Mhr 3


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Mhr 3

  1. 1. Managing Human Resource Assignment on Managing Human Resource Submitted by: Submitted to: Date i
  2. 2. Managing Human Resource Table of content: Contents page Executive Summary: iii Task- 1 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: 4 1.2 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial relations: 5 1.3 Developing a strategic approach to HRM and impact of line managers and 5 employees: Task- 2 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: 6 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: 7 2.3 Flexible working practices from employer and employee perspective: 7 2.4 Impact of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: 8 Task- 3 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: 8 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation for organization: 9 3.3 Differences between managing equal opportunity and diversity: 10 Task- 4 4.1 Comparing methods of performance management: 10 4.2 Evaluation of employee welfare management: 11 4.3 Implication of health and safety legislation on HR: 12 4.4 Impact of topical issue on HR practices: 12 References: 13 ii
  3. 3. Managing Human Resource Executive Summary: The main responsibilities of HR managers are to fulfill staffing needs, development of their skills and provide motivational reward and recognition to upgrade the performance as per the firm requires. HRM is not mere a separate portion from other segments rather it’s the most significant part because all the departments of a firm need an effective HRM activity all around to recruit and assign appropriate staffs. The basic objectives of HRM are to successfully recruit, train people and motivate them to enhance their commitment. Managing the human resources is the retaining of workforces through providing flexibility, incentives, maintaining employee safety and minimizing discrimination at workplace which in turn results in higher job performance, commitment and achievement of organizational goals. If a firm wants to create a positive image, they must set HR strategies which ensure equal opportunities at workplace. Due to many changes in external factors, HR managers are adjusting their HR practices to adapt with the changing scenario and requirements. All the people including managers and employees possess liability and responsibility to make the HR practices a successful one. iii
  4. 4. Managing Human Resource Task- 1 Different perspective of Human resource management 1.1 Guest’s model of HRM: David Guest(1987) first introduced a HR model which shows an appropriate approach to the HR policy design in the UK to gain four specific outcomes:  Strategic integration  Higher employee commitment  High adaptability of workforces  Quality output This model emphasizes on the requirements of workforces to run the organization successfully. According to Guest, the HRM development process is slow in UK. The above results will make a positive impact on four organizational aspects:  High performance level  Strong ability to solve problem situations  More cost efficiency and compliance with organizational goal  Reduced employee turnover and dissatisfaction Unilever Company operates their business aiming at decoupling the environmental effect from their growth. Unilever applies HR policy and activities which incorporate the Guest’s HR model which comply with core value and vision. They provide a safe and friendly working environment and motivate the workers to make them perform as the organizational objective require. 4
  5. 5. Managing Human Resource 1.2 Difference between Story’s definition on HRM, personnel and industrial relations: HRM Personnel management IR and Personnel management Definition: The main Definition:Personnel Definition:Industrial responsibilities of HR managers management is concerned relationship studies the are to fulfill staffing needs, with the workforces within employment relations. Because development of their skills and the firm and within provide motivational reward and relationships recognition to upgrade the of the increasing importance of the non-employment relationship it the organizational structure. has been called as employee performance as per the firm relations. requires. To successfully manage the Unilever applies training A broader concept by which sustainable living plan Unilever programs, opportunity of Unilever try to maintain a coentails experts, suppliers and the gathering experience which operative employees in the program. helps the employees relation to communication improve their productivity. and between management and labor unions. 1.3 Developing a strategic approach to HRM and impact of line managers and employees: HRM is the structural approaches of recruiting, training and motivating the human assets of all operational levels. To keep pace with the ever changing environmental factors, Unilever tries to select and recruit appropriate and skilled candidates to enhance the corporate vision and value. The evolving business surrounding has created a huge scope of responsibilities to successfully handle HR activities. For the line managers of Unilever the methods and system that can be very helpful to their HR activities area. Create desire:The HR managers should try to create a sense of significance of their HR requirements and opportunities in the mind of line managers. b. Providing support:HR executives should provide necessary support and guidance to the line managers in managing HR tasks and policies. 5
  6. 6. Managing Human Resource c. Grow capacity: The capacity of line managers is restricted around their short term operational duty. Their range of duty and capacity of managing HR should be enhanced and realized to make them successfully handle HR tasks along with their operational tasks. d. Developing competency: The competency of HR activity of line managers can be improved through training facilities which will encourage them to successfully manage HR tasks. e. HR responsibility: To make the line managers understand the significance and necessity of HR tasks, strong communication, HR rules, theories must be flexible and supportive for successful implementation. Task- 2 Developing flexibility within workplace. 2.1 Flexibility model in practice: John Atkinson (1985) through his flexible firm concept describes that a firm have to maintain improved and changed flexibility in order to keep pace with competitive stress and condition. In other words it is a concept of simply integrating flexible conditions into the administration an organization’s functional operations, in order to meet the demands of a highly competitive market and attain its strategic aims and goals (Hoque, K. and M. Noon, 2001). The flexibility model by Atkinson states two working groups- core and peripheral workers. Core Workforce: Core personnel group operates essential and functional activities of the firm. Workers are highly competent and experienced and work for the firm as long term partners and useful for long term planning and development. Peripheral Workforce: This working group doesn’t enjoy facilities and flexibility benefits like core workers. They are normally hired on temporary, part-time or contractual basis. 6
