Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

John carroll’s model of school learning


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

John carroll’s model of school learning

  1. 1. John Carroll’s Model of School Learning in 1963, John Carroll proposed a model to account for school learning. His major premise was that school learning is a function of time. To be more specific, Carroll proposed that school time spent learning = f time needed
  2. 2. Allocated Perseverance-the TIME ON TASK time Opportunity- extent to which Engagement (amount Amount of time student take rate(percenta of time f available for advantage of the ge of allocated available learning opportunity to learn time students for were paying learning) attention Time = spentSchool learning f Time needed f Quality of Aptitude instruction the ability methods and to learn techniques Ability to understand academic instruction the preparedness of material the student for understanding (IQ) the specific material to be learned (prerequisite knowledge)
  3. 3. Learning (output) = f(context, input and classroom processes Academic learning time is a measured of the QUALITY as well as QUANTITY of time. It is the amount of time students are successfully covering content thah will be tested A high level of Academic Learning Time means that 2)Student are covering important (tested/evaluated) content 2) Students are “on task” most of the class period and 3) Students are successful on most the assingments they complete
  4. 4. Time Needed If “time to learn” isIf “time to learn” is held allowed to VARYCONSTANT (all students (students receive as receive the same much time as they needamount of time-to-learn to learn important regardless of aptitude), content), thenthen academic, aptitude prerequisite knowledge is the most important and quality of variable related to time instruction become needed. more important.
  5. 5. Time Needed If “time to learn” is If “time to learn” is held allowed to VARY CONSTANT (all students (students receive as receive the same much time as they need amount of time-to-learn to learn important regardless of aptitude), content), then then academic aptitude prerequisite knowledge is the most important and quality of variable related to time instruction become needed. more important.Pelajar berprestasi tinggi kerana Pelajar berprestasi tinggi pelajar itu bagus kerana guru itu bagus
  6. 6. Self ConceptHow one views or feels about the self. Thisconcept is learned as you experienced theworld through your senses and perception
  7. 7. Formation of the Self-Concept•Built from information from others• Built from information from ourselves• Once a self-concept is formed, it is difficult to change• How you view yourself and the wayothers view you can different
  8. 8. Self-Concept ang Self-Esteem Self-concept is a cognitive appraisal of our social, physical, and academic competence (a measure of such things are our skill in various subject areas, our assessment of our appearance, and the skill we have in peer relationship).Academic skills physical Social skills cognitive Self-Esteem is the affective or emotional reaction to one’s self-concept (reflects a person’s overall confidence and satisfaction with oneself)
  9. 9. Positive and Negative Self-conceptPositive self-concept Negative self-conceptYou are motivated to do something You lack motivation because, when youbecause you have often been successful have tried new things before, you often did not do very wellYou are confident in social situations You lack confidence, especially whenbecause you usually get on well with meeting new people, new people makepeople you feel anxious as you fear you will have nothing to sayYou are generally happy with life You are unhappy a lot of the timeYou have enough self-confidence to cope You often find life difficult and do notwith new challenges and to view them enjoy new challenges, as you are afraid ofpositively failure
  10. 10. Self-Efficacy• High self-efficacy -believe can deal effectively with life events -confident in abilities -expect to overcome obstacles effectively• Low self-efficacy -feel unable to exercise control over life -low confidence, believe all efforts are futile
  11. 11. Recap
  12. 12. Definitions• SELF-CONCEPT -the sum total of the ways in which we think about ourselves• SELF ESTEEM -how highly we think about our abilities and ourself• SELF IMAGE -How we view ourself based on others reaction to us
  13. 13. Influences to Self-Concept Life experiences age Sexual orientationrelationships Self-concept appearance education gender culture Emotional maturity
  14. 14. Improving Children’s Self-EsteemEncourage and facilitate -competence in area students find important -improvement of academic skills through the use of professional tutors, parent volunteers, and peer tutors -emotional support and social approval by parents, friends, and peers -social skills that positive peer relationship -coping skills to face the day to day problem as they appear
  15. 15. Meneroka motivasi Motivasi melibatkan proses yang mengekalkantenaga untuk tingkahlaku berterusan menumpu ke satu hajat tertentu -4 perspektif-
  16. 16. 1. Perspektif tingkahlaku menekankan ganjaran dan dendaan luaran sebagai kunci menentukan motivasi pelajar
  17. 17. 2.Perspektif kognitif fokus kepada motivasi dalaman, untuk berjaya pelajarpercaya yang mereka boleh mengawal persekitaran mereka.
  18. 18. 3. Perspektif sosial need for affiliationmembina dan mengekalkan perhubungan yang rapat, mesra.
