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  1. 1. By: Noman Iqbal BBA 2nd DIHE SukkurMonday, June 11, 2012
  2. 2.  Learning is often defined as a relatively change in behavior that is the result of experience. It is the acquisition of skill or knowledge.
  3. 3.  Classical conditioning  Discovered by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov during his experiment on dog.  learning in which one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation of another stimulus.
  4. 4.  Classical conditioning  During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
  5. 5.  Classical conditioning  Pavlov observed that the dogs began to salivate before they were even given any food.  Pavlov discovered that the dogs salivated in response to hearing a sound from the mechanism that delivered the food.  Pavlov realized that the dogs "learned" that every time they heard that sound, they were about to be fed.
  6. 6.  Classical conditioning  Extinction  Conditioned responses are not permanent.  Pavlov discovered that after several times of ringing the bell without giving dogs food that the dogs would re- learn that the bell was no longer associated with being fed.  This process is called extinction.
  7. 7.  Operant Conditioning  It can be defined as a type of learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened if it is reinforced and weakened if it is punished (or not reinforced).  If we look at Pavlovs example, the sound occurred (controlling stimulus), the dog salivated, and then the meat powder was delivered.  With Operant conditioning, the sound would occur, then the dog would have to perform some behavior in order to get the meat powder as a reinforcement.
  8. 8.  Operant Conditioning  Operant Conditioning includes pairing through reinforcement and punishment.  Reinforcement is something that increases the likelihood that a behavior will continue.  Punishment is something that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will continue.