures that the conditions of employment, or employee relations because culture, values and structure of while the same the organization, quality, and motivation at the efficiently and personnel commitment of its members individual contribute fully achievement of to its time, of the importance of non- managing industrial activities departments for relationship employment (Delery, J.E, etc. 1998) the (Boxall, P.F,1992) goals (Barney, J.B, 1991) Unilever Performs the Unilever Sustainable Living Plans for trainings, customers, suppliers consult and experts arranges different Unilever always focuses to seminars and maintain a good relationship with provides the proper guideline between the labor union and for to increase the performance of the management. efficient and smooth supply- their employees. chain relationship. 5
  6. 6. 1.3Development of Strategic Approaches of HRM and its Implication on Employees The whole approach toward HRM has undergone a sea of change over the years and iscontinuing to do so. In the initial stages, HRM, guided by humanistic considerations, wasseen as a philosophy that development of people in an organization is a prime responsibilityof management. This approach took the view that human beings should not be seen as aresource rather employee development is the responsibility of the employer. Unilever alwaysfocuses to maintain a sound HR policy that will help this organization to enhance theemployee performance and their productivity. The following strategies can be of more use to the line managers of Unilever to cope with its organization goal. Knowledge Management Knowledge Management is any process or practice of creating, acquiring, capturing, sharingand using knowledge wherever it resides to enhance learning, productivity and performancein organization. HRM policies focuses on developing the firm-specific knowledge and skillsthat are the result of organizational learning processes. Reward Management: HRM policies aim to engage motivation, job engagement and commitment by introducingpolicies and procedures that will ensure that people are rewarded and valued for what they doand achieve for the levels of skills and competence they reach. Employee Relations: This HR policy aims to create an environment where harmonious and productiverelationships can be maintained through partnership between management and employeesand their trade union. Meeting Diverse Needs: HRM aims to develop and implement policies that balance and adapt to the needs of itsstakeholders and provide the management of diverse work force taking into account 6
  7. 7. personalneeds, work style, individual and group differences in employment and ensuring equalopportunities for all. Task 2: Ways of Developing Flexibility within Work place 2.1 Atkinson’s Model Atkinson proposed a model of the flexible firm in 1984. In the flexible firm model flexibility is defined as functional, numerical and financial flexibility. Guest’s well-critiqued ‘recipe’ for high commitment management included the necessity for intrinsically rewarding work and job security Atkinson suggested a division of employees into two main groups, core and peripheral workers (Boxall, P,2003). Core Workforce: The core workforce is characterized by permanent, highly skilled employees with internal career paths. As a result, ‘core’ employees tend to experience a higher degree of job security with resources provided for training in firm-specific skills not readily bought in. This segment of the organization is characterized by functional forms of flexibility. Peripheral Workforce: Atkinson argues that the peripheral workforce is associated with the organization’s development of numerical flexibility. The key function or strategic aspect of this sector for the organization is the undertaking of day-to-day activities which are important but not vital to the organization. However, the peripheral workforce, as defined by Atkinson is more complex than originally thought. 7
  8. 8. 2.2 Types of Flexibility that Increases Productivity Flexible working gives employees flexibility on how long, where and when they work. Employees access flexible working through human resources policies, which usually require supervisory approval.According to Atkinson (1984) four types of flexibility can be used for bringing equilibrium in Unilever workforce. Functional Flexibility It allows employees to combine skills and competencies in order to increase their mobility across the various channels of production. Functional flexibility relies on extensive training and thus it is likely to be pursued when there is no longer a stable relationship between employees and the organization. Numerical Flexibility: It refers to the possibility of the organization to adapt the number of its labor on a short-notice, increasing or decreasing it as it sees fit Varying employee numbers can be achieved by hiring temporary agency workers and employing people on fixed-term contracts. Numerical flexibility is often related with limited employment security rights. Financial Flexibility: It is linked with efforts on behalf of the organization to reduce labor costs in order to protect profitability. To be applied, it requires partial use of temporal flexibility along with of cost savings that come from using through the adjustment of wage levels to reflect performance on individual, group or organizational levels Temporal Flexibility: It refers to shifting working hours so as to meet production demands. This can include things such as working overtime and spreading the working hours unevenly over a period of time depending on fluctuations in production. Part-time employment also might be used by the organization to face even tougher peaks in demand. 8
  9. 9. 2.3 Flexibility Working Practices from Employer and Employee perspective Flexible work programs are work arrangements wherein employees are given greater scheduling freedom in how they fulfill the obligations of their positions. Flexible work arrangements can take any number of forms. Some of them are mentioned below. Flex Time Schedule: A flex or alternative work schedule is a scheduling arrangement that permits a variation from the employee's core hours in starting and departure times, but does not alter the total number of hours worked in a week. Job Sharing: A job share arrangement is a form of regular part-time work in which two people share the responsibilities of one regular, full-time position. These positions are regular part-time and as such must involve at least a 50% commitment. Therefore, the time commitment of each of the two individuals participating must be at least 20 hours per week. Compressed Work Week: A compressed work schedule allows an employee to work a traditional 35-40 hour workweek in less than five workdays. Many compressed work schedule options may be negotiated Flex Place: A flex place arrangement is an option that allows an employee to work at home or another off-site location, for a specified number of hours per week, and for a pre-set, limited duration Telework/Homework: Workers work remotely from their own homes, using a telecommunications connection to the workplace if necessary Shift Working A continual way of working where employees work according to a time based system. Part-Time Work: Workers who typically work less than 35 hours per week. 9
  10. 10. 2.4 Impact of Implementing Flexible working Practices The majority of efforts to introduce and establish employment flexibility are primarily driven by the motive to secure organizational interests, with little attention paid to the core of the workforce and consequently to the overall levels of commitment. Flexible work programs provide a way for businesses to increase employee loyalty without resorting to making fundamental changes in their operations. This practice can actually have a positive impact on the productivity of employees. They contend that employees who are better able to attend to family needs through flex-time are more likely to be contented and productive, while good employees who telecommute may get even more work done if they are freed up from office interruptions (Debrah Y, 2001) Business can also use flexible programs to address institutional problems. A small- or mid-sized business that is crammed into a small facility or office may want to explore telecommuting programs in order to relieve the situation without resorting to an expensive relocation or expansion. Flexible work programs can be beneficial to companies by enhancing their public image and expanding the number of hours during which customers can be serviced. 10
  11. 11. Task 3: Impact of Equal Opportunities in Workplace 3.1 Various Forms of Discrimination in Workplace Discrimination" means unequal treatment. According to ILO (International Labor Organization) various discriminations occurs because of individual characteristics, race, gender, age, background which creates inequality in workplace. Direct Discrimination This is when an employer takes adverse action against an employee because of such things as their race, color, sex or age. This is treating one person less favorably than another in the same or similar circumstances or segregating them from others solely. Refusing to employ someone who has the required skills because they are, for example, deaf, over a certain age or pregnant would constitute such discrimination. Indirect Discrimination It occurs where there is a provision, criterion or practice which applies equally to everyone but which, in practice, has an adverse impact on a particular group and cannot be justified. For Example an unnecessary physical or age requirement can discriminate against women or disabled people Systemic Discrimination Systemic discrimination is widespread and long-term. It happens to a group of people because of a shared characteristic such as disability, race, color or sex. It is often part of a workplace policy, practice or culture 11
  12. 12. 3.2 Practical Implication of Equal Opportunity Legislation for Organizations Equal opportunity is a stipulation that all people should be treated similarly, unhampered by artificial barriers or prejudices or preferences, except when particular distinctions can be explicitly justified. Equal Employment Opportunity [EEO] is a management and legal issue, which aims to renderdiscrimination, victimization, sexual harassment or harassment in employment and volunteer roles unlawful (Christensen Hughes, J.M, 2002) Equal Opportunity laws oblige people not to commit certain acts, and provide a remedy for individuals when unlawful acts are committed. In Recent Times Companies are undertaking the following tasks to reduce discrimination so that it can enhance the productivity  Ensuring equal salaries, increments and promotional opportunities  Implementing EEO effectively to make sure that the policy is clear to all employees  Create an environment where employees will feel comfortable.  Adjusted opportunities to facilitate those who don’t have certain characteristics 3.3 Differences between Managing Equal Opportunities and Managing Diversities Diversity exists when groups of people bring their own backgrounds and experiences to an organization or workplace. Managing diversity involves using these resources and experiences for the benefit of the organization. Factors Managing Equal Opportunities Managing Diversities Driver Factors External Internal Knowledge base Narrower Wider Focuses on Group Discrimination Individual differences Approach Structure Operational Strategic Suitable for Assimilation advocate Mainstream Adaption Advocate 12