  19. 19. Perspektif HumanistikMenekankan kemempuanpelajar untuk berkembangdan kebebasan pelajarmemilih halatujunya sendiri
  20. 20. Motivasi dan pembelajaran Motivasi untuk berjaya Motivasiekstrinsik dan Jangkaan guru interistik Lain-lain Kerisauan dan proses kognitif pencapaian
  21. 21. Motivasi untuk berjaya Pelajar dengan Pelajar dengan motivasi intrinsik motivasi ekstrinsik •Pamerkan self-• melakukan sesuatu untuk determination dengan mendapatkan sesuatu melakukan sesuatu ituyang lain kerana ianya.• terpengaruh dengan •Motivation meningkatganjaran dan dendaan bila diberi peluang buat pilihan
  22. 22. Motivasi untuk berjaya Student’s perceived level of their own skillStudent’s Low Highperceived Low APATHY BOREDOMlevel of High ANXIETY FLOWchallenge Flow terjadi: •Bila mempunyai masteri dan terpaut kepada aktiviti •Bila pelajar dicabar dan merasakan mereka mempunyai kemahiran yang mencukupi
  23. 23. Motivasi untuk berjaya Efikasi kendiri Ajar strategi yang spesifik Pastikan pelajar jangan terlalu risau (penting pelajar ada kerisauan yang mencukupi)Bantu pelajar rancang matlamat jangka pendek dan jangka panjangSediakan sokongan orang dewasa yang positif dan model rakan sebaya
  24. 24. Motivation to Achieve Attribution TheoryAttribution theory: In their effort to make sense of their own behavior of performance, individuals are motivated to discover its underlying causes1)Locus: students who perceive their success as being due to internel factors (i.e., effort) are more likely to have higher self-esteem2)stability: If a student attributes positive outcome to a stable cause, there is an expectation of future success3) Controllability: Failure due to external factors causes anger. Failure due to internal factors may cause guilt
  25. 25. Motivation to AchieveAttribution Theory (Locus-stability- controlbility) Give ForCombination of causal Reason StudentAttributions FailureInternal stable uncontrollable Low aptitudeInternal stable controllable Never studyInternal unstable Slick the day of the restuncontrollableInternal unstable controllable Did not study for this particular testExternal stable uncontrollable School has tough requirementsExternal stable controllable The instructor is biasedExternal unstable Bad luckuncontrollableExternal unstable controllable Friends failed to help
  26. 26. Motivation to Achieve Mastery MotivationMastery orientation -Student focus is on the task rather than their ability - Generate solution-oriented strategies.(criteria ref based)Helpless orientation - Students focus on their personal inadequaciesPerformance - Being concerned with the outcomeorientation rather than the process. (norm ref based)
  27. 27. Motivation, Teaching And Learning Motivation, Relationship, and Sociocultural contexsSocialmotives Sociocultural Social contexts relationships
  28. 28. Motivation, relationships, and socioculture contexts social relationships Motivation Parents to AchieveShould provide the rightamount of challenge in a Teachers positive environment Optimize achievementand model achievement when they provide behavior challenging tasks in a supportive environment Peers With high achievement standarts will support student achievement in others
  29. 29. Motivation, Relationships, and Sociocultural Contexts Sociocultural Contexts TEACHERS WHO CARE TEACHERS WHO DO NOT CARETeaching behaviors Makes an effort to make Teachers in a boring way, class interesting, teachers gets off task, teacheers in a special way while students aren’t paying attentionCommunication style Talks to me, pays attention, Ignores asks questions, listens interrupts,screams,yells Is honest and fair, keeps Embarrassers, insults promises, trusts me, tells the truthConcern about individuals Asks what’s wrong, talks to Forget name, does nothing me about my problems, when I do something acts as a friend, asks when wrong, doesn’t explain I need help, takes time to things or answer questions, make sure I understand, doesn’t to help me calls on me
  30. 30. Motivation, Relationships, and Sociocultural Contexts Sociocultural Contexts ethnicity there is DIVERSITY in achievement motivation within ethnic minority groups socioeconomic status when ethnicity and socioeconomics status (SES) are investigated in the same study, SES is often the better predictor of achievement
  31. 31. Motivation, relationships, and Sociocultural Contexts sociocultural Contexts Males Females•Have higher competence •Have higher competencebeliefs in math and sports beliefs in english, reading, and socio activities•Are more rambunctious •Often experience conflicts between gender roles and achievement•Receive more teacher attention •Are more complaint, get less teacher attention, by middle school have lower self-esteem•List more career options
  32. 32. Motivation, Teaching and Learning Hard-to-reach and Low-Achieving StudentsDiscouraged Uninterested or students Aliented Students
  33. 33. Hard-to-Reach, Low-Achieving Students Discourage Students Failure Syndrome •Increase Low self-efficacy Protection of Achievers retraining Self-Worth by with Low and AvoidingExpectations altribution Failure •Provide training •Includes non- constant performance, reassurance procrastination as long as and student inappropriatedemonstrates goal setting effort
  34. 34. Hard-to-Reach, Low-Achieving Students uninterested or Alienated Students3. Develop positive teacher- student relationships.4. Make school more interesting5. Teach strategies to make learning enjoyable6. Consider including a mentor
  35. 35. Families of Learning/Cognitive Style