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Wusme workshop waste to energy final document hq san marino

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Presentation of new technologies for energy production from waste

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Wusme workshop waste to energy final document hq san marino

  1. 1. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 1 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org WUSME WASTETOENERGY INTERNATIONALWORKSHOP .
  2. 2. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 2 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP on WASTE TO ENERGY as an Integral Part of Sustainable Waste Management Issues, Solutions & Technologies and Role of SMEs for Turning Polluting Waste into Clean Energy REP. OF SAN MARINO September 6th, 2014 AN INSIGHT PREPARED BY: DR. J S JUNEJA WUSME VICE PRESIDENT & MEMBER OF THE BOARD WORKSHOP PRESIDENT & COORDINATOR
  3. 3. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 3 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org CONTENTS S.No. Preface Title Speakers Page No. 6 1 Welcome Address Dr. G. F. Terenzi, President WUSME 9 2 Opening Speech H.E. Dr. Antonella Mularoni, State Secretary of Territory and Environment, Rep. of San Marino 11 3 Introduction to the theme of the Workshop : Waste to Energy Dr. J. S. Juneja, Vice President WUSME 12 4 The Waste Treatment Hierarchy & Management Prof. Dr. Norbert Knoll von Dornhoff, Secretary General WUSME 23 5 Waste Management – Case Study of Hungary Mr. Imre Biczo, Director General, National Institute for Environment (NeKI) Hungary 30 6 How the European Union supports Green Energy projects through funding Mrs. Claudia Mularoni, Chief Executive Officer of Pragmata Institute 34
  4. 4. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 4 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 7 Case Study of China Ms. Rongyong Yang, WUSME Member of the Board & President, Shanghai High Victory Fine Chemical Co. Ltd., China 42 8 Waste Problem – A Case study of India Mr. Arun Agrawal, WUSME Member of the Commission on Financial Issues 44 9 Eco area , Better living – A Case study of Rimini, Italy Mr. Romano Ugolini, CEO, Eco Area, Better Living, Rimini, Italy 46 10 Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization, China Mr. Jian Dai, Secretary General, Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization 49 11 Preparing Action Plan for Camerooon Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz’e, Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social Economy and Handicraft of Cameroon 50 12 A Case study of Cameroon Mrs. Angeline Henzen, National Coordinator and Spokesman for WUSME in Cameroon 52 13 World leading waste to energy solutions – Complete Solution Mr. Helmut Konig, Director, Avis Global Energy, Canada 54 14 Generating Electric Energy from Organic and Plastic waste Ms. Marta Laczko, Director, Intech Energy Ltd. 57
  5. 5. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 5 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 15 Humic acids, humus and humic substances Dr. Rafael Pizarro and Dr. Pal Gormory, Lord Miedrich & Partners Ltd., U.K - 61 16 WUSME & UNESCO Initiatives Dr. Robert Holz, WUSME Vice President & representative to UNESCO in Paris (France – Europe), France 63 17 Conclusions and Recommendations 67 18 Glimpses of the Workshop 70 19 Annex I: Agenda for the Workshop 72
  6. 6. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 6 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org PREFACE The theme of the WUSME Workshop “Waste to Energy” is a topical subject being debated all the world over by political leaders, scientific communities, municipalities, enviromentalists and intellectuals since the menace of waste is increasing every day in geometrical progression on the one hand and depleting landfills, due to limited landmass, on the other hand. Therefore, minimizing waste, converting waste into energy, recycling waste into economically useful products are emerging solutions and some of them have been well tried and adopted towards integrated approach for waste management. In this context, the opening remarks at the Workshop by H.E. Dr. Antonella Mularoni, State Minister of Territory, Infrastructures and Relation to the AASP, San Marino and Dr. Gian Franco Terenzi ,WUSME President that waste should be treated as a resource instead of a problem for the community, were very befitting and inspiring. This in fact set the direction of the Workhop which dwelt on various technologies for turning polluting waste to clean energy and other possible solutions. The editing team went through all the proceedings and presentations of the speakers and has structured this document keeping in view the premise to find solutions for utilization of waste as a resource through recycling of waste into economically viable products and raw materials for the industry, particularly SMEs and its conversion into clean energy. Keeping this objective in view, the editors have gone through in detail the presentations and relevant subjects from websites of speakers and other relevant sources since each presentation team had limited time during the workshop. Clarifications were also sought, so that this useful document could comprehensively give ‘An Insight’ into the problems, issues and solutions for waste management and Role of SMEs for turning waste into Energy. The introduction of the theme of the Workshop, that is, `Growing menace of waste, useful utilization of waste and its conversion into useful end products for waste management and energy was presented by the undersigned as the Chairman of the Workshop. Dr. Norbert Knoll von Dornhoff, Secretary - General described the` Hierachy of Waste Treatment` and presented a specific case study on Adriatic Sea Pollution hotspots. Mr. Imre Biczo, eleborated on total management of all wastes in Hungary including its conversion to
  7. 7. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 7 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org energy. Ms. Claudia Mularoni highlighted Europeon Union’s commitment and financial support measures for Green Energy projects from waste. Case studies of China were presented by Ms. Yang Rongyong and Mr. Dia Jian. Ms. Rongyong informed of the policy initiatives planned & implemented in China for waste management. Mr.Jian described the Zhongguancin high tech Park and the role and activities of his organisation aimed at integrating resources, enhance exchange and cooperation between domestic and overseas organisations for entrepreneurial development. A Plan of Action for promoting small and medium enterprises and artisans in Cameroon was presented by Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz’e. Mrs. Angeline Henzen presented a case study on coordinating & promoting WUSME activities in Cameroon for SMEs . Dr. Arun Agrawal presented a case study from India on waste management and the Indian Govt. support for energy from waste. Mr. Romano Ugolini presented a case study of Eco area – a better living example in Rimini, Italy, a place very near to San Marino based on the concept of SMART buildings, incorporating energy efficiency and materials having low environmental impact. Mr. Helmut Konig described technology developed by his organization for converting waste to energy on a large scale which is commercially practiced and operated in many parts of the world. According to him, although its initial cost is very high, its pay back value makes it viable and hence could be adopted. Ms. Marta Laczko specially, illustrated projects for converting organic and plastic wastes into clean energy. She also distributed a questionnaire to the participants so that she could provide solution for the treatment of any waste and could be approached in this context along with the filled up questionnaire. Humic acids/humic substances produced in the soil by soil bacteria from organic substances and their effects on human health were presented by Mr. Rafael Pizarro and Mr. Pal Gormory, M. Dr. Robert Holtz elaborated on issues requiring WUSME`s attention. I am thankful to WUSME President Dr. Gian Franco Terenzi for inviting me to chair this International Workshop and to prepare a document for use and reference of the members and other interested in the subject. I am indeed grateful to Dr. Maria Valeria Pasquini for her backup support for providing all the relevant materials from the speakers and other sources on continuous basis. I am grateful to Ms. Pooja Das for her untiring efforts in providing her support for converting the inputs into An Insight, backed by research on this important subject and without whose
  8. 8. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 8 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org support it would not have been possible to focus and finalize the same. Dr. S. N. Sharma, my colleague merits my gratitude for going through the document objectively and providing valuable editorial support to give finishing touches. I am grateful to WUSME speakers, members and participants for extending their full support in this effort. Dr. J S Juneja Vice President, WUSME & Chairman, Global Projects & Services (Pvt.) Ltd. 707, ANSAL CHAMBER – II BHIKAJI CAMA PLACE NEW DELHI, INDIA Email: globalprojects95@gmail.com www.globalprojects.co.in
  9. 9. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 9 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 1. Welcome Address by Dr. G.F. Terenzi♦ , President, WUSME WUSME President Dr. Gian Franco Terenzi, while extending his warmest welcome to WUSME Annual Conference 2014 stated that the conference has been organized to offer all those involved in Small and Medium Enterprises and Crafts a time and a place to meet and discuss the main difficulties, challenges and opportunities they were facing today. The Workshop concerns, in fact, with an issue of greater interest and importance not only for SMEs, but more generally for all the communities and countries in the world, an issue that touches everyone closely and propels both human and environment in the future. "WASTE TO ENERGY" is meant to be a moment of constructive thought on how we can turn waste from problem to resource for our communities, on how we can realize a virtuous - efficient and sustainable - waste management, on how we can retrieve and transform waste into clean energy, a field in which SMEs can play a truly important role with many benefits for everyone, the enterprises themselves, the community and the environment. A more efficient, sustainable use and re-use of the resources in the production processes not only yield a more environmentally friendly impact, but also offer new opportunities for growth and employment, starting from SMEs. In fact, there are many ways and means available for them to participate in this change. Innovative design, better and more durable products, more efficient and sustainable production processes, greater efficiency in the supply chain through enterprises networks and farsighted business models may contribute to increase the efficiency and hence the competitiveness of enterprises. It is prudent to become more aware of how all this is possible and will further be possible and real, especially in view of a stronger - general and entrepreneurial - culture and more widespread concern for the environmental issues as well as the ♦ President, World Union of Small & Medium Enterprises, Republic of San Marino. WUSME President Gian Franco
  10. 10. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 10 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org adoption, by international organizations such as the European institutions, of policies and measures which help SMEs take advantage of the opportunities arising from the transition to a green and circular economy. The theme of the re-utilisation of waste is, in fact, part of a wider process of transition to a new development model, so-called "circular", where sustainability is at the center of the system. In WUSME, we are committed to help SMEs seize all the opportunities this paradigm shift will bring, take an active and protagonist role in this transition process. In this sense, occasions like this International Workshops and Conferences are evidence of our ongoing commitment to create the conditions necessary for a direct interaction among all those who act as entrepreneurs and/or in their interest, to identify and exploit the synergies available to put in place concrete and profitable actions that shall protect, benefit and support SMEs, Craft and the environment.
