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By:
NOOR MUNIRAH BINTI AWANG ABU BAKAR
CHONG CHENYEE
Optometrist
INTRODUCTION-ION
Giant cell arteritis
Non-inflammatory cause
• Ischemic Optic Neuropathy- Acute ischemia of the optic nerve
• Common Optic Neuropathy in elderly.
• ~Age of 55 to 77 years old.
Acute ischemia
of the anterior
part of the optic
nerve (ONH),
which is
supplied mainly
by the posterior
ciliary arteries.
Acute ischemia
of the posterior
part of the optic
nerve
Symptoms:
• Acute vision loss one or both eyes
• Painless
Signs:
• VF loss
• RAPD +ve
• Swollen Optic Disc (AION) + flame
haemorhage
INTRODUCTION-ION
•This is the most SERIOUS type of ION
•Primary cause of AAION is due to a disease
called giant cell arteritis(GCA) or temporal
arteritis.
• Giant cell arteritis is a systemic inflammatory
(vasculitis) condition that causes swelling of the
medium-sized and large arteries in the head.
• GCA typically affects the superficial temporal
arteries.
•Other rare causes include other types of
vasculitis, e.g. , polyarteritis nodosa, systemic
lupus erythematosus, and herpes zoster
•Female, 60’s
INTRODUCTION
•In the eye, GCA has a special predilection to involve the posterior ciliary artery, resulting in
its thrombotic occlusion, cause the development of AAION and visual loss.
PATHOGENESIS
(Hayreh, S.S. 1974)
PATHOGENESIS
Occlusion of the posterior ciliary artery results in
infarction of a segment or the entire optic nerve
head
Depending upon the area of the optic nerve head
supplied by the occluded posterior ciliary artery
Abbreviations: A = arachnoid; C = choroid; CRA = central retinal artery; Col. Br. = Collateral branches; CRV = central retinal vein; D = dura; LC = lamina
cribrosa; NFL = surface nerve fiber layer of the disc; OD = optic disc; ON = optic nerve; P = pia; PCA = posterior ciliary artery; PR / PLR = prelaminar
region; R = retina; RA = retinal arteriole; S = sclera; SAS = subarachnoid space.
(Hayreh, S.S. 1974)
1. Age: Fifty years of age or older at onset.
2. Gender : 3 times more common in women than
in men
3. Race: Common among Caucasians > other races
4. Giant cell arteritis
5. New onset of localized headache.
6. Temporal artery pulse.
7. Elevated ESR.
8. Positive temporal artery biopsy.
RISK FACTOR
CLINICAL FEATURES (Ocular)
CLINICAL FEATURES :
Pale and swollen optic disc
Pale optic disc edema with adjacent
retina infarcted
Chalky white pale,swollen and
hyperemic optic disc
CLINICAL FEATURES -Optic Disc
Fundus photographs of right eye
with A-AION:
(A)Before developing A-AION
(B)One week after developing A-
AION with chalky white optic disc
edema and
(C)4 months later showing optic
disc cupping with a cup/disc ratio
of 0.8 (note no cup in A)
Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy.
Progress in retinal and eye research 28: 34-62
CLINICAL FEATURES :
Visual field defect (Altitudinal & inferiorly)
PRESENTATION (Physical)
• The diagnostic work-up for GCA includes
1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >47mm
2. C-reactive protein >2.45 MG/DL
3. Fluorescein fundus angiographic (FFA): Critical
diagnostic test for A-AION during the early stages 
shows thrombosis and occlusion of the posterior ciliary
artery in GCA
4. Jaw Claudication
5. Neck pain
WORK UP : AAION
(Kanski, 2003 & Hayreh, 2011)
WORK UP: FFA finding
Fundus photograph (A) and fluorescein fundus angiogram (B) of right eye with A-AION and
cilioretinal artery occlusion during the initial stages. (A) Fundus photograph shows chalky white
optic disc edema with retinal infarct in the distribution of occluded cilioretinal artery. (B)
Fluorescein fundus angiogram shows evidence of occlusion of the medial posterior ciliary artery
and no filling of the cilioretinal artery.
Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy.
Progress in retinal and eye research 28: 34-62
• AAION is EMERGENCY case. Early treatment is essential.
• Aim of treatment:To prevent blindness of the fellow eye.
• Treatment: (steroid therapy)
• High dose systemic corticosteroid (IV methylprednisolone & oral prednisolone) for
several months.
• Temporal artery biopsy- within 3 days of treatment
• Duration of treatment: ~1 to 2 years
• Prognosis-POOR
• Visual loss is usually permanent.
• Visual recovery of the affected eye that has treatment is poor with a 15-34%
improvement rate.
TREATMENT & PROGNOSIS
PATHOGENESIS
Partial OR total
infarction of the
optic nerve head
caused by
occlusion of the
short posterior
ciliary arteries.
PREDISPOSITION
1. Structural crowding of the ONH
2. Hypertension
3. Diabetes Mellitus
4. Hypercholesterolemia
5. Sudden Hypotensive event
6. Sleep Apnoea Syndrome
7. Administration of sildenafil
PRESENTATION
1. Sudden onset
2. Painless
3. Monocular
4. Always discovered on awakening
5. Nocturnal Hypotension
VISUAL LOSS
SIGNS
PARAMETER FINDING
Visual Acuity Often better than 20/100.
Visual Field Typically Inferior Altitudinal defect.
Colour Vision May be severely impaired when VA is good.
Ophthalmic Exam Findings Diffuse OR sectorial hyperaemic disc swelling
associated with FEW peripapillary splinter-
shaped haemorrhages.
Small OR cupless disc in fellow eye.
Swelling gradually resolves and pallor in 3-6
weeks after onset.
FA Finding Acute Stage: localized disc hyperfluorescence,
intense, eventually involves entire disc.
Laboratory Evaluation No associated laboratory abnormalities.
TREATMENT
• No definitive treatment.
• Aspirin is effective in reducing systemic vascular events.
• But does not reduce risk of involvement of the fellow eye.
PROGNOSIS
Condition Prognosis
No further loss of vision Very small percentage
Recurrences in the same eye ~6%
Involvement of the FELLOW eye ~10% after 2 years
~15% after 5 years
2 Important Factors caused
involvement of FELLOW eye
Poor VA in 1st
eye
DM
Signs of FELLOW eye involvement 1 eye optic atrophy
(Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome) Another eye disc edema
1. Systemic symptoms GCA : Patients with NA-AION have no systemic symptoms of giant
cell arteritis.
2. Visual symptoms: Amaurosis fugax is highly suggestive of AAION and is extremely rare
in NA-AION.
3. Hematologic abnormalities:Elevated ESR and CRP, particularly CRP, is helpful in the
diagnosis of GCA. Patients with NA-AION do not show any of these abnormalities.
4. Early massive visual loss: Extremely suggestive of A-AION.
5. Chalky white optic disc edema: This is almost diagnostic of A-AION and is seen in 69%
of AAION eyes. In NAAION, chalky white optic disc edema occurs only very rarely with
embolic occlusion of the posterior ciliary artery.
6. AAION associated with cilioretinal artery occlusion .This is almost diagnostic of
AAION.
7. Fluorescein fundus angiography: Evidence of posterior ciliary artery occlusion in
AAION.
8. Temporal artery biopsy.
DIFFERENTIATION :
AAION FROM NAAION
•Provides low vision aids for distance and near.
• For example: Magnifier, telescope etc.
•Explain on monocular cues.
•Advise patient to take care of remaining good eye.
OPTOMETRIC MANAGEMENT:
AION & AAION
1. Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy. Progress in retinal and eye
research 28: 34-62
2. Hayreh SS (1974) Anatomy and physiology of the optic nerve head.
Transactions - AmericanAcademy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology
78: OP240-254
3. Kanski, J.J. 2003. Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach.
Butterworth-Heinemann.
REFERENCES:
THANKYOU

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AION Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

  • 1. By: NOOR MUNIRAH BINTI AWANG ABU BAKAR CHONG CHENYEE Optometrist
  • 2. INTRODUCTION-ION Giant cell arteritis Non-inflammatory cause • Ischemic Optic Neuropathy- Acute ischemia of the optic nerve • Common Optic Neuropathy in elderly. • ~Age of 55 to 77 years old. Acute ischemia of the anterior part of the optic nerve (ONH), which is supplied mainly by the posterior ciliary arteries. Acute ischemia of the posterior part of the optic nerve
  • 3. Symptoms: • Acute vision loss one or both eyes • Painless Signs: • VF loss • RAPD +ve • Swollen Optic Disc (AION) + flame haemorhage INTRODUCTION-ION
  • 4.
  • 5. •This is the most SERIOUS type of ION •Primary cause of AAION is due to a disease called giant cell arteritis(GCA) or temporal arteritis. • Giant cell arteritis is a systemic inflammatory (vasculitis) condition that causes swelling of the medium-sized and large arteries in the head. • GCA typically affects the superficial temporal arteries. •Other rare causes include other types of vasculitis, e.g. , polyarteritis nodosa, systemic lupus erythematosus, and herpes zoster •Female, 60’s INTRODUCTION
  • 6. •In the eye, GCA has a special predilection to involve the posterior ciliary artery, resulting in its thrombotic occlusion, cause the development of AAION and visual loss. PATHOGENESIS (Hayreh, S.S. 1974)
  • 7. PATHOGENESIS Occlusion of the posterior ciliary artery results in infarction of a segment or the entire optic nerve head Depending upon the area of the optic nerve head supplied by the occluded posterior ciliary artery Abbreviations: A = arachnoid; C = choroid; CRA = central retinal artery; Col. Br. = Collateral branches; CRV = central retinal vein; D = dura; LC = lamina cribrosa; NFL = surface nerve fiber layer of the disc; OD = optic disc; ON = optic nerve; P = pia; PCA = posterior ciliary artery; PR / PLR = prelaminar region; R = retina; RA = retinal arteriole; S = sclera; SAS = subarachnoid space. (Hayreh, S.S. 1974)
  • 8. 1. Age: Fifty years of age or older at onset. 2. Gender : 3 times more common in women than in men 3. Race: Common among Caucasians > other races 4. Giant cell arteritis 5. New onset of localized headache. 6. Temporal artery pulse. 7. Elevated ESR. 8. Positive temporal artery biopsy. RISK FACTOR
  • 10. CLINICAL FEATURES : Pale and swollen optic disc Pale optic disc edema with adjacent retina infarcted Chalky white pale,swollen and hyperemic optic disc
  • 11. CLINICAL FEATURES -Optic Disc Fundus photographs of right eye with A-AION: (A)Before developing A-AION (B)One week after developing A- AION with chalky white optic disc edema and (C)4 months later showing optic disc cupping with a cup/disc ratio of 0.8 (note no cup in A) Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy. Progress in retinal and eye research 28: 34-62
  • 12. CLINICAL FEATURES : Visual field defect (Altitudinal & inferiorly)
  • 14. • The diagnostic work-up for GCA includes 1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) >47mm 2. C-reactive protein >2.45 MG/DL 3. Fluorescein fundus angiographic (FFA): Critical diagnostic test for A-AION during the early stages  shows thrombosis and occlusion of the posterior ciliary artery in GCA 4. Jaw Claudication 5. Neck pain WORK UP : AAION (Kanski, 2003 & Hayreh, 2011)
  • 15. WORK UP: FFA finding Fundus photograph (A) and fluorescein fundus angiogram (B) of right eye with A-AION and cilioretinal artery occlusion during the initial stages. (A) Fundus photograph shows chalky white optic disc edema with retinal infarct in the distribution of occluded cilioretinal artery. (B) Fluorescein fundus angiogram shows evidence of occlusion of the medial posterior ciliary artery and no filling of the cilioretinal artery. Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy. Progress in retinal and eye research 28: 34-62
  • 16. • AAION is EMERGENCY case. Early treatment is essential. • Aim of treatment:To prevent blindness of the fellow eye. • Treatment: (steroid therapy) • High dose systemic corticosteroid (IV methylprednisolone & oral prednisolone) for several months. • Temporal artery biopsy- within 3 days of treatment • Duration of treatment: ~1 to 2 years • Prognosis-POOR • Visual loss is usually permanent. • Visual recovery of the affected eye that has treatment is poor with a 15-34% improvement rate. TREATMENT & PROGNOSIS
  • 17.
  • 18. PATHOGENESIS Partial OR total infarction of the optic nerve head caused by occlusion of the short posterior ciliary arteries.
  • 19. PREDISPOSITION 1. Structural crowding of the ONH 2. Hypertension 3. Diabetes Mellitus 4. Hypercholesterolemia 5. Sudden Hypotensive event 6. Sleep Apnoea Syndrome 7. Administration of sildenafil
  • 20. PRESENTATION 1. Sudden onset 2. Painless 3. Monocular 4. Always discovered on awakening 5. Nocturnal Hypotension VISUAL LOSS
  • 21. SIGNS PARAMETER FINDING Visual Acuity Often better than 20/100. Visual Field Typically Inferior Altitudinal defect. Colour Vision May be severely impaired when VA is good. Ophthalmic Exam Findings Diffuse OR sectorial hyperaemic disc swelling associated with FEW peripapillary splinter- shaped haemorrhages. Small OR cupless disc in fellow eye. Swelling gradually resolves and pallor in 3-6 weeks after onset. FA Finding Acute Stage: localized disc hyperfluorescence, intense, eventually involves entire disc. Laboratory Evaluation No associated laboratory abnormalities.
  • 22.
  • 23. TREATMENT • No definitive treatment. • Aspirin is effective in reducing systemic vascular events. • But does not reduce risk of involvement of the fellow eye.
  • 24. PROGNOSIS Condition Prognosis No further loss of vision Very small percentage Recurrences in the same eye ~6% Involvement of the FELLOW eye ~10% after 2 years ~15% after 5 years 2 Important Factors caused involvement of FELLOW eye Poor VA in 1st eye DM Signs of FELLOW eye involvement 1 eye optic atrophy (Pseudo-Foster Kennedy Syndrome) Another eye disc edema
  • 25. 1. Systemic symptoms GCA : Patients with NA-AION have no systemic symptoms of giant cell arteritis. 2. Visual symptoms: Amaurosis fugax is highly suggestive of AAION and is extremely rare in NA-AION. 3. Hematologic abnormalities:Elevated ESR and CRP, particularly CRP, is helpful in the diagnosis of GCA. Patients with NA-AION do not show any of these abnormalities. 4. Early massive visual loss: Extremely suggestive of A-AION. 5. Chalky white optic disc edema: This is almost diagnostic of A-AION and is seen in 69% of AAION eyes. In NAAION, chalky white optic disc edema occurs only very rarely with embolic occlusion of the posterior ciliary artery. 6. AAION associated with cilioretinal artery occlusion .This is almost diagnostic of AAION. 7. Fluorescein fundus angiography: Evidence of posterior ciliary artery occlusion in AAION. 8. Temporal artery biopsy. DIFFERENTIATION : AAION FROM NAAION
  • 26. •Provides low vision aids for distance and near. • For example: Magnifier, telescope etc. •Explain on monocular cues. •Advise patient to take care of remaining good eye. OPTOMETRIC MANAGEMENT: AION & AAION
  • 27. 1. Hayreh SS (2009) Ischemic optic neuropathy. Progress in retinal and eye research 28: 34-62 2. Hayreh SS (1974) Anatomy and physiology of the optic nerve head. Transactions - AmericanAcademy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology 78: OP240-254 3. Kanski, J.J. 2003. Clinical Ophthalmology: A Systematic Approach. Butterworth-Heinemann. REFERENCES: