Water Desalination ReporT
Carlsbad ‘final’ schedule taking shape
Last week, San Diego County Water Authority’s ...
Richard White, Biwater’s project engineering manager, told
WDR that the firm had been pre-qualified by AECOM, the
owner’s ...
“Although the plants employ all of the energy efficiency
features of a m...
The use of the various units is further complicated when
projects are delivered on a BOO or BOT basis and a plant’s
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5

Water desalination report 30 january 2012


Published on

Water desalination report 30 january 2012

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Water desalination report 30 january 2012

  1. 1. Water Desalination ReporT California Carlsbad ‘final’ schedule taking shape Last week, San Diego County Water Authority’s staff told its Board of Directors that it was making progress towards finalizing a draft agreement with Poseidon Resources to pur- chase water from the Carlsbad Desal Project. Ken Weinberg, the Authority’s Director of Water Resources, said he expects that a draft water purchase agreement (WPA) will be released to member agencies and the public this spring. The agencies will then have 60 days to review the agreement and declare how much of the 50 MGD (189,250 m3 /d) of desalted water they intend to purchase. In November 2011, the Water Authority and Poseidon began direct negotiations on the draft WPA, and Poseidon is now reviewing a second draft of the agreement. The parties plan to have their next negotiating session in mid-February. At least two public workshops, which could take place in May and June, will be part of the review process, and the WPA could be presented to the board for consideration at its June or July board meetings. The Water Authority staff and consultants are also conduct- ing a due diligence review of financial and other project documents as part of the project’s bond rating process, in- cluding the following agreements between Poseidon and its contractors: • An agreement between Poseidon and a Kiewit In- frastructure–JF Shea Construction joint venture to construct the facility and conveyance pipeline, • An agreement between the joint venture and IDE Technologies to design the desal plant, and, • An agreement between Poseidon and IDE to operate the plant. At last week’s meeting, the Board also agreed to approve consultant contract amendments and to increase its current budget from $2 million to $4.8 million to reflect the current WPA negotiations. The project’s current cost of water is estimated at $1,865/ AF ($1.51/m3 ; $5.72/kgal) and its capital cost is estimated at $780 million. If the Water Authority approves the WPA this summer, de- salted water from the Carlsbad project should be available by 2016 – 18 years after Poseidon began to develop the proj- ect – and will comprise seven percent of the total regional supply. Tom Pankratz, Editor, P.O. Box 75064, Houston, Texas 77234-5064 USA Telephone: +1-281-857-6571, www.waterdesalreport.com, email: tp@globalwaterintel.com © 2012 Media Analytics. Published in cooperation with Global Water Intelligence. 30 January 2012Volume 48, Number 4 The international weekly for desalination and advanced water treatment since 1965 Energy Desal and Renewable Energy Two years ago, during a Tehran desal conference, an Iranian television station aired a live panel discussion in which the country’s desal future was being discussed. The moderator asked all of the usual questions about the energy efficiency of various desal processes and the potential improvements that lay ahead. Then, unexpectedly, the Iranian moderator turned to your correspondent, who was one of the two panel members, and asked, “Don’t you agree that our country’s need for desalinated water could be effectively developed and integrated along with a nuclear power program?” The response seemed to satisfy the interviewer: “As desalters, we are concerned with how to best remove salt from water. We are more concerned with minimizing energy consumption than where it comes from. After the power people advise us of quality and quantity of energy available, we can then decide how it can best be used.” In retrospect, it was not only accurate, it was also the safest answer. The same answer could be used today when a desalter is asked, “What is the best renewable energy (RE) system for use with desalination?” However, it is becoming increasingly obvious that RE will play a key role in the future of both brackish and seawater desal – Saudi Arabia has said that it would like to convert all of its seawater desal plants to RE by 2019 – and desalters will have to become more conversant in the various RE options. Recently, at the 56th Annual New Mexico Water Conference, the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute and the Desalination.com launched Desalters have a new online resource and WDR has a new internet home: Desalination.com. Please watch for an email later this week which will have important news about your password and access. Whether you’re a subscriber who wants to search back issues, a plant operator looking for a career change, a student writing a paper on desal’s history or a purchasing agent looking for a new membrane manufacturer, you will be able to find the answer at Desalination.com. Have patience while we make the transition to this new address. In the meantime, you can still access WDR at www. waterdesalreport.com.