  11. 11. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 11 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 2. Opening Speech by H.E. Dr. Antonella Mularoni♦ H.E. Antonella Mularoni delivered the opening speech on behalf of the San Marino Government. She warmly welcomed all the participants for the WUSME International Workshop at the headquarters of the World Union of Small and Medium Enterprises, which is the main world organization representing at the level of the United Nations. She also raised the problem of waste disposal and the possibility to have a waste virtuous circle, enabling men to make it a resource instead of a big problem for the community. The contribution of small and medium enterprises plays significant role in this regard. She appreciated the topic for the workshop, which was very timely for all countries of the world. She added that San Marino is engaged to reach a 100 % rate of house by house, waste recovery by the end of next year. The project is already partially in place and in the areas concerned is giving very good results in terms of quantity of the waste collected. The problem remains the same as how to recycle it better and make it a profitable exercise instead of an expensive one. She wished the workshop, conference and other programs, all the success. ♦ Dr. Antonella Mularoni, State Minister of Territory, Infrastructures and Relation to the AASP, San Marino H.E. Antonella Mularoni during her speech WUSME President Dr. Terenzi with H.E. Dr. Antonella Mularoni
  12. 12. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 12 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 3. Introduction to the theme of the Workshop : Waste to Energy by Dr. J. S. Juneja# WUSME President Dr. G. F. Terenzi invited Dr. J. S. Juneja, Vice President, WUSME to Chair and introduce the theme of the workshop. Dr. J.S. Juneja introduced the concept of Waste-to-Energy to the participants and its importance particularly for the SMEs of the world and other emerging avenues. Dr. Juneja quoted an article appeared in the journal Nature by Dan Hoornweg, Bhada- Tata, and Chris Kennedy which stated that “ if business continues as usual, solid waste generation rates will more than triple from today to exceed 11 million tonnes per day by 2100. The amount of garbage humans throw away is rising fast and won't peak this century without transformational changes in how to use and reuse materials. That level of waste carries serious consequences – physical and fiscal – for cities around the world.” The authors have further prophesied for future: “Through a move towards stable or declining populations, denser and better-managed cities consuming fewer resources, and greater equity and use of technology, we can bring peak waste forward and down. The environmental, economic and social benefits would be enormous.” Dr. Juneja complimented H.E. Antonella Mularoni and Dr. G. F. Terenzi for their foresight in treating Waste as a Resource, thereby, setting a direction for the workshop. Dr. Juneja drew attention of the participants to the fact that the menace of Waste has been increasing. Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources. Common waste produced during pre-modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste and these were released back into the landfills, with minimum environmental impact. Today however menace of waste was increasing in geometric progression and has become a major challenge for humanity to control and use it as a resource. #Dr.J.S.Juneja, WUSME Vice President and Chairman, Global Projects & Services Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India. WUSME Vice President, Dr J.S. Juneja introducing the theme of the workshop
  13. 13. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 13 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Waste management and disposal issues are not just problem of a certain country or a continent. It is a global issue which should be addressed globally & immediately. Countries and governments are expressing concerns over problems with their waste disposal as it has a major impact on individual and community health. There could be chemical spills which could pose danger to water supplies. Poor landfills and incinerators could release cancerous carcinogens and other pollutants in the air. Landfills in Asia, Latin America and Africa are claimed to be blamed for about 40 % of methane emissions every year. Which was equal to about 37 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. Experts approximate that developed and industrialized nations produce more waste compared to developing countries. In the United States, each American will produce an average of 0.75 tons of trash every year. Those in Europe are estimated to accumulate almost half a ton of trash annually. In Asia, an average person would produce 0.2 tons of trash annually. Although, Asia has the lowest waste average, it does not mean that they have better waste management system. There are studies and surveys conducted in Asia about waste disposal procedure. According to World Bank, China’s whopping 190 million tons of waste every year is not totally properly disposed. Only less than 50 % of China’s solid wastes are treated properly, whether it is through landfill or incineration. China is not alone. Other Asian countries, like India, Indonesia and the Philippines also have poor waste disposal methods. Regardless of territories and boundaries, pollution affects everybody. Environmental problems in Asia could still affect North America, Europe and Africa. This is why there are efforts among different countries in helping each other resolve environmental and waste problems. An example would be the efforts between European and Asian countries. Europe is leading in environmental technologies, about 60 % of environmental discoveries and technologies came from them. They would play a major role in helping Asian and other countries to become aware of different environmental damage happening in their nations. Asian countries mostly would have to deal with issues of water and air pollution, WUSME President, Dr G.F. Terenzi along with VP, Dr J.S.Juneja during the introduction of the theme of the workshop
  14. 14. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 14 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org waste management for both households and industries, deforestation and loss of biodiversity. Countries, like the United States and Canada, are encouraging more individuals to go back to the basics of waste reduction: reduce, reuse and recycle. The government are passing laws, state regulations about trash disposal that would help homeowners to start smart and proper waste management at home. Environmental issues are not just an issue of a specified country. We should be more aware that by starting waste management in our homes, workplace or school, we get to reduce the impact of pollution and climate change. Dr. Juneja informed that as per UN/OECD, the Waste and Waste Management have been defined as follows: A. Waste According to the United Nations Statistics Division (U.N.S.D.): "Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded." B Waste Management At a workshop in Berlin organized by the OECD in 1996, a definition of waste minimization was worked out, according to which waste minimization is “Preventing and/or reducing the generation of waste at the source; improving the quality of waste generated, such as reducing the hazard, and encouraging re-use, recycling, and recovery.” 3.1 Treatment of wastes Dr. Juneja at length deliberated on types of wastes being generated and different technologies that were available or were under development for treatment of different type of wastes. The rapid industrialization has resulted in the generation of huge quantity of wastes, both solid and liquid, in industrial sectors and civic communities. In a broad sense, industrial wastes could be classified into two types: i) Hazardous industrial waste and ii) Non-hazardous industrial waste
  15. 15. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 15 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org i) Hazardous Industrial Waste Hazardous wastes, could be in solid, liquid or gaseous form and may cause danger to health or environment, either alone or when in contact with other wastes. Various agencies have defined hazardous wastes in different ways and as such, there is no uniformly accepted international definition so far. Hazardous waste in particular includes products that are explosive, flammable, irritant, harmful, toxic, carcinogenic, corrosive, infectious, or toxic to reproduction. Management and Treatment Options for Hazardous Waste • Use of Hazardous Wastes : as Alternate Fuels • Incinerationof Hazardous waste: to reduce both the toxicity and the volume of the waste • Disposal of Hazardous wastes in (secured) landfill: area designed scientifically to have an impervious stratum at bottom to stop leaching/percolation, and thus to avoid soil and water pollution/contamination. ii) Non-Hazardous Industrial Waste The non hazardous wastes are generated by industrial and commercial activities and are similar to household wastes and treated by same methods. The table below gives treatment option for various non hazardous wastes.
