First lecture


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First lecture

  1. 1. First Lecture:Essential Introduction to Computers Norazila Mat
  2. 2. A World of ComputersWhat is computer literacy (digital literacy)? Current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses Computers are everywhere
  3. 3. What Is a Computer?An electronic device, operating under the control ofinstructions stored in its own memory,
  4. 4. What Does a Computer Do?Four basic operationscompromise theinformation processingcycle 1. Accept data (input) 2. Process the data according to specified rules (process) 3. Produce results (output) 4. Store the results for future use (storage) 5. Communication
  5. 5. Data Vs Information Data: Collection of unprocessed items Processes data into Information: Conveys meaning and is useful to people
  6. 6. What are the Components of aComputer?The six primarycomponents of a computer Processorare: Control Control Arithmetic Arithmetic Unit Unit Logic Unit (ALU) Logic Unit (ALU)1) input devices Instructions2) the processor (control unit Data and arithmetic/logic unit), Information3) memory, Input Output Devices Data Memory Information Devices4) output devices,5) storage devices Instructions Data6) communications devices InformationThe processor, memory, and storagedevices are housed in a box-like case Storagecalled the system unit - CPU Devices
  7. 7. INPUT: What Is Input and InputDevice?What is input? Data or instructions entered into memory of computer  Data = Unprocessed text, numbers, images, audio, and video  Instructions = Programs, Commands, User responses Input device is any hardware component that allows users to enter data and instructions
  8. 8. INPUT: Types of input device? (1) Keyboards  Audio videos device Pointing device  Voice recognition  Mouse  MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) – Trackball  Digital camera – Touchpad  Digital video (DV) camera – Pointing stick  Web cam  Light pen  Touch screen  Digital pen  Game controllers
  9. 9. INPUT: Types of input device? (2)  Data collection Scanners device Reading Devices  (POS) terminal  Bar code reader  Automated teller  Optical reader machine (ATM)  Optical character recognition (OCR) reads characters in OCR  Biometric Input font  Optical mark recognition (OMR)  Fingerprint reader reads hand-drawn pencil marks, such as small circles  Voice verification  Magnetic stripe card system reader  Signature  Magnetic-ink verification system character recognition  Iris recognition (MICR) reader system
  10. 10. The System UnitWhat is the system unit? Case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data  Sometimes called the chassis
  11. 11. The System Unit What are common components inside the system unit?  Processor  Memory  Adapter cards  Sound card  Video card  Drive bays  Power supplyp. 185 Fig. 4-2
  12. 12. ProcessorWhat is the central processing unit (CPU)?Interprets and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer  Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer  Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and logical operationsAlso called the processor
  13. 13. MemoryWhat is memory? How is memory measured? Electronic components that store  By number of bytes available for instructions, data, and results storage Consists of one or more chips on Term Abbreviation Approximate Size motherboard or Kilobyte KB or K 1 thousand bytes other circuit board Megabyte MB 1 million bytes Each byte stored Gigabyte GB 1 billion bytes in unique location Terabyte TB 1 trillion bytes called an address
  14. 14. OUTPUT: What is Output?What is output? Data that has been processed into a useful form  Output device is any hardware component that can convey information to one or more people
  15. 15. OUTPUT: Display Devices Output device that visually  Printer conveys text, graphics, and  Impact printer –dot matrix video information printer  Information on display device  Nonimpact printers sometimes called soft copy print head  Ink-jet printer Monitor houses display device  photo printer that is packaged as separate  laser printer peripheral  LCD (liquid crystal display)  thermal printer monitor  Plotter  Plasma monitor print cartridge  CRT (cathode-ray tube) monitor firing chamber ink dot bubble resistor ink nozzle
  16. 16. OUTPUT: Audio output device Computer component that produces music, speech, or other sounds Speakers and headsets are common devices
  17. 17. OUTPUT: Other Output Devices facsimile (fax) machine multifunction peripheral data projector interactive whiteboard
  18. 18. StorageWhat is storage? Holds data, instructions, and information for future use Storage medium is physical material used for storage  Also called secondary storage
  19. 19. StorageWhat is capacity?  Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold Kilobyte (KB) 1 thousand Megabyte (MB) 1 million Gigabyte (GB) 1 billion Terabyte (TB) 1 trillion Petabyte (PB) 1 quadrillion Exabyte (EB) 1 quintillion Zettabyte (ZB) 1 sextillion Yottabyte (YB) 1 septillion
  20. 20. Storage How does volatility compare?  Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when power is off  Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily ON OFF Screen Display Display DisplayVolatile appears disappears Memory Data and Data and (most RAM) instructions instructions (chips on motherboard) available to erasedNonvolatile user Storage Medium Contents Contents (hard disks, CDs, DVDs, available to retained USB flash drives, etc.) user
  21. 21. Storage device: Hard- Disc  High-capacity storage, most are housed inside the system unit  Consists of several inflexible, circular platters that magnetically store data, instructions and information electronically  External hard disk—freestanding hard disk that connects to system unit  Removable hard disk—hard disk that you insert and remove from hard disk drive track sector Magnetic disc  use magnetic particles to store items on a disk’s surface. read/wri Magnetic Tape head  is a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic housed in a tape cartridge platter sides cylinder
  22. 22. Other Storage device: Floppy disc  Is an inexpensive portable storage medium Optical Disc  is a portable storage medium that consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written and read by a laser  CD-ROM (Compact disc read-only memory)  CD-RWs (Compact disc-rewritable)  erasable disc you can write on multiple times  CD-R (compact disc-recordable)  disc you can write on once  DVD-ROM (digital versatile disc-ROM or digital video disc-ROM) Online storage microfilm and microfiche
  23. 23. Miniature Mobile Storage MediaWhat is miniature mobile storage media? Storage for small mobile devices •flash memory cards •USB Flash Drive •smart card
  24. 24. Computer SoftwareWhat is software? Consists of a series of instructions that Also called a tells the computer program what to do and how to do itTwo types of software: system software andapplication software
  25. 25. Computer SoftwareWhat is system software? Programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among computer hardware Utility Programs allow the user to devices perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs
  26. 26. Operating SystemsWhat are the functions of an operating system?
