ICT is short for Information Communication Technology. It stresses the role of cohesive communication and the incorporation of telecommunications, computers as well as essential enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, accumulate, transmit, and control information.
A lot of what we do in some way involves technology but we mostly are unaware of it and likely do not understand. Some educators and researchers believe that the efficiencies that technology provides us benefit us in all kinds of ways, while other people are concerned that technology is becoming part of our daily lives. These people feel that technology’s invasive, destructive, and dissocializing nature is leading us to trouble. Yet there cannot justify their assumptions because technology makes life much easier even though it is costly. For an example there is a gain or a loss when students read from the screen instead of from a hard copy of a book or when they take classes online instead of face to face or when they use Internet resources instead of those from the library. If technology users carefully consider both the advantages andshortcomings of technology use, they are more likely to maximize the gains and minimize the losses.
The increasing pervasiveness of ICT has influenced a broad variety of jobs, with considerable consequences for skills requirements in the labour force. This has an influence on the formal educational system, as well as serious additional measures targeting those outside the system. At the same time, ICT provides opportunities and tools for enhancing the learning experience. As a result there is a need for teacher professional development in order to integrate ICT in their teaching because by the look of things ICT could bring a whole lot of innovation in the education system as the value technology brings to individuals is already evident.
A human society, in which knowledge could be a force for changing the society by bringing justice, solidarity, democracy and peace. A society which should provide universal and equitable access to information.(UNESCO)
As educators, we want not only an Information Society, but a Knowledge Society, enabling all children and all people to access Knowledge and to gain from being educated. Education is a key focus in the Knowledge Society, and Educators have a major mission. Particularly, it is the responsibility of all educators and decision-makers around the world to help initiating countries take part in the developments of ICT in Education.
Six major areas will shape a beneficial use of ICT in education. These include Digital solidarity which requires strong and joint actions of all stakeholders to assure the right of participation in the digital society for all students in the world. Learners and lifelong learning in which the content and the methods of initial education must take into account preparation for lifelong learning because everybody in the knowledge society is a lifelong learner and ICT is the tool for that. Decision making strategies In order to help make decisions meet the real needs, bridging research, practice, experimentation, innovation with decision making is essential. Networking which in Education offer many ways to access knowledge, offer many possibilities for networking people and developing collaborative work .Research which needs to continue on the development of ICT and their applications. Teachers in the Knowledge Society require new specific competencies whereby they teacher has to deal with new knowledge, new ways for accessing knowledge; with a networked world and with new types of collaboration with a society in which knowledge plays a fundamental role with lifelong learning. (Prof.Bernard CORNU(INRP, CNED-EIFAD, France))
In order to develop teacher competency relating to information communication technology there has been proposed strategies that are aimed at ensuring that practicing teachers and student teachers are well equipped to function productively in schools in terms of ICT. According to the Department Of Education Guidelines for Teacher Training Book and White Paper 7 of e-education, Standards for professional competency in ICT operation will consider the entry, adoption, adaption, appropriation and innovation competencies within an outcomes-based concept.
Every teacher, manager and administrator in General and Further Education andTraining should be trained and have reached the adoption level in terms of knowledge, skills, values and attitude to ICT, utilisation of ICT application programmes, technical skills and accessing and using electronic information and communication resources..
This simply imply that they should have the knowledge and skills to computer and application software and also be able use various technologies to support management, administration, teaching and learning and be able to teach learners how to use ICT whereby the teacher believes that ICT contributes to and can change teaching, learning and administration
Through continuing professional development and advanced certificate of education programmes, at least 60% of teachers with access to ICT should reach adaption level and 20% appropriation level in which they have the knowledge, skills and values to integrate ICT into teaching and learning positively and with confidence, and understands the educational value and potential of ICT in teaching and learning .
Furthermore, at least 10% of practicing teachers should reach the innovation level whereby they are able to create a new learning environment that uses ICT as a flexible tool for the whole school development and for collaborative and interactive learning. These can be achieved through compulsory ICT courses offered by all higher education institutions.
The Department of Education must develop a national framework for competencies for educators and the use of ICT as a flexible tool for teaching and learning must be integrated into pre-service and in service training. This will include legal and ethical issues, evaluation of software and the use of ICTs to address learners who experience barriers to learning. There will be a need to generate suitable accreditation within the National Qualifications Framework, modifying the Norms and Standards for Educators, and checking Department of Education in-service training policies and programmes to enable teachers to use ICT properly.
Each school will be appointed a teacher who is trained according to outcome-based paradigm who is also not a stuff member to manage ICT facilities and support the use of ICT in the community. Motivation and support will be provided to teachers and other stakeholders to integrate technology in their daily activities and areas or responsibility and the Department of Education will also encourage teachers to purchase computers and access to internet for personal use, which will facilitate technology innovation.
