Introduction to building services part 2


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Introduction to building services part 2

  2. 2. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2 INTRODUCTION • Elements that influence the design of building services system : 1)Moisture 2)Heat 3)Ventilation / Air 4)Lighting 5)Acoustic
  3. 3. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3 1) MOISTURE • Describe the humidity content of water vapor in the air can be expressed as absolute humidity, humidity ratio (relative) or water vapor pressure deficit. • The effect of high air humidity is dew and fog.
  4. 4. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4 1) MOISTUREThe relation with building ? corrosion moldy rotten
  5. 5. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5 DISCUSSION1 • What are likely effect if the moisture content in the building is too high and how do designer reduce it.
  6. 6. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6 2) HEAT • In physics and chemistry, heat is energy in transfer between a system and its surroundings other than by work or transfer of matter • On that matter, a building @ shelter should consider a thermal comfort for human.
  7. 7. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7 2) HEAT • Maintaining this standard of thermal comfort for occupants of buildings or other enclosures is one of the important goals of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) design engineers. • Heat from building can gain from external and internal
  8. 8. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8 2) HEAT • Generally, there are FOUR heat transfer sources within any building, they are: 1.Fabric: Heat losses 2.Ventilation: Heat loss 3.Solar: Heat gains 4.Internal: Heat gains
  9. 9. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9 2) HEAT
  10. 10. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10 2) HEAT • Solar heat gain through windows and/or walls provides a valuable contribution of space heating. • The solar heat gain through a glazed area is calculated by: Q Solar = Area of window x solar intensity x Transmissivity.
  11. 11. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11 2) HEAT • Casual heat gains inside a building provide a valuable source of heat contribution to space heating. • Sources include : occupants lights equipments
  12. 12. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12 DISCUSSION 2 • Find out what is Energy Conservation and propose at least 3 ways of energy conservation in INTI IU Duration : 40 minutes
  13. 13. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13 3) VENTILATION • Process to maintain the level of comfort for temperature, humidity and oxygen in a space with the fresh air flowing from one space to another space to replace the dirty air. • Required air quantity are different depending on the nature of buildings and activities.
  14. 14. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1414 Keep fresh air for respiratory system Oxygen content is enough Control Carbon Dioxide Control the moisture level Lowering the heat level Remove dust and odors 3) VENTILATION
  15. 15. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15 3) VENTILATION • Formula for Air Changes Air changes per hour = quantity of air x occupancy room volume
  16. 16. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16 3) VENTILATION
  17. 17. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17 3) VENTILATION Exercise 1 A maternity ward isolation will be upgraded as virus-infected patients H1N1.Room volume was estimated 20m x 15m and can accommodate as many as 20 patients at one time. Calculate the compressed air in the ward for the installation of air conditioning.
  18. 18. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18 3) VENTILATION Exercise 2 A renovated bungalow want to be a fancy restaurant. Sized 35m x 20m with air compressed of 300m³. Calculate number of users at one time.
  19. 19. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19 3) VENTILATION
  21. 21. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21 3) VENTILATION • Mechanical ventilation systems are frequently applied to commercial buildings, workshops, factories, etc., where the air change requirements are defined for health and welfare provision. • There are three categories of system: 1. Natural inlet and mechanical extract 2. Mechanical inlet and natural extract 3. Mechanical inlet and mechanical extract
  22. 22. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22 3) VENTILATION
  23. 23. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23 3) VENTILATION
  24. 24. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24 3) VENTILATION
  25. 25. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25 3) VENTILATION FANS -Propeller Fan does not create much air pressure and has limited effect in ductwork. Ideal for use at air openings in windows and walls.
  26. 26. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 26 3) VENTILATION FANS -Axial Flow Fan can develop high pressure and is used for moving air through long sections of ductwork. The fan is integral with the run of ducting and does not require a base.
  27. 27. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 27 3) VENTILATION FANS -Centrifugal Fan can produce high pressure and has the capacity for large volumes of air. Most suited to larger installations such as air conditioning systems. It may have one or two inlets. Various forms of impeller can be selected depending on the air condition. Variable impellers and pulley ratios from the detached drive motor make this the most versatile of fans.