  13. 13. Task 4: Approaches of Human Resource Practice 4.1 Various Methods of Performance Management Performance appraisal is a formal interaction between an employee and her manager. This is when the performance of the employee is assessed and discussed in thorough detail, with the manager communicating the weaknesses and strengths observed in the employee and also identifying opportunities for the employee to develop professionally (Guest, D.E, 2001) Graphic Rating Scale Graphic rating scales are ideal for production-oriented work environments, as well as for other workplaces that move at a fast pace, such as those found in the food and beverage industry. A rating scale consists of a list of job duties, performance standards and a scale usually from 1 to 5 for rating employee performance. Management by Objectives (MBO) MBOs start with identifying employee goals, and from that point the employee and her manager list the resources necessary to achieve those goals. The next section of MBOs consists of the timelines for achieving each goal. The employee's performance is measured by how many of her goals she accomplished within the designated time frame 360-Degree Feedback A common performance appraisal method is the 360-degree feedback. In this method, a human resources manager, interviews an employee, supervisor, peers and any direct reports. This technique allows an appraiser to gain a complete profile of the employee. 13
  14. 14. 4.2 Approaches of Managing Employee Welfare Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration (Katou, A, 2000). The employee welfare schemes can be classified into two categories such as Statutory and NonStatutory welfare schemes. Statutory Welfare Scheme: The statutory schemes are those schemes that are compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee health and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act 1948, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and welfare) 1986, Mines Act 1962 Non-Statutory Welfare Scheme: The non-statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry. It includes Personal Health Care, Flex time, Employee Assistance Program, Maternity & Adoption Leave and many others. 4.3 Health and Safety Legislation on Human Resource Practice Implementation Human resources professionals play an important role in ensuring employee health and safety, as they know the workplace, the employees and their job demands. In many organizations, health and safety responsibilities are within the human resources department. Occupational health and safety legislation regulates the standards of workplace health and safety with the aim to prevent workplace accidents, injuries and diseases, and outlines consequences for breaches of those standards (Kay, J, 1993). Health and Safety at work act (1974) articulates basic principles of, health and welfare issue, workplace safety and the responsibilities of the managers, employees and those stakeholders who have control in the work premise. In some jurisdictions Workers Compensation Boards provide 14
  15. 15. ongoing training and resources about occupational health and safety. In the links below, we've included the body responsible for providing this information and, where they are separate organizations, the link to the Workers Compensation Board. 4.4 Impact of Topical Issues on HR Practices Managing Human Resource is a strategic and broad approach to manage personnel and workplace environment and culture. Effective HRM enables staffs to contribute effectively and productively to the overall company direction and accomplishment of the firm’s goals and objectives. Topical issues in HR arise when employees try to enhance the productivity, try to recruit effectively and sort out the discrimination in the workplace. Most cmmon topical issues of HR are:  Recruiting Employees  Preventing Discrimination  Resolving Problems  Arranging Training  Providing safe working environment  Ensuring Productivity  Handling Outsourcing Conclusion The practice of HRM must be viewed through the prism of overall strategic goals for the organization instead of a standalone tint that takes a unit based or a micro approach. The idea here is to adopt a holistic perspective towards HRM that ensures that there are no piecemeal strategies and the HRM policy enmeshes itself fully with those of the organizational goals. 15
  16. 16. References Barney, J.B. (1991) Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage.Journal of Management, 17(1): 99–120. Boxall, P. and Purcell, J. (2003) Strategy and Human Resource Management. Basingstoke: Plagrave Boxall, P.F. (1992) Strategic Human Resource Management: Beginning of a new theoretical sophistication? Human Resource Management Journal, 2(3): 60–79. Budhwar, P. (2000b) A Reappraisal of HRM Models in Britain. Journal of General Management, 26(2): 72–91 Budhwar, P. and Debrah, Y. (2001) Rethinking Comparative and Cross National Human Resource Management Research. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(3): 497–515. Christensen Hughes, J.M. (2002) HRM and Universalism: Is there one best way? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality,14: 221–228 Delery, J.E. (1998) Issues of Fit in Strategic Human Resource Management: Implications for research. Human Resource Management Review,8: 289–309 Guest, D.E. (2001) Human Resource Management: When research confronts theory. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12: 1092–1106. Katou, A. and Budhwar, P. (2006) Human Resource Management Systems on Organizational Performance: A test of mediating model in the Greek manufacturing context. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(7): 1223–125 Kay, J. (1993) Foundations of Corporate Success: How Business Strategies Add Value. New York: Oxford University Press 16

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