  7. 7. Managing Human Resource 2.2 Types of flexibility for organizations: Flexibility opportunities help personnel to adapt and improve to environmental instabilities and changes fast. There are four approaches described by Atkinson which would be appropriate and useful to achieve balanced workforce flexibility in Unilever. a. Functional flexibility: Workers are moved and reassigned from one functional responsibility to other from time to time. Adequate training facilities or outsourcing is necessary to bring functional flexibility. b. Peripheral numerical flexibility:Firms adjust and control the entry of labor force from the external labor market. They change the number of employees involved by applying different approaches like hiring temporary workers, fixed term based contract, relaxing the employment security laws as they can fire any permanent workers when necessary. c. Temporal flexibility: It involves the activities that introduce work plans, multiple shifts, overtime range and flexi time for currently employed workers. d. Financial flexibility: The compensation rate is not fixed as a whole. Salary differs from employee to employee according to their performance, responsibility and position. e. 2.3 Flexible working practices from employer and employee perspective: The typically used flexibility methods in the workplace are- Part-time:Work less time than permanent workers normally ranges from 30 to 40 hours a week. - Job sharing:A task is shared by two workers on a predetermined time and responsibility basis. Per head compensation can be reduced through job sharing. - Zero hour contract:No fixed time frame is predetermined in zero hour contracts between the employee-manager. Both the employees and management have the power and authority to accept or reject a task offer. 7
  8. 8. Managing Human Resource - Teleworking: Workers complete their tasks through telephone or cellphone from home or somewhere outside rather than attending at the workplace. - Compressed hours:workers work more hours a day in order to work a total fixed hours per week in order to enjoy a full day vacation per week. 2.4 Impact of changes in labor market on flexible working practice: Labor market always changes its patterns and characteristics because of the environmental, social and market condition. In order to gain the corporate objective HR managers have to carefully recognize and select appropriate staffs with required skills and competencies for different operation. Workplace flexibility should be restructured as the labor market situation changes. Demography in labor market: The labor market demographic characteristic shape and changes the labor supply and demand situation. Improved life expectancy increases supply of group of aged working people working for a longer period even after retirement. Decreasing birthrates reduces supply of new and fresh worker group. The more women participate in corporate life, the more their contribution ratio increases the more an organization has to adapt and change its HR policy and flexibility facilities. Such factors at different demographic stages provide base for flexibility pattern. The managers need to practice and apply multiple flexibility plans to comply with diversified workforce and changing demographic stages. Task- 3 Impact of equal opportunities in workplace 3.1 Discrimination in workplace: As per the definition by the ILO, discrimination at workplace can be of different patterns like age, race, religion based discrimination, different background. Differences in such matters can restrict the equal opportunity for all. The skill development process, performance improvement, motivation and standard may fall if a firm experiences any kind of discriminations at workplace. Consequently the firm loses its competitive position and fails to accomplish goal as employee contribution falls. 8
  9. 9. Managing Human Resource - Age based discrimination:Candidates and employees may be discriminated in privileges and opportunities due to his/her age factor. While judging the performance, providing opportunities and benefits, management shouldn’t consider the age factor as a fundamental component otherwise it would be illegal. The assessment should conform to other reasonable factors. - Religion related discrimination:It takes place when a person is treated less favorably due to his/her own religious base. Management and HR policy can’t force an employee to restrict his/her religious activity or to abide by other beliefs. - Discrimination in Compensation:To increase the job place motivation and productivity, HR policies must be designed to make it sure that no discrimination has been made while judging the compensation rate among different people group of men and women, juniors or seniors. - Discrimination of disability:Disable persons shouldn’t be treated as less talented or capable than the normal people. They are skilled and capable of doing specific tasks with expertise and employers shouldn’t underestimate them during the recruitment process. 3.2 Implication of equal opportunity legislation for organization: To achieve the organizational objectives and gain competitive advantage, every firm tries to maintain an environment that support equal opportunity and discrimination free service and benefits. It will create motivation for the employees which will result in performance improvement matching the standard set by HR policy. The following activities can be done to ensure equal opportunity-  Implement EEO policy and harassment laws and ensure that all employees are aware and notified of the policies set.  Comfortable and easy working environment for the employees as they can take part in analysis, problem solving.  Equal opportunity of promotion, compensation and reward. 9