  2. 2. Richard White, Biwater’s project engineering manager, told WDR that the firm had been pre-qualified by AECOM, the owner’s engineer, and the selection was made by Ortega Industrial Contractors, the general contractor constructing the facility. According to White, the two-train BWRO system will be part of a water treatment plant that reclaims 2.45 MGD (9,273 m3 /d) of surface runoff water and demineralizer wastewater from an existing pond on the WTE site. The pond water, which has a TDS of 1,900-3,300 mg/L, is pretreated using coagulation, clarification and microfiltration, before being introduced to a 60,000 g (227 m3 ) break tank. From the break tank, 2.2 MGD (8,327 m3 /d) of pretreated water undergoes cartridge filtration before it is fed to Biwater’s two-train RO. The three-stage system is configured in a 16:8:4 vessel array with seven elements per vessel, although provisions have been made for future expansion to a 20:10:5 arrangement. Each train is fed by a dedicated high-pressure feed pump and two inter-stage booster pumps, and designed at a minimum system recovery of 87 percent. Approximately 0.3 MGD (1,135 m3 /d) of the 50 mg/L TDS permeate will be used directly for boiler feedwater, while the remaining 1.6 MGD (6,056 m3 /d) will be blended with 0.55 MGD (2,082 m3 /d) of pretreated water from the break tank for use in the cooling towers. The RO concentrate will be discharged to the sewer. Plans currently call for the system to be commissioned in March 2013. Morocco EPC contractor selected for BWRO Italy’s OSMO Sistemi has been selected to supply a 17,280 m3 /d (4.6 MGD) BWRO system for Office National de l’Eau Potable’s (ONEP) Dakhla project in southern Morocco. Negotiations for the MAD100 million ($11.8 million) EPC project – which was initially planned as a SWRO before ONEP switched to a brackish groundwater source – are nearing completion, and the project should be awarded by mid-February. Evangelos Kantilaftis, OSMO Sistemi’s managing director, toldWDRthatthefeedwaterforthetwo-trainsystemwillhave a TDS of approximately 2,500 mg/L, and the pretreatment system will include ammonium and H2 S removal in addition to sand filtration. Commissioning is expected to take place in mid-2013. OSMO Sistemi is a member of the Cyprus-based Caramondani Group. Page 2 WATER DESALINATION REPORT – 30 January 2012 Bureau of Reclamation brought desal experts from around the world to Alamogordo to discuss ways to advance desal projects employing RE and to develop research projects and potential collaboration opportunities. Last November, CambridgeIP released a patent landscape report prepared for the World Intellectual Property Organ- ization entitled Desalination Technologies and the Use of Alternative Energies. The report notes that progress is being made in advancing the integration of desal and RE sources, and that continued development and deployment of desal technologies powered by RE sources could provide a more affordable fresh water source for both developed and developing countries now under threat of water shortages. The report shows that the growth in the number of desal/RE patent applications and patent families – i.e., multiple patents in more than one country protecting the same technology or invention – has grown from a total of about 800 in 1980 to more than 4,550 in 2011. Although the number of patents is not an indication of an RE technology’s desal integration suitability, it does provide some insight into the potential relevance based on the level of research activity. Last week, the World Bank held an internal workshop to review a draft of a new report on the integration of RE with desal as an emerging solution to close the growing water gap in 21 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. The report was prepared by a team led by Bekele Debele Negewo, a senior water resources specialist in the World Bank’s MENA region. According to Dr Debele, “Simply put, there is not enough freshwater to maintain MENA’s economic growth. The region’s water deficit will grow to 200 billion m3 /y by 2050 and closing this estimated $104 billion deficit will be challenging. Demand management should be the first priority. However, desalination will remain important in MENA, and RE should be part of the energy mix to ensure its sustainability.” That logic is universally applicable. Florida Waste-to-energy plant will get RO Biwater AEWT has been selected to supply a 2 MGD (7,570 m3 /d) BWRO system at Pinellas County Utilities’ waste-to- energy (WTE) facility in St Petersburg, Florida. The solid waste facility will use the RO system to treat water from an existing pond for use as boiler and cooling tower makeup water at the WTE facility, which processes about one million tons of garbage every year, producing up to 60 MW of electricity for distribution within the nearby community.
  3. 3. Page 3WATER DESALINATION REPORT – 30 January 2012 “Although the plants employ all of the energy efficiency features of a modern, state-of-the-art SWRO plant, the main goal of TAOZ operation is to minimize energy cost, not the specific energy required per cubic meter of water produced,” said Egozy. Building a desal plant based on a load