  16. 16. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 16 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Table: Various industries producing wastes and treatment adopted and their applications Industries Prominent Wastes Generated Treatment Option Application Sugar Mills Sugar bagasse Combustion and Gasification Heat and Power Press mud Composting Fertilizer Sugar molasses Fermentation Ethanol synthesis Fermentative Yeast biomass Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Slaughter houses Organs, Tissues, Blood, Hides, Animal excreta and Carcass etc Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Paper mills Pulp Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Paper shavings Combustion Heat and power Wood wastes and Paper boards Combustion and gasification Heat and power Dairy Plants Whey and Milk cream Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Sago factories Starch materials and peels Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Tanneries Hides and skins Acid treatments and bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Animal Husbandries Animal excreta and body fluids Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Fruits and vegetable processing units Pulp wastes Bio methanation Biogas production & digestate Please Note: It does not include the finished goods from industries such as plastic and cables etc thrown off as urban solid wastes.
  17. 17. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 17 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 3.2 RECYCLING OF WASTE Recycling of waste is a crucial productive method of waste utilization. Recycled products are also becoming more popular and important and are growing every day, as oil exploration moves to ever more hostile and difficult to reach locations, which will result in prices of products made from oil to increase. Hence, recycling is the best option for waste management for plastics, textile, paper, metal and other wastes. i) Plastic Recycling involves different stages, namely: Millions of tons of plastic waste end up in landfill when the vast majority of it can be recycled. Plastic recycling is processing waste plastic, turning old or scrap plastic into useable products that can re-enter the manufacturing chain. In order for plastic to be suitable for re use in the manufacturing environments there are different stages involved, namely: Stage 1: Sorting the plastic into specific types; Stage 2: Washing Waste Plastic to remove foreign material; Stage 3: Shredding the Plastic into small pellets for packaging; Stage 4: Identify and classify the Plastic by chemical tests; Stage 5: Extruding into form of pellets for manufacturing plastic products. Dr. Juneja addressing the gathering
  18. 18. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 18 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Figure: 1.1 ii) Metal Recycling Steel scrap from the demolished ships is a major source of raw material for the re-rolling mills in India. Normally at least 70 % of the total light displacement tonnage of a ship broken constitutes of re-rollable scrap. These are converted into bars and rods that are used in the construction sector. Gujarat coast in India has become the biggest ship wrecking yard of the world. The other sources for the scrap are re roll able scrap from railways, pencil ingots from induction furnaces, semis from integrated plants etc.
  19. 19. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 19 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Figure:1.2 Incidentally, everywhere else in the world the scrap from the demolished ships are usually sent into melting furnaces, India is probably only country that has the technique of re- rolling scrap into producing construction steel without having to first cast scrap as billets and ingots. iii) Textile Recycling Textile recycling is the method of reusing or reprocessing used clothing, fibrous material and clothing scraps from the manufacturing process and used clothing from households. Figure:1.3
  20. 20. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 20 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Clothing fabric generally consists of composites of cotton (biodegradable material) and synthetic plastics. The textile's composition will affect its durability and method of recycling. In case of specialized polyester based materials the shredded fabric is granulated and formed into small pellets. The pellets are broken down polymerized and turned into polyester chips. The chips are melted and spun into new filament fiber used to make new polyester fabrics. Woolen fabrics are processed to make coarse yarn which is woven to make blankets for the weaker sections of the society. iv) Paper recycling Paper recycling involves converting waste paper comprising paper waste from mills, pre and post consumer paper waste etc.The waste is converted chemically into pulp , cleaned, deinked and converted into paper. SMEs produce corrugated and packaging boxes,paper for packaging consumer products etc. SME in India produce quality hand made paper through the recycling process. Paper Recycling SORTING AND STACKINGWASTE PAPER PROCESSING IN RECYCLING PLANT ROLLS OF RECYCLED PAPER DIFFERENT PRODUCTS i.e., PAPER BAG, HANDMADE PAPER Figure: 1.4
  21. 21. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 21 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 3.3 WASTE TO ENERGY Waste is converted into energy in India in various forms by SMEs. i. Timber recycling Timber recycling or Wood recycling is the process of turning waste timber into usable products. Recycled timber most commonly comes from old buildings, bridges and wharfs. Sawdust from the saw mills is converted into briquettes by SMEs which is used as domestic fuel for cooking or in the bakeries etc. Timber/ Wood Waste WASTER TIMBER RECYCLING WOOD INTO SAW DUST PRODUCTS WASTE TO ENERGY Figure:1.5 ii. Biogas Biogas commonly known as ‘Gobar Gas’ in rural India is a popular method of converting cattle excreta into Gobar gas, used as clean fuel for household cooking. Government of India has popularized this concept successfully for many years especially in rural India. The leftover from the cattle waste or excreta after fermentation is utilized as organic manure or fertilizers.
  22. 22. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 22 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Gobar Gas (Biogas) COW DUNG BIOGAS GENERATOR COOKING MANURE METHANE (BIOGAS) Figure: 1.6 iii. Biomass Among the renewable energy sources, biomass plays a vital role especially in rural areas, as it constitutes the major energy source to majority of households in India. India is the 7th largest country in the world spanning 328 million hectares and amply bestowed with renewable sources of energy .Typically technologies for biomass energy are broadly classified on the basis of principles of thermo chemistry as combustion, gasification, pyrolysis and biochemistry as anaerobic digestion, fermentation and trans-esterification. Each technology has its uniqueness to produce a major calorific end product and a mixture of by-products. 3.4 GOVERNMENT PROVIDE INCENTIVES AND OTHER SUBSIDIES: Various countries provide incentives for converting non – conventional energy resources into viable energy projects. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of the Government of India provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) in the form of capital subsidy and financial incentives to the biomass energy projects and non conventional energy resources utilization in India. CFA is allotted to the projects on the basis of installed capacity, energy generation mode and its application etc. Financial support is available selectively through a transparent and competitive procedure. Hence, Government of India is also encouraging the waste to energy initiative and is working towards achieving better results in the field of waste management.
  23. 23. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 23 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 4. The Waste Treatment Hierarchy & Management by Prof. Dr. Norbert Knoll von Dornhoff* Prof. Knoll made an elaborate presentation on waste management hierarchy with special reference to Adriatic Sea Environment Programme. According by him SMEs and Crafts supporting Associations like WUSME, The World Union of Small and Medium Enterprises, in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC, were aware since long that “WASTE” as a by- product of economic activity by bigger and smaller businesses was an integral part of the global economy. SMEs and Crafts are significantly contributing to new sustainable technologies for waste recycling and the production of energy (e.g. oil, gas, electricity, building materials, and organic fertilizers) from waste, such generating new business activities for smaller companies. * Prof. Dr. Norbert Knoll von Dornhoff, WUSME Secretary-General Prof. Dr. Norbert Knoll von Dornhoff during the workshop.