  28. 28. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 28 DISCUSSION 1 - Design a suitable natural and mechanical ventilation for High rise office building / School / Factory producing bread. - Explain the function of each and reason why you design that way. Task : 4 person in a group Duration : 45 minutes
  29. 29. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 29 4) LIGHTING • Light travels in straight lines • Light travel very fast – around 300,00 km per second • Light travel much faster than sound.
  30. 30. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 30 4) LIGHTING • Lighting is divided into two types ; 1- Natural lighting / Daylighting 2- Artificial Lighting • What is Daylighting ?
  31. 31. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 31 4) LIGHTING • Opinion poll : Would you rather your office window facing east, south, west or north? • What about your bedroom ?
  32. 32. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 32 4) LIGHTING FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE BRIGHTNESS OF ROOM 1.Natural Brightness 2.Size, Shape and Position of Windows 3.Internal Reflected 4.External Reflected
  33. 33. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 33 4) LIGHTING • The daylight received inside a building can be expressed as the ratio of the illumination at the working point indoors, to the total light available simultaneously outdoors • This can also be expressed as a percentage and it is known as the daylight factor ' .
  34. 34. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 34 4) LIGHTING • The daylight factor includes light from: ● Sky component - light received directly from the sky; excluding direct sunlight. ● External reflected component - light received from exterior reflecting surfaces. ● Internal reflected component - light received from internal reflecting surfaces.
  35. 35. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 35 4) LIGHTING
  36. 36. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 36 • The sum of the three components gives the daylight factor: DF = SC + ERC + IRC SC – Sky Component ERC – Exterior Reflectance Component IRC – Interior Reflectance Component
  37. 37. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 37 4) LIGHTING ARTIFICAL LIGHTING. Definition - electrically generated light in which involve components and switches.
  38. 38. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 38 4) LIGHTING Artifical lighting selection factors : 1.Quantity of light 2.Quality of colour 3.Level of glare 4.Quality of focusing 5.Electric usage 6.Costing 7.Physical properties 8.Amount of natural lighting
  39. 39. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 39 4) LIGHTING Nature of Artificial Lighting
  40. 40. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 40 4) LIGHTING
  41. 41. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 41 4) LIGHTING General Lighting •provide uniform illumination across the working plane •lamps are mounted in the systematic and structured. •Advantage : work location can be changed without changing position lamp •Disadvantage : the same level of radiation for the location of critical and critical space
  42. 42. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 42
  43. 43. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 43 4) LIGHTING Localised Lighting • order to give light irradiation required to work at locations and also a minimal irradiation at other non-work location. •Advantage : use less electricity than general lighting •Disadvantage : work location can not be changing without modified the position of lights.
  44. 44. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 44
  45. 45. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 45 4) LIGHTING Local Lighting • The required irradiation only for small work area. •must be accompanied by adequate general lighting for some of the passages and other areas that are not critical. •Advantage : save the electric and separate control •Disadvantages : high maintenance cost
  46. 46. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 46
  47. 47. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 47 4) LIGHTING Calculation for determining the lights LUMEN METHOD E x A I x UF x MF E= Lux A = Room Area I = lumen UF = utility factor MF = maintenance factor
  48. 48. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 48 4) LIGHTING A room measuring 18m x 15m require illumination at 330 lux level work, which required high light is 3m above the table. The proposed light opalescent light with 80watt and 4800lumen. Calculate the number of lights. (UF = 0.6 , MF = 0.95)
  49. 49. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 49 4) LIGHTING INSTALLATION OF LIGHT
  50. 50. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 50 4) LIGHTING Direct Lighting •all light emitted directly down one point. •illuminate only a small part of the surface consists of limited range •suitable for horizontal area or with an unobstructed surface.
  51. 51. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 51 4) LIGHTING Half-direct Lighting •produce 60% to 90% of the light output directly heading down and the top remains to illuminate the ceiling. •through the walls of sufficient brightness quantity of light produced can pose a comfortable working environment. •common place such as offices, classrooms and work areas.
  52. 52. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 52 4) LIGHTING Indirect Lighting •produce light output between 90% and 100% of the light produced directly on the ceiling and walls •often associated with waste light source.