Education is a basic human right, a pathway to maximise individual potential, extend freedoms, build capabilities and open up opportunities. Quality education will equip and empower future generations with the ever changing and skills and competencies needed to achieve sustainable development.
We can ensure that everyone receives quality education by expanding early childhood development care and education, Provide free and compulsory primary school education to all, Promote learning and life skills for young people, increase adult literacy by 50 percent, achieve gender priority and equality and attract more and better teacher paramount and also develop an inclusive curriculum.(Learning For All: DFID’s Education) Strategy 2010–2015
In order to ensure quality education in South Africa by 2030, there is a need to lay a solid foundation for a healthy life and higher educational and scientific attainment, this relates to childhood development, basic education, further education and training and higher education.
Early childhood development is crucial in ensuring that the child is able to reach their full potential, therefore it is important there are services and programmes developed support the entire development of a child. These programmes have to be flexible enough to respond to the children’s needs, their families and the communities.
To overcome our apartheid legacy, it is important that everyone gets access to these services regardless of who they are and their status in the community especially the vulnerable children who are living in poverty and those with disability.
Measures will need to be put in place to ensure that women plan their pregnancy and teenage pregnancy does not become a problem for any longer. Pregnant women will need to get access to emotional and material support to ensure healthy pregnancy. Children will need to be nurtured so that they grow up healthy, nourished, physically fit, cared for in a stable environment that supports learning so that they can learn to interact with those around them and not be held back by the socio-economic status of their family
Since teachers are central to education and teaching, there is a need to build a properly qualified, professional, competent and committed teaching, academic, research and public service core.This implies that there will have to be highly trained professionals with the necessary knowledge pedagogy especially those of maths and science to lead the public and private sectors to increase innovation and socio economic development. We should inspire a future where teachers are acknowledged for their hard work and professionalism. Associations such as the South African council for educators and specialist maths, science and other subject-specific associations need to play a primary role in continuing development of teachers and the promotion of professional principles.
The education system needs to improve constantly and therefore there is a need to build a strong and coherent set of institutions for delivering quality education, science and technology, innovation, training and skills development. Developing a common perceptive within government in particular the Department of Education and Training, Department of trade industry, public enterprises, treasury, economic development on how to promote the role of science and technology in shaping the society, the future of the country and the development path is also essential.
It is imperative to create an educational and national system that serves the needs of the society. This can be done through increasing the percentage of people enrolling in higher education especially African women since they were previously marginalised.
This can help improve innovation and expand systems of further education and training and skills development to offer meaningful educational and training opportunities to young people who have obtained a low pass in national senior certificate, as well as older people who wish to develop their skills and adults who left school early or had no access to education. This will help speedup the transformation process of the country’s scientific and academic communities to better reflect the population whereby we develop African languages and integrate indigenous knowledge systems in education and research.
There need to be an institutional structure including bursary programmes for the existing teachers and to attract students to this career and invest in the best teachers. Schools also need to be run by skilled and dedicated principals who foster a vibrant and disciplined environment that is conducive to learning. Furthermore the curriculum will need to be tailored to reflect the needs of the South African society which require principals and management teams to fulfil their roles as leaders in implementing the curriculum.
There is a need for effective communication between all stakeholders in education in order to support a common of attaining good educational outcomes that are responsive to community needs and economic development. (NPC national Development plan vision 2030)
The national strategic objectives are also that they improve the capacity of the Department of Basic education to ensure that more learners leave the education system with the requisite knowledge, skills and attributes for enrolment to higher education, as well as to improve inter-governmental co-ordination policy and education delivery especially with provincial education departments. Learners mustcomplete a readiness programme in grade R before they enter formal school in grade 1.
National strategic imperatives
WHAT IS ICT?ICT is short for Information CommunicationTechnology Stresses communication and incorporation oftelecommunications, computers, enterprisesoftware, middleware, storage and audio-visualsystemsEnables the access, accumulation, transmission andcontrol of information
CONT... We use technology in our daily lives Some people feel that technology isbecoming a threat to our lives The use of technology has itsdisadvantages and a great deal ofadvantages
CONT.. It has an influence on a variety of jobs whichresults in a need for skills requirement in thelabour force It provides opportunities and tools forenhancing the learning experience There becomes a need for teacherprofessional development in order tointegrate technology in their teaching
KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY A human society in which knowledge couldbring change by bringingjustice, solidarity, democracy and peace A society that provides equitable access toinformation.