  24. 24. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 24 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Figure 1.7: The Waste Treatment Hierarchy The waste hierarchy is a process used to protect the environment and conserve resources through a priority approach established in waste policy and legislation. The hierarchy establishes preferred program priorities based on sustainability. To be sustainable, waste management cannot be solved only with technical end-of-pipe solutions and an integrated approach is necessary. The waste management hierarchy indicates an order of preference for action to reduce and manage waste, and is usually presented diagrammatically in the form of a pyramid. The hierarchy captures the progression of a material or product through successive stages of waste management, and represents the latter part of the life- cycle for each product. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. The proper application of the waste hierarchy can have several benefits. It can help prevent emissions of greenhouse gases, reduces pollutants, save energy, conserves resources, create jobs promote enterprise & SMEs and stimulate the development of green technologies.
  25. 25. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 25 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Adriatic Sea Pollution Hot Spots Figure:1.8 Dr. Norbert mentioned about the issues concerning the hot spot in the Adriatic Sea. According to the World Bank Report on Adriatic Sea Environment Program, Rapid Assessment of pollution Hotspots for the Adriatic Sea 2011. The Adriatic Sea is the most significant tourism and recreational area in Europe and a major maritime route for the goods transported to central and south-eastern European markets. It is a semi-enclosed sea forming a distinct sub-region within the Mediterranean Sea region. Slow water exchange mechanisms make it particularly vulnerable to anthropogenic activities from more than 50 million people living within the Adriatic Sea catchment area, 20% of that on the coastline itself, and about 30 million tourists visiting this area every year, out of which 15 million on the eastern coast. The study considered 41 potential pollution hotspot sites and confirmed the existence of 27 hotspot pollution sites in the Adriatic Sea, out of which 6 at the eastern coast were identified as priority sites that require immediate actions to be taken in order to reach the desirable environmental conditions. These actions should be followed by the measures to reduce pollution in the other 12 pollution hotspot sites at the eastern Adriatic Sea coastline, which are considered as lesser priority. In the regional perspective, the number of pollution hotspot sites in the Adriatic Sea represents 18% of all the identified sites in the Mediterranean, which is significantly more than its relative size. Total investments required to reach the desirable environmental conditions in the eastern
  26. 26. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 26 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Adriatic region are estimated to 1.76 billion €, out of which 853 million € are already being implemented or are underway and 910 million € is the remaining funding gap. The remaining funding at the priority hotspot sites is estimated to 404 million €. Dr. Norbert elaborated on the sources of pollution and status of treatment in the Adriatic countries: (i) Albania: The priority pollution source in Albania is solid waste as there are no sanitary landfills at the coast and the waste is being disposed in dumpsites close to rivers and streams or near the sea. (ii) Montenegro: The priority pollution source is untreated wastewater. There have been improvements in the wastewater management infrastructure over the last decade. (iii) Croatian: The main identified source is solid waste. There are almost no sanitary landfills at the coast and there are numerous dumping sites. The Republic of Italy and the Republic of Slovenia as EU member states have to comply with more stringent EU environmental regulation. Most of the required environmental protection measures in these countries have already been implemented with national and EU structural funds. Dr. Norbert also emphasized the following: 1. Economics of Waste For securing economic stability and continuing development in less advanced regions, all kinds of raw materials must be used efficiently today and for future generations. However, in most economies, particularly in the new emerging markets (e.g. the BRICS Countries, Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), these resources are already today widely over-consumed. Free market mechanisms alone would inevitably result in an overproduction of waste. Such environmental externalities constitute market failures, as decisions to produce and consume do not include the cost of negative environmental consequences connected with excess waste being produced. In the context of waste, economic efficiency is achieved when the amount of waste generated and treated is optimal i.e. the costs of reducing waste by one unit is equal to the economic and environmental benefits of having one less unit of waste (“PARETO Optimum”). Externalities are several environmental impacts associated with waste management – greenhouse gases, air quality, water pollution, noise and land use change. While there may be specific impact categories associated with particular waste types – for example, hazardous wastes – the preponderance of waste-related environmental impacts relate to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
  27. 27. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 27 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Source: Waste Survey, Professor Philippe Chalmin, February 2011 2. Waste Volumes World Every year the world produces more than 4 billion metric tons of municipal and industrial waste: • Municipal waste 1.7 to 1.9 billion • Industrial waste 1.2 to 1.7 billion • Hazardous industrial waste 0.5 billion Other wastes include construction, mining, agricultural and forestry wastes. If we include the many other categories of waste, the total is no doubt much higher estimated at 3.4 to 4 billion (metric tons). The richer an economy, the more waste is been produced: • High revenue developed countries: 1 billion people 1.4 kg / capita / day • Average revenue developing countries: 3 billion people 0.8 kg / capita / day • “Third World” 2.5 billion people 0.6 kg / capita / day1 From Waste to Resource, The World Waste Challenge, Professor Philippe Chalmin, February 2011
  28. 28. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 28 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Figure:1.9 3. Waste to Energy and Recycling Technologies The technologies mentioned hereunder all produce energy. We don’t refer to pure incineration or other means of reducing municipal solid waste that does not produce energy. Also not included are Non-Thermal Technologies (Anaerobic Digestion, Landfill Gas, or Hydrolysis and Mechanical Biological Treatment). The technologies we reviewed are as follows: I. Thermal Technologies; II. Direct Combustion (Mass Burn and RDF); III. LTCC - Low Temperature Conversion; IV. Conventional Gasification; V. Plasma Arc Gasification.
  29. 29. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 29 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 4. Estimated Costs of the technologies: Ranges for Capital Costs for each of the Thermal Technologies assumes a 15 MW output for a: • Direct Combustion (Mass Burn and RDF) ranges from $7,000 to $10,000 per kW. • Pyrolysis ranges from $8,000 to $11,500 per kW. • Conventional Gasification ranges from $7,500 to $11,000 per kW. • Plasma Arc Gasification ranges from $8,000 to $11,500 per kW. Costs vary from technology to technology due to each having unique design characteristics, variations in equipment costs, site specific waste characteristics and site space requirements. There are significant other factors that can negatively affect the costs of construction. 5. Waste-To-Energy-Policy Waste to Energy Policy remains central to renewable energy business case in much of Europe, USA and Asian Countries and new rules designed to shift that support to a market- based mechanism have raised some uncertainties. Nonetheless, new sources of investment suggest Waste-To-Energy-Projects can still be financed. A “green” economy is characterized where economic benefits and growth is maximised, and all natural resources are been sustainably managed. The waste economy is one of many environmental sectors with policy actions contributing to the overall macro- economy, and to a transition to a green economy. Waste management is an important sector that needs to be promoted. Business potentials in recycling industry need to be explored by the entrepreneurs. Governments should come forward to provide all kinds of incentives & supports to promote this sector. Tax incentives, interest subsidies or interest free loans, technical consultancy services and marketing support for waste recycling enterprises may be some of the measures that the Government may consider, so that many more entrepreneurs would come forward as well as SMEs and Crafts would diversify into waste-management/recycling sector.