  53. 53. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 53 4) LIGHTING Half-indirect Lighting •produce a light output of 60% to 90% of the light emitted directly into the ceiling and walls Direct-Indirect Lighting •provide equal light at the top and bottom
  54. 54. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 54 4) LIGHTING LIGHTING CONTROL Function : •ensure that the system operates only when needed. •operating at the level that have been determined •can change the level of light output
  55. 55. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 55 4) LIGHTING TYPE OF CONTROL 1.Manual switch 2.Remote switch 3.Timer switch 4.Photo-electric cell switch
  56. 56. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 56 4) LIGHTING TYPE OF LAMP 1)Incandescent -First introduced to the public by Thomas Alva Edison at December 31, 1879 -The flow of electric current through the filament then heats up and produces photons -In broad terms, incandescent lamps are cheap to install but expensive to run
  57. 57. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 57 4) LIGHTING 2) Tungsten Halogen -These lamps are filled with a halogen gas, usually bromide or iodine - This allows much higher operating temperatures which require special bulbs, usually made from quartz or fused silica. - has a very compact envelope which makes it an excellent lamp where optical control is important
  58. 58. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 58 4) LIGHTING Electric Discharge Lamp 1)Fluorescent 2)Low Pressure Sodium Vapor 3)High Pressure Mercury Vapor
  59. 59. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 59 4) LIGHTING
  60. 60. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 60 4) LIGHTING LOCATION OF EMERGENCY LIGHTING 1.Markers that indicate travel / direction from one place to another 2.The use of lighting in the emergency lane 3.Exit and change direction 4.Fire equipment 5.Special area
  61. 61. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 61 5) ACOUSTIC • Definition - an interdisciplinary field of knowledge possessed by scientists and human sciences • Objective - produce a controlled conditions in the building to feel the comfort of the human senses.
  62. 62. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 62 5) ACOUSTIC • The human ear is capable of hearing sounds within a limited range.
  63. 63. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 63 5) ACOUSTIC • Animals have varied hearing ranges
  64. 64. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 64 5) ACOUSTIC • Many animals hear a much wider range of frequencies than human beings do. • For example, dog whistles vibrate at a higher frequency than the human ear can detect, while evidence suggests that dolphins and whales communicate at frequencies beyond human hearing (ultrasound). • Frequency is measured in hertz, or the number of sound waves a vibrating object gives off per second. The more the object vibrates, the higher the frequency and the higher the pitch of the resulting sound.
  65. 65. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 65 5) ACOUSTIC Acoustic Control in A Building 1.Reflection 2.Continuation 3.Absorption Source absorption continuation
  66. 66. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 66 5) ACOUSTIC ACOUSTIC MATERIAL •Purpose - lowering the noise level in a reverberation or canal space. •Factors : 1.Type of acoustic material 2.Cost 3.Density 4.Fire proof 5.Moisture resistance 6.Physical factors 7.Aesthetic value
  67. 67. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 67 5) ACOUSTIC
  68. 68. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 68 5) ACOUSTIC POROUS ABSORBER •2 types which is plate and bulk •if thick absorbent material thinner than the wavelength of sound ; it called PLATE •If thick of absorbent material is thicker than the wavelength of sound; it called BULK
  69. 69. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 69 5) ACOUSTIC • PLATE ACOUSTIC MATERIAL Glass wool fiber Mineral wool fiber
  70. 70. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 70 5) ACOUSTIC• BULK ACOUSTIC MATERIAL Curtain Carpet Acoustic comforter Acoustic plaster
  71. 71. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 71 5) ACOUSTIC • CAVITY RESONATOR - Used in place that require / use robust. - Example ; cinema / bowling arena/ theater stage
  72. 72. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 72 5) ACOUSTIC • Noise control in architecture can be done through ; 1.Placement space 2.Using the cover of the machinery 3.Using vibration isolator
  73. 73. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 73 DISCUSSION • Please indicate the appropriate method for controlling the noise of : 1.Cooling tower 2.Compressor 3.Ventilation ducting Duration : 45 minutes Task : 2 person in a group