  27. 27. Operating Systems Operating system  Microsoft Windows Vista  Microsoft Windows XP  Apple Mac OS X  Linux Booting  Process of starting or restarting a computer Spooling  Sending print jobs to buffer instead of directly to printer Graphical user interface (GUI) – User interacts with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects Program management features of operating systems  Multitasking, multiprocessing, multiuser and fault-tolerant
  28. 28. Operating System Utility ProgramsWhat is a utility program? System software that performs maintenance-type tasks  Also called utility
  29. 29. Application SoftwareWhat is application software? Programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist them with personal tasks
  30. 30. Application SoftwareHow is software distributed? Packaged software, mass-produced Custom software, performs functions specific to a business or industry Web-based software, hosted by a Web site Open source software, provided for use, modification, and redistribution Shareware, copyrighted software that is distributed free for trial period Freeware, copyrighted software provided at no cost Public-domain software, freeware with no copyright restrictions
  31. 31. Communications Devices is a hardware component that enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and information to and from one or more computers  Transmission media  Network through wire or wireless – Telephone lines, cables, cellular radio networks & satellites Used to share Resources Hardware devices Software programs Saves Data time Information and money
  32. 32. Networks and the InternetA network is a collection of computers and devicesconnected together, often wirelessly, viacommunications devices and transmission media Local area network (LAN) Wide area network(WAN)
  33. 33. Networks and the InternetThe world’s largest network is the Internet, which is aworldwide collection of networks that connects millions ofbusinesses, government agencies, educational institutions, andindividuals Internet service provider (ISP) Online service provider (OSP) Wireless Internet service provider (WISP)
  34. 34. Networks and the Internet• The World Wide Web contains billions of documents called Web pages  Web page  Web site  Web browser  Uniform Resource Locator (URL)  Hypertext transfer protocol
  35. 35. Networks and the InternetWhy do users access the Internet?1. Communications2. Research and Information3. Shopping4. Banking and Investing5. Classes6. Entertainment7. Download Music8. Share Information
  36. 36. Networks and the Internet• When you conduct business activities online, you are participating in electronic commerce, also known as e-commerce – Business to consumer (B2C) – Consumer to consumer (C2C) – Business to business (B2B)
  37. 37. Advantages and Disadvantagesof Using ComputersWhat are the advantages of using computers? Speed Reliability Consistency Storage Communications Next
  38. 38. Advantages and Disadvantagesof Using ComputersWhat are the disadvantages of using computers? Violation of Public Safety Privacy Impact on Impact on Health Risks Labor Force Environment
  39. 39. Categories of ComputersWhat are the categories of computers? Personal Computers (desktop) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Game Consoles Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
  40. 40. ServersWhat types of servers are there?A server controls access to networkresources and provides centralizedstorageMainframe Very powerful,expensive computer that supportsthousands of connected usersSupercomputer The fastest, mostpowerful, most expensivecomputer. Used for applicationsrequiring complex mathematicalcalculations
  41. 41. Elements of an Information SystemWhat are information system elements? Hardware Software Data People Procedures
  42. 42. Examples of Computer UsageWhat software is available for a home user? Personal finance management Web access Communications Entertainment
  43. 43. Examples of Computer UsageWhat software is available for a smalloffice/home office (SOHO) user? Productivity software Specialty software Web usage E-mail
  44. 44. Examples of Computer UsageWhat is available fora mobile user? Hardware  Notebook computers  Tablet PCs  Internet-enabled PDAs  Smart phones Software  Word processing  Spreadsheet  Presentation graphics software
  45. 45. Examples of Computer UsageWhat are the needs of a power user? Speed and large amounts of storage Types of power users  Engineers  Scientists  Architects  Desktop publishers  Graphic artists
  46. 46. Examples of Computer UsageWhat are the needs of the large business user? Payroll Inventory E-commerce Desktop publishing
  47. 47. Computer Applications in SocietyWhat are some examplesof computer applicationsin society?  Education  Finance  Government  Health Care  Science  Publishing  Travel  Manufacturing