  30. 30. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 30 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 5. WASTE MANAGEMENT – CASE STUDY OF HUNGARY by Mr. IMRE BICZO* At the outset, Mr. Imre Biczo declared that Hungary has evolved its National Waste Management Plan 2014 - 2020 and has contributed significantly at the policy level on the basis of scientific justification. The goals of NeKI are to support the knowledge based governance in the fields of environmental protection, nature conservation, based on the principle of sustainable development, using and integrated approach reinforcing the linkages between disciplines. Waste Management Plan of Hungary is based on the collective experience of EU which aims at Zero waste programme for Europe. Hungary is raising awareness about the cooperation with National Waste Management Agency with the slogan: “Let’s Clean Up Hungary!, Open day of the waste operators Lets Clean Up Hungary! Action efficiency shadowing study” NeKI is involved in actual waste management tasks such as preparing background studies e.g., practice of EU Member States’ national legislation on biodegradable demolition waste, industrial waste and coordinating of the collection of professional opinions on draft legislation. * Imre Biczo, General Director, National Institute for Environment (NeKI) , Hungary. Mr. Imre Biczo during the workshop
  31. 31. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 31 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Steps in Waste Management Figure:1.10 Figure:1.11
  32. 32. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 32 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Mr. Imre Biczo, also mentioned about various legislative programmes: Aim for waste management A Zero waste programme for Europe towards a circular economy (date: 02/07/2014) Legislative proposal to review recycling and other waste – related targets in the EU:  Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directives 2008/98/EC on waste (Brusseles, 02/07/2014)  The aim of the proposal is to help turn Europe into a circular economy, boost recycling, secure access to raw materials and create jobs and economic growth. 1. Preparing regulation on waste incineration Transposition of 2010/75/EU Industrial Emissions Directive Chapter Iv. Ministerial Decree on the Technical and Operational conditions of waste incineration and emission limit values relating to waste incineration. i) Structure of ministerial decree Waste incineration plants and waste co – incineration plants General rules of design and operation, specific rules of permission process, emission limit values, operation conditions, specific rules of delivery and reception of waste, monitoring and reporting of emissions. ii) Specific condition of waste incineration permission The heat generated during the incineration is recovered as far as practicable; the residues will be minimized in their amount harmfulness and recycled where appropriate The applications for permits have to be prepared by authorized expert only. The permits include: • List of types of waste which may be treated • The total waste incinerating capacity • The limit values for emission into air and water • The requirements for the Ph, temperature and flow of waste water discharges • The sampling and measurement procedures and frequencies • The maximum permissible periods of any technically unavoidable stoppages or failures of purification devices.
  33. 33. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 33 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 2. Operation of GIS database on waste incineration plants and waste co incineration plants 3. Possibilities of Cooperation • Environmental impact assessment studies – chapter of Waste Management, Air protection, noise. • Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) permission • Market research, reference point for partner search. Mr. Imre Biczo was hopeful for complete waste management in 2020 and recovery of heat and energy from waste as much as possible.
  34. 34. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 34 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 6. “How the European Union supports Green Energy projects through funding” by Mrs. Claudia Mularoni** Mrs. Claudia Mularoni in her opening remarks lauded the role of SMEs in the economy of European Union and elaborated as follows: (i) Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) were the economic backbone of the European Union. More than 99% of all European businesses are SMEs. (ii) SMEs provided two out of three of the private sector jobs and contribute to more than half of the total value-added created by businesses in the EU. (iii) SMEs being primarily responsible for wealth and economic growth, next to their key role in innovation and R&D. (iv) Nine out of ten SMEs are actually micro enterprises with less than 10 employees. Hence, the mainstays of Europe's economy are micro firms, each providing work for two persons, in average. (v) Climate change, scarcity of energy supplies and sustainable development are key challenges for SMEs, which have to adopt more sustainable production and business models. The demand for environmentally friendly products and services also opens the way for new business opportunities. The Europe 2020 Strategy outlines the EU‟ s priority to become a sustainable economy and set ambitious objectives for climate action and energy efficiency. ** Mrs. Claudia Mularoni, Chief Executive Officer of Pragmata Institute Mrs. Claudia Mularoni during the workshop
  35. 35. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 35 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 1. EU Policy Actions (i) Communication for a European Industrial Reinassance On 22 January 2014, the Commission adopted a new Communication on Industrial Policy “For a European Industrial Renaissance” COM (2014)14. The Communication sets out the Commissions key priorities for industrial policy, it provides an overview of actions already undertaken and puts forward a limited number of new actions to speed up the attainment of these objectives. (ii)A resource-efficient Europe – Flagship initiative of the Europe 2020 Strategy The flagship initiative for a resource-efficient Europe under the Europe 2020 strategy supports the shift towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon economy to achieve sustainable growth. Natural resources underpin our economy and our quality of life. (iii) The Small Business Act (SBA) The Small Business Act for Europe (COM(2008) 394) adopted in June 2008, reflects the Commission's political will to recognize the central role of SMEs in the EU economy and for the first time puts into place a comprehensive SME policy framework for the EU and its Member States. It aims to improve the overall approach to entrepreneurship, permanently anchor the 'Think Small First' principle in policy making from regulation to public service, and to promote SMEs' growth by helping them tackle the remaining problems which hamper their development. The European Commission promotes the growth of SMEs through the Small Business Act This framework includes an initiative to raise SMEs‟ awareness of environmental and energy-related issues and to assist them in implementing legislation, assessing their environmental and energy performance and upgrading their skills and qualifications.
  36. 36. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 36 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org (iv) Green Action Plan for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) The Green Action Plan (GAP) adopted in July 2014, gives a clear direction and framework for how the EU, in partnership with Member States and regions, intends to help SMEs exploit the business opportunities that the transition to a green economy offers. It is a significant milestone for involving the SMEs in not only in waste minimization and management but also encouraging enterprise and opportunities in green business. The GAP proposes to exploit green opportunities, by improving productivity and driving down costs in European SMEs through resource-efficiency, by supporting green entrepreneurship and by exploiting and developing Europe's leadership in green processes and technologies. The Green Action Plan focuses on European level actions which are designed to fit in with, and reinforce existing 'green' initiatives to support SMEs at national and regional levels. It was drafted through consultation with, and will be implemented in cooperation with actors in the Member States that are active in this area. The Green Action Plan sets out a series of objectives and lists actions that will be implemented at European level within the framework of the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-2020. All the actions are either new or revised versions of previous actions that now take into account the potential for business of resource efficiency and access to green markets. GAP objectives are for SMEs: • Greening SMEs for more competitiveness and sustainability; • Green entrepreneurship for the companies of the future; • Opportunities for SMEs in a greener value chain; • Access to the markets for green SMEs; • Governance (bottom up policies to be implemented thoroughly).
  37. 37. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 37 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 2. EU Funding Programmes and Instruments: Mrs. Mularoni elaborated on the funding programmes of EU, in order to achieve the priorities set out in the green Action Plan. The EU will engage towards the following specific objectives: Greening SMEs for more competitiveness and sustainability 1) Provide European SMEs with practical information, advice and support on how to improve their resource efficiency in a cost-effective manner; 2) Support efficient technology transfer mechanisms for green technologies; 3) Facilitate the access to finance for resource- related improvements and energy efficiency in SMEs Fostering Green entrepreneurship for the companies of the future 1) Promote all forms of eco-innovation, including non- technological eco-innovation 2) Facilitate business partnering, skills and knowledge for green entrepreneurship 3) Exploit better the role of clusters in support of eco- innovative SMEs Provide opportunities for SMEs in a greener value chain 1) Address systemic barriers to cross-sectoral and cross- national value chain collaboration and business creation and cooperation, by facilitating the creation of service business models and the re-use of materials, products and waste Facilitate access to the markets for green SMEs 1) Promote a greener European internal market 2) Facilitate access to international markets for green entrepreneurs 3) Facilitate the uptake of resource efficiency technology in
  38. 38. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 38 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org partner countries through cooperation with European SMEs Such objectives will be achieved through a specific set of Actions to be financed under the following programmes and/or instruments. 3. Other Programmes of European Union: a. Horizon 2020 Programme Horizon 2020 is the biggest EU Research and Innovation programme ever with nearly €80 billion of funding available over 7 years (2014 to 2020). This programme is divided into several pillars5 and implements the Innovation Union, a Europe 2020 flagship initiative, aimed at securing Europe's global competitiveness. Through a dedicated SME instrument, which offers seamless business innovation support under the section Societal Challenges and the specific part Leadership in Enabling and Industrial Technologies (LEITs, Horizon funds High-potential innovation and stimulates SME participation across the whole programme, targeting all those SMEs which are showing a strong ambition to develop, grow and internationalize, regardless of whether they are high-tech and research-driven or non-research conducting, social or service companies. Provided with about € 3 billion in funding over the period 2014-2020, the SME Instrument helps high-potential SMEs to develop ground-breaking innovative ideas for products, services or processes that are ready to face global market competition. The SME Instrument consists of three separate phases and a coaching and mentoring service for beneficiaries. Participants can apply to phase 1 with a view to applying to phase 2 at a later date, or directly to phase 2. In phase 1, a feasibility study shall be developed verifying the technological/practical as well as economic viability of an innovation idea/concept with considerable novelty to the industry sector in which it is presented (new products, processes, services and technologies or new market applications of existing technologies). Bottlenecks in the ability to increase profitability of the enterprise through innovation shall be detected and analyzed during phase 1 and addressed during phase 2 to increase the return in investment in innovation activities. The proposal should contain an initial business
  39. 39. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 39 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org plan based on the proposed idea/concept. Funding will be provided in the form of a lump sum of EUR 50,000. The Proposals should last around 6 months. In phase 2, innovation projects will be supported that address the specific challenges identified and that demonstrate high potential in terms of company competitiveness and growth underpinned by a strategic business plan. Activities should focus on innovation activities such as demonstration, testing, prototyping, piloting, scaling- up, miniaturization, design, market replication and the like aiming to bring an innovation idea (product, process, service, etc.) to industrial readiness and maturity for market introduction close to deployment and market introduction, but may also include some research. Proposals shall be based on an elaborated business plan either developed through phase 1 or another means. Particular attention must be paid to IP protection and ownership. The Commission considers that proposals requesting a contribution from the EU of between EUR 0.5 and 2.5 million would allow phase 2 to be addressed appropriately. Nonetheless, this does not preclude submission and selection of proposals requesting other amounts. Proposals should last between 12 and 24 months. In addition, in phase 3, SMEs can benefit from indirect support measures and services as well as access to the financial facilities supported under Access to Risk Finance of this work program. Successful beneficiaries will be offered coaching and mentoring support during phase 1 and phase 2. This service will be accessible via the Enterprise Europe Network and delivered by a dedicated coach through consultation and signposting to the beneficiaries. The single SME instrument call includes topics particularly relevant to innovation driven SMEs seeking to commercialize eco-innovative products, services or processes, including under Horizon 2020 Societal Challenges 2, 3, 4 and 5. Moreover Horizon 2020 funds collaborative R&D actions that are of particular relevance to eco- innovation driven SMEs, not least under its Societal Challenge "Climate Action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials", in terms of increasing resource efficiency through a systemic approach towards eco-innovation and in the setting up of a circular economy. The Horizon 2020 action „Cluster facilitated projects for new industrial value chains‟ to be implemented as of 2015, is aimed at better unlocking the innovation potential of SMEs, including the eco-innovative and resource- efficient solutions they offer. The action will support cross-sectoral and cross-regional collaboration and innovation projects driven by SMEs by better integrating them into clusters and different value chains.
  40. 40. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 40 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org b. Erasmus + The Erasmus Plus Programme aims to boost skills and employability, as well as modernizing Education, Training, and Youth work. The seven year programme will have a budget of €14.7 billion. In order to foster higher education and enterprise cooperation to trigger innovative solutions and entrepreneurship, and to support Vocational Education and Training to tackle sector specific skills gaps on environmental technologies and eco- innovation, key action ‘Cooperation for innovation and good practices' supports: supports the establishment of: i) Knowledge Alliances, and ii) The establishment of Sector Skills Alliances. i) Knowledge Alliances are transnational, structured and result-driven projects between higher education institutions and public or private, small, medium or large enterprises for: • Jointly designed and delivered innovative learning and teaching methods • Introducing entrepreneurship knowledge, skills and motivation in order to trigger students, enterprise and academic staff to engage in entrepreneurial activities in their environment • Cross-sectoral and reciprocal mobility for continuing educational programmes, supervision, teaching and activities with and within companies. The programme is open to any discipline, including the field of the green economy. Selected Knowledge Alliances are funded with EUR 700,000 (for a 2-year project) or up to EUR 1,000,000 (for a 3-year project) following yearly calls for proposals. Some 150 Knowledge Alliances between 1500 higher education institutions and enterprises are expected to be built by 2020. ii) Sector Skills Alliances are transnational projects drawing on evidence of trends in a specific economic sector and the skills needed in order to perform in one or more professional field.
  41. 41. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 41 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org They support the design and delivery of joint vocational training curricula. Selected Sector Skills Alliances are funded with a grant ranging from EUR 700,000 (for a 2-year project) or up to EUR 1,000,000 (for a 3-year project) following yearly calls for proposals. One of the sectors which are eligible under this action is "environmental technologies" (eco-innovation). Public or private, small, medium or large enterprises (including social enterprises) are eligible participating organizations for the Sector Skills Alliances. Up to 150 Sector Skills Alliances are expected to be set up by 2020. c. COSME COSME is the EU programme for the Competitiveness of Enterprises and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) running from 2014 to 2020. With a planned budget of €2.3bn, the financial instruments under COSME will specifically support SMEs to internationalize, by promoting their cross border development. d. LIFE LIFE is the EU's financial instrument supporting environmental, nature conservation and climate action projects throughout the EU. With an overall budget for the next funding period, 2014–2020, of €3.4 billion the Life programme also supports initiatives to facilitate business partnering, and skills and knowledge for green entrepreneurship. It prioritizes projects implementing: i) New business models for resource efficiency and energy efficiency, including establishing resource efficiency practices in SMEs, focusing on the environmental impact, durability, reuse, repair and recycling of their products and processes – including sharing or leasing of products rather than selling them. This should involve one of the industrial sectors considered as a priority in the Roadmap for a Resource Efficient Europe, and the new business model should result in a reduction in material use and/or energy and water use. ii) The circular economy concept though actions spanning the value chain or ensuring the use of secondary resources/scrap material/waste in other industries or value chains, including eco-design, cascading use of materials, repair, remanufacture, reuse, recycling, new circular business concepts, innovative take-back and collection systems, and industrial symbiosis-related projects. Mrs. Claudia Mularoni concluded by remarking that European Union is committed for development of enterprise and Green SMEs.
  42. 42. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 42 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 7. Case Study of China by Ms. Rongyong Yang♦ Ms. Rongyong Yang elaborated that thirty years ago, China opened its door to the world. From then on, Chinese economics changed from Planned Economy to Market Economy step by step. During the past 30 years, Chinese people were enthusiastic about creating their economic future, and made great contributions to the manufacturers worldwide. “World Factory” is a dramatic name to describe how China developed. However, China also consumed and overused a lot of the natural resources. Even more, China had to face mountains of industrial waste. According to her, pollution is a big threat to China, and will challenge the ability of the Chinese government and Chinese people. Chinese government is trying to improve condition of air with several aspects before it gets worse. Meanwhile, people are also paying more attention to environmental protection. 1. From the regulation point of view, the Chinese government promulgated the new “Environment Protection Law” to protect environment more stringently. The new "environmental protection law", clearly defined, states that environmental planning should fit with city planning, and land development. Environmental protection departments should take a long-term view, to become more involved in the national and local planning system. Environmental protection departments should strengthen environmental supervision, to disclose more environmental information and garner public participation. This helps environmental economic policy in accelerating the necessary legislation and system construction. ♦ Ms. Rongyong Yang, WUSME member of the Board and President of Shanghai High Victory Fine Chemical Co., Ltd, China Ms. Rongyong Yang during the workshop
  43. 43. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 43 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 2. China is changing its development focus from resource-draining to energy efficient technology development. According to the information from Chinese Government, by the end of 2020, industries such as energy saving and environmental protection, information technology, biotechnology, high-end equipment manufacturing industry, new energy, new materials, and new energy automobile industry will become the leaders in the national economy. During the Chinese "Twelfth Five Year Plan" period, China will eliminate processes that create high energy consumption, and high pollution emissions, including serious excess capacity of copper smelting, smelting of lead, zinc smelting, tanning, printing and dyeing, chemical fiber, lead storage battery industry. 3. China plans to turn garbage disposal services into a method of producing energy. The waste incineration to energy generation technology will both benefit environmental protection and power generation. Due to the effect of waste volume reduction, the harmful components in the garbage are completely decomposed during high temperature combustion. Waste incineration with high temperature is used for heating or power generation. It will become the most effective way of recycling disposal. We expect that the waste incineration disposal volume will reach 30% of the total in 2020, and the new daily processing capacity of 131,000 tons of garbage incineration equipment will have been built at that time. She complimented WUSME and acknowledged that it was a great platform for small and mid-sized enterprises development worldwide. As a member of this organization, China would assume the responsibility of sustainable development. Chinese companies would be very happy to join the WUSME program of “Waste to Energy”, and wished to have more opportunities to increase their international cooperation to reduce pollution and conserve resources.
  44. 44. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 44 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 8. Waste Problem- A Case study of India by Mr. Arun Agrawal ♦ Mr. Arun Agrawal also elaborated in the same context/ direction as by Dr. J S Juneja about the current scenario of waste and its management in India. Every year, about 55 million tonnes of municipal solid waste and 38 billion litres of sewage are generated in the urban areas of India. In addition, large quantities of solid and liquid wastes are generated by industries. Waste generation in India is expected to increase rapidly in the future. As more people migrate to urban areas and as incomes increase, consumption levels are likely to rise, as would rates of waste generation. It is estimated that the amount of waste generated in India will increase at a per capita rate of approximately 1-1.33% annually. This has significant impacts on the amount of land that is and will be needed for disposal, economic costs of collecting and transporting waste, and the environmental consequences of increased municipal solid waste generation levels. i. Why Waste to Energy is Important? Most wastes that are generated, find their way into land and water bodies without proper treatment, causing severe water pollution. They also emit greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide, and add to air pollution. Any organic waste from urban and rural areas and industries is a resource due to its ability to get degraded, resulting in energy generation. ii. India -Waste to Energy Potential According to the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India there exist a potential of about 1700 MW from urban waste (1500 from MSW and 225 MW from sewage) and about 1300 MW from industrial waste. The Ministry is also actively promoting the generation of energy from waste, by providing subsidies and incentives for the projects. The Government owned Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) estimates indicate that India has so far realized only about 2% of its waste-to- energy potential. A recent market study predicts that the Indian municipal solid waste to energy market could be growing at a compound annual growth rate of 9.7% every year. ♦ Mr. Arun Agrawal, WUSME Member of the Commission on Financial Issue. Mr. Arun Agarwal during the workshop
  45. 45. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 45 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org iii Technologies for the Generation of Energy from Waste Energy is being recovered from the organic fraction of waste (biodegradable as well as non-biodegradable) through thermal, thermo-chemical, biochemical and electrochemical methods. iii. Indian Government Support for Waste to Energy The Indian Government has recognized waste to energy as a renewable technology and supports it through various subsidies and incentives. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is actively promoting all the technology options available for energy recovery from urban and industrial wastes. MNRE is also promoting the research on waste to energy by providing financial support for R&D projects on cost sharing basis in accordance with the R&D Policy of the MNRE. In addition to that, the Ministry also provides financial support for projects involving applied R&D and studies on resource assessment, technology up- gradation and performance evaluation. He concluded that a number of key statistics, such as the value of recyclables, the amount of environmental pollution from waste sources, and the quantity of industrial waste generated, need to be computed to gain a better understanding of this sector. A proper research related to more realistic statistics relating to generation of different kinds of wastes and their conversion to energy with detailed analysis of costs and available funding is needed to be conducted. He also estimated that as of now there would be more than 100-125 SMEs who are involved in the waste to energy sector in India. With the new Government in India focusing its attention on generation of clean energy via renewable energy sources and sanitation, this number is expected to increase rapidly over the next 5 years and the sector is providing excellent opportunities for investment and technology transfer by foreign waste management companies, especially from Europe. While referring to Ganga2 River cleaning campaign launched by the Government of India, he also acknowledged about German Deputy Consul General Michael Ott, who stated that apart from other sectors, Germany would like to assist the Indian Government in cleaning up the Ganges, which is an ambitious project of the new government. Mr. Ott further said that Germany is also keen on investing in waste water and sewage treatment as well as renewable power sectors, apart from education and healthcare. Similarly, the President of the World Bank, Dr Jim Yong during his recent visit to India, has also assured India of the Bank’s support in cleaning up the Ganges River and treatment of the waste so discharged. 2 Ganga River is a Holy river as per Hindu Religious belief and contributes significantly for economic well being of the population and SMEs in Waste Management.
  46. 46. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 46 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 9. Ecoarea, Better Living – A Case Study of Rimini, Italy by Mr. Romano Ugolini♦ Mr. Romano Ugolini emphasized that as a scientific and feasible response to energy problems on local and global scale, the Green Economy was not an utopian development model anymore. It has turned into a real factor in which humans, enterprises and nations work every day to result major economic benefits, respecting parameters of environmental protection. Renewable energies, sustainable mobility, optimized water resources, non polluting treatments of waste, care of the territories and designing of low environmental impact buildings (just like Ecoarea) were only some pieces of this new socioeconomic mosaic. He made elaborate presentation of smart and green structures. Eco area was founded in order to connect demand and supply of a new sector, the Green Economy. This newly established sector, has the potential to become the backbone of a new economy, that is not based on wasting resources, but on their more intelligent and sustainable pursuit. Today the regulations made for environment protection have become an important stimulus for re-innovation. Citizens and consumers have a growing interest to get up-to date information on these processes, particularly in terms of convenience and saving. This information function, especially in the field of eco- innovation, is required for professionals like architects, industrial designers, urban planners and energy managers to name but a few. In Ecoarea, professionals get to know and experience the advantages and technologies of the innovative products of the exhibiting companies. Entrepreneurs, academics, professionals and supporters of sustainable development find in Ecoarea the right atmosphere and platform for exchanging information and doing business; not only for themselves, but for the environment and mankind. Experiencing directly what is really green as well as changing our lives in better living, is integral part of Ecoarea's mission. ♦ Mr. Romano Ugolini, CEO of Ecoarea, Better Living , Rimini, Italy Mr. Romano Ugolini, during the workshop
  47. 47. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 47 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Ecoarea is a concrete example of SMART building: a multipurpose building that incorporates energy efficiency, materials with low environmental impact and domotics automation technology, in order to make it "smarter" than conventional buildings. Being finalist in the categories Structural Design of the Year and Future Project of the Year at the 2011 edition of the prestigious World Architectural Festival in Barcelona, Ecoarea is the best expression of eco-efficiency. The top classification A is the result of a great conceptual and planned work. The internal architectural element that links the four levels (the Expolab, the technological basement of the building, with the Suspended Garden, a roof covered with turf which houses a photovoltaic system and solar panels) is called the strip, and it forms the backbone of the entire tour route of Ecoarea. It is an ideal strip of biotrass (or TRASSO, natural product of volcanic origin) already known to the architects of ancient
  48. 48. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 48 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org Rome. TRASSO, wood and glass, make up 90% of the building that, for this and other features of isolation and performance, is certified in energy class A. The building has been thought as a hybrid structure, where the traditional "mortar and brick" method has been integrated with a "dry" technology of structural wood. The building needs very little energy and it is provided by renewable energies like photovoltaic at 20 kw pick. Although, Ecoarea does not need much water, there is a system for the complete utilization of rain water which is used for gardening and domestic use. All the rooms overlook a central void, where the lowest point is placed in the auditorium, with a sliding glass roof above. The latter, in addition to being element of visual continuity, works as a natural vertical ventilation chimney. Ecoarea is also equipped with home automation devices and car parks illuminated by LEDs that recharge the light of the sun. He also introduced the case of Bio Max, an anaerobic digestion plant (non thermal technology) able to convert agricultural wastes into clean BIOGAS. Despite its "zero CO2 emission" and other assurances by the project creator, the inhabitants do not trust it in terms of pollution and sustainability. He related sustainability with energy efficiency through Eco area for better living – a futuristic green building technology.
  49. 49. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 49 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 9. Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization by Mr. Jian Dai♦ Mr. Jian Dai in his presentation informed that Zhongguancun was the first high-tech park and the first national innovation demonstration zone in China. Zhongguancun has become a high- end industry functional zone in Beijing. Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization (FSO) plays an important part as “the vital point social organization” in Zhongguancun, founded by Chambers of Commerce and Associations in 2003, aiming to integrate resources, enhance exchange and cooperation between domestic and overseas organizations and promote development of organizations. It has ten thousands branch member enterprises included from the large-scale well-known to the middle & small-sized enterprises in the field of the advanced technology including IT, the bioengineering, and the new medicine & pharmacology, and the intermediary service agency including incubator, electronic products trade, and so on. They are the traditional virtues of the Chinese nation. He appreciated the workshop and was much honored to discuss guiding principles for future cooperation with WUSME by sharing developmental experience, exploit technical markets and probe collaborative model. The members of the Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization includes a wide range, where the Industrial Organization is at 25 %, the comprehensive association 22 %, the S&T intermediary 17 %, the Venture 13 %, the Talents 12 %, and the Financial 11%. It also helps their partner to exchange, dialogue or interact with each other and to express their concerns relating to their interest. They also promote cooperative project. Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization acts an irreplaceable role in Science Park, which is the necessary builder for entrepreneurial environment, the organizer for industrial development and the remarkable cooperator for enterprise innovation and development and is supported by Beijing Municipal Government. The organization also pioneer in waste management and various other practices for waste management. Mr.Jian Dai stated that he would welcome partners for collaboration with Zhongguancun Park. ♦ Mr. Jian Dai, Secretary-General of Zhongguancun Federation of Social Organization Mr. Jian Dai, during the workshop
  50. 50. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 50 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 10. Preparing Action Plan for Cameroon by Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz`e♦ Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz`e informed that the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social Economy and Handicraft of Cameroon was established in 2004 by Presidential Decrees. The Ministry is responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of public policy for the development and supervision of small and medium enterprises and artisans. The vision of Cameroon in 2035 in the field of Small and Medium Enterprises is formulated as follows: "SMEs make the engine of growth and job creation.” The strategy chosen to achieve the objective of the program aims to promote private initiative and improve the business environment for SMEs in Cameroon. The promotion of SME sector in Cameroon is regulated by law(decree 2010/001 of 13 April 2004).It also includes mechanisms/ incentives related to the development of the business climate in Cameroon. These are: - Formalities Centre for Enterprise Creation (CFCE): helps create a company in 72 hours. - Management Centers Approved (CGA): provides assistance to the management and fiscal security for members. - E-Regulations project: provides comprehensive and detailed information on administrative procedures making them transparent to investors. - The Exchange subcontracting and Partnership (SPX) resource center: allows identification and evaluation of companies based on their technical capabilities. Since its inception, 165 companies have already joined. ♦ Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz`e, Representative of the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, Social economy and Handicraft of Cameroon. Mr. Leon Ayana Ndz’e representative of the SMEs Minister of Cameroon during the workshop
  51. 51. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 51 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org - Cameroonian Bank Small and Medium Enterprises (SME-BC): specializes in financing small and medium enterprises and handicrafts. To achieve its missions, BC - SME has two funding windows i.e., A window for financing Small and Medium Enterprises and the counter B for funding Crafts. - The Agency for Promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises (APME): responsible, in conjunction with governments and public and private bodies in assistance, coaching, facilitation of formalities of entrepreneurship and counseling with ideas and projects. The second component focuses on capacity building, the establishment of a data bank and the promotion of technological innovation. The third is the establishment of an Observatory for SMEs, the incubation of start-up and companion (in partnership with large companies), etc. Added to this is a biennial platform for exchanges and discussions called "National Days of SMEs" held in Cameroon's economic capital Douala. Environmental Protection in Cameroon In Cameroon, there is a department in charge of environment and protection of nature. It is a well structured sector with stringent legislation in the matière. Le Cameroon is Africa in miniature because of vegetation and climates that are found in the African continent. It focuses protection of fauna and flora. There is also Department of Wildlife. The non- governmental and inter-governmental organizational structures complement the Government efforts for the sustainable management of environment. Many SMEs are engaged in environmental activities. Cameroon has a company that manages garbage collection across the country. Hence, Cameroon Government is extending help for waste management and recycling and the contributions by SMEs towards the same are also laudable.
  52. 52. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 52 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org 11. A Case study of Cameroon by Mrs. Angeline Henzen♦ Mrs. Angeline Henzen stated that she felt proud to be associated with WUSME. She added that mandate given to her was to promote, initiate, implement and coordinate activities of WUSME in Cameroon which has led to the establishment of a set of activities. Mrs. Henzen informed that WUSME was being actively promoted in Cameroon. It would participate wherever forums on SMEs and crafts were held. In the second half of 2013, in the Convention Center of Yaoundé, an informative workshop was held which brought together both public and private actors. This meeting had a great success. In the year 2014, several activities, such as meetings with leaders of employers' groups, SMEs and development partners, among other things, have been conducted to raise awareness. She acknowledged the presence in the delegation of WUSME CAMEROON of the representative of the Minister of Cameroon in charge of SME, Social Economy and Handicrafts. She informed that the Government of Cameroon has launched a series of measures and incentives after the adoption of the law on the promotion of SMEs in 2007.It deals with the improvement of the business climate by establishing, since 2010, Centers of formalization and creation of enterprises, and the implementing a "E.REGULATION" program with UNDP in 2013. This program allows a speedy creation of companies in 72 hours in their country. The other measure, according to her included approval of management centers to support fiscal framework of SMEs. The Investment Charter in force since April 2013 is the central element to encourage foreign investment. The biennial forum for SMEs held nationwide as the National Day of SMEs.Beside these the other major nationwide measures ♦ Mrs. Angeline Henzen, National Coordinator and Representative of WUSME in CAMEROON. Mrs. Angeline Henzen during the workshop
  53. 53. WUSME INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP WASTE TO ENERGY Sept. 6th 2014, Rep. of San Marino 53 WUSME, the WORLD UNION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES in Consultative Status with UN ECOSOC since 2013 International Headquarters: Piazzale M. Giangi n. 2, 47890 San Marino – Republic of San Marino Tel.: +378 0549 991277 Fax: + 378 0549 807710 e-mail: info@wusme.org – website: www.wusme.org functional. included, among others, the CAPAM (Support Framework for the Promotion of Crafts Mining), API (Investment Promotion Agency), the SMEs bank (opened since 2014). In the field of Handicrafts, Cameroon provides each of its ten regions with guidance and training in Crafts in one place structures. These places showcase handicrafts for sale. In the same area, an international group hosts, every two years, Artisans from the world; this year holding the fourth edition of the International Exhibition of Crafts of Cameroon. The highlight of the policy mandate is that it is consistant towards all the Public Institutions, governmental organizations, non-governmental and development partners. They meet the prerequisites necessary for the submission of the requests and pass the required preliminary investigations of morality prescribed by competent authority of country. Mrs. Henzen informed that the transverse component of the Ministy for SMEs, in view of its activities, highlights a range of actors from different backgrounds. She stated that pending the outcome of the administrative process of the recognition of WUSME being evaluated from the political or diplomatic strategic angles, this was a good reason justifying the existence of WUSME under the legal form of law in Cameroon. Mrs. Henzen informed that she felt encouraged to see the evolution of their activities and the presence of the Representative of the Government which showed that their work was appreciated and has a positive impact. With these activities and concrete actions it was imminent that the action plan was going to be implemented immediately. Their mission was thus inspiring and would be made real.

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