  10. 10. Managing Human Resource  Make all the employees aware about the grievance processes and its confidentiality. 3.3 Differences between managing equal opportunity and diversity: Diversity management refers to the voluntary organizational actions that are designed to create greater inclusion of employees from various backgrounds into the formal and informal organizational structures through deliberate Policies and programs (Colling T, 1995). Factors Managing Equal Opportunities Managing Diversities Driven Factors External Internal Rests on Rests on arguments Initiatives Group based Individual based Approach way Operational Tactical Focus on Process Consequences Emphasizes on Group discrimination Individual differences Supported by Narrow affirmative Knowledge Wider Mixed Knowledge base Base Suitable for Adaptation Advocate Mainstream adaption advocate Granted as As a cost and risk as investment and asset. Task- 4 moral and legal Rests on Business Case Approaches to human resource practices. 4.1 Comparing methods of performance management: Performance management is an integral part of the workplace as it provides a platform for supervisors and managers to measure employee performance and determine whether employees are meeting the company's expectations (Storey J, 1995).The performance 10
  11. 11. Managing Human Resource assessment system differs as per the business pattern, responsibilities and other employee working factors. 360-Degree Feedback:In this method the evaluation is derived from all possible related parties including team members, customers, peer group, supervisors and self. All the evaluations provide feedback and necessary findings about performance deviations. Physiological Appraisal:Physiological test evaluates an employees’ mental stability, analytical ability, skill and other personal traits. To place an employee in appropriate position and role, this technique is very useful. Management by Objective (MBO):this evaluation method is based on organizational objectives. In this technique managers and employees settle upon feasible and specific objectives within a specific time frame. Through the approach appraisers and managers can distinguish the success and failure ratio appropriately. Assessment Centers:In this center the managers and employees join together and participate in work based exercises and then it’s evaluated by trainers and observers. 4.2 Evaluation of employee welfare management: Firms maintain welfare and benefits to the staffs to motivate their performance and activities. Employee welfare includes certain activities and approaches that will provide facilities, services and security to the employees in excess of their salary earning. Labor welfare has the following goals:  Provide the workers a better and healthy work life.  Provide a satisfied and secured working experience.  Improve skill, behavior and characteristics and focus on weaknesses.  Control and maintain a good liaison with the labor union. The employee welfare outlines can be classified into two categoriesa. Statutory Welfare Schemes Under this scheme some basic facilities are provided including drinking water, medical appliances, toilet facility, sitting arrangement, rest room, spittoons etc. 11
  12. 12. Managing Human Resource b. Non-Statutory Welfare Schemes Under this non-statutory scheme health care, co-operation, harassment law, maternity leave, medical insurance service, transfer scheme etc. are provided to the workers for their wellbeing. 4.3 Implication of health and safety legislation on HR: Health and safety legislation specify the responsibility and authority of supervisors, managers and workers. Occupational health and safety legislation regulates the standards of workplace health and safety with the aim to prevent workplace accidents, injuries and diseases, and outlines consequences for breaches of those standards (Hayton, J.C, 2005). It explains the requirements and necessities of such activities and facilities that must be provided effectively to protect health and safety of workforces. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974("HASWA" or "HASAWA") states the essential structure and responsibility to initiate and maintain motivation, laws and application of welfare and safety issues within organizational setting in UK. 4.4 Impact of topical issue on HR practices: While a firm tries to apply successful recruitment process, bring better productivity, diminish discriminations, some HR issues arises. The most common and important issues areMaintaining workforce diversity. Safety and security at workplace. Appropriate training facilities for development. Giving motivation for better performances. Reducing discriminations of different patterns. Effective recruitment technique. Appropriate evaluation to detect problem areas. 12
  13. 13. Managing Human Resource These HR issues can change any time and to keep pace with the change managers need to restructure and improve existing HR policies and activities. 13
  14. 14. Managing Human Resource References: Armstrong,M (1999).Human resource management : the foundation of human resourcemanagement.Vol,7.p3.15.P13 Colling,T (1995).Experiencing turbulence: Competition, Strategic choice and theManagement human resource in BA.Vol.5.pages.18-35 Erbes-Seguin, S. (1989) `Flexibility and the Relationship between the Individual Employment Contract and Collective Labor Law'. Guest, D.E. (1999). Human Resource Management: The Workers’ Verdict, Human ResourceManagement Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 5-25 Hakim, C. (1989c) `Employment Rights: a Comparison of Part-Time and Full-Time Employees’, Industrial Law Journal, 18, 2, 69-83 Hayton, J.C. (2005), Promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship through Human Resource Management Practices: A Review of Empirical Research, Human Resource Management Review, 15(1), pp-21-41. Hoque, K. and M. Noon (2001). Counting Angels: a Comparison of Personnel and HR specialists, Human Resource ManagementJournal, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 5-22 John W. (2009) A Chameleon Function? Human Resource Management in the ‘90s, Human resource Management Journal, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 5-18 Rea,D(1972).A Contemporary Definition of personnel management, Some of its criticalassumptions and their relevance to the university organization. Storey,J (1995).Is HRM catching on? International journal of manpower.Vol,16.No.4 14