CONT... Knowledge should be beneficial Education as the key focus in knowledgesocietyResponsibility of educators
CONT... Six major area that will shape theuse of ICT in education:• Digital solidarity• Learners and lifelong learning• Decision making strategies• Networking• Research• Teachers
TEACHER COMPETENCY STANDARDSThere are proposed strategies aimed at equippingpracticing and student teachers to functionproductively in schools based on ICT Standards for professional competency inICT, includes entry, adoption, adaption, appropriationand innovation competencies within an outcomebased concept.(Department Of Education Guidelines for TeacherTraining Book and White paper 7 of e-education)
CONT... Every teacher/stuff member should be trained and reachthe adoption level in terms of skills, knowledge, values toICT They should be able to utilise ICT applicationprogrammes, have technical skills and access and useelectronic information and communication resources
CONT... The adoption level implies that teacher shouldbe able to do the following: use various technologies to supportmanagement, administration, teaching and learning Teach learners how to use ICT as it contributesand can change teaching, learning andadministration
CONT...o Through continuing professionaldevelopment and advanced certificate ofeducation programmes, at least 60% ofteachers with access to ICT should reachthe adaption levelo 20% should reach the appropriation levelwhere they integrate ICT into teaching andlearning positively and understand theeducational value and potential of ICT intoteaching and learning
CONT... 10% of practicing teachers should reach theinnovation level Create a new environment that uses ICT as aflexible tool for the school development andcollaborative and interactive learning Higher institutions should offer compulsory ICTcourses The Department of education must develop anational framework for educators
CONT... Pre-service and in-service must integrate the use ofICT as flexible tools for teaching and learning This will include legal and ethical issues, evaluationof software and use of ICTs to address learners whoexperience learning barriers The need to generate suitable accreditation withinthe National Framework, Modifying Norms andStandards for educators and checking in-servicetraining policies and programmes for proper ICTusage
CONT... A trained teacher will be appointed for eachschool to facilitate ICT Motivation and support will be provided toteachers and other stakeholders to integratetechnology in daily activities The department of Education will encourageteachers to purchase computers and accessinternet for personal use
EDUCATION FOR ALL Why is it important?o It is a human righto Opens up life opportunitieso Empowers future generationo Ensures sustainable development
HOW TO ENSURE EDUCATION FOR ALL? Increase access to learning materials Childhood development Compulsory primary school education Promoting learning and life skills for youngpeople Increase adult literacy Achieve gender equality Attract better teachers
PRESENT FUTURE NATIONAL STRATEGICOBJECTIVES Laying a solid foundation for education
CONT... ensuring a healthy childhooddevelopment
CONT...o Equal access to services regardless ofyour background.
CONT... Eradicate the issue of teenagepregnancyGiving emotional and material supportto pregnant women Ensuring that children grow up in ahealthy environment that supportslearning Provide an environment that enableinteraction amongst children
CONT... Teacher professionaldevelopmento Producing highly trained professionalswith knowledge pedagogy especially formaths and scienceo Acknowledge teachers for their hardwork and professionalismo Promote teacher development andprofessional principles throughassociations such as SACE and subject-based associations
CONT... Education systemo Building a strong and coherent institutions to deliverquality education, science andtechnology, innovation , training and skillsdevelopment.o Developing a common perceptive within thegovernment sectors, e.g. Department of Educationand training, Department of trade industry etc.
CONT... Create an educational and national that addressthe needs of the society Increase the percentage of people enrol in highereducation
CONT... Expand systems of further education andtraining and skills development Offer meaningful educational and trainingopportunities to young people and adults whoobtained a low pass or had no access toeducation Develop African languages and integrateindigenous knowledge systems in education andresearch
o Provide bursary programmes for existing teachers and attractothers to enrol for education, E.g. funza lushaka bursaryprogramme Employ skills and dedicated principals Principals and management teams need to fulfil their roles inimplementing the curriculum
o Ensure effective communication between allstakeholders in education
CONT...o Improve the capacity of basiceducationo Improve inter-governmentalcoordination policy and educationdeliveryo Ensuring that learners complete areadiness programme
REFERENCESCFE www user survey. (n.d.) .Available From:http://www.campaignforeducationusa.org/about/education-for-allAccessed 15 February 2013EFA www user survey. (n.d.). Available From:http://go.worldbank.org/I41DLBA8C0Accessed 15February 2013Temechegn, E. (2012). Teacher Standards for Africa. Journal ofICTeTSA. Available from:http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002161/216105e.pdf (Accessed15 February 2013)Prenhall www user survey. (n.d.). Available From:http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_egbert_supporting_1/85/21930/5614283.cw/content/index.htmlAccessed 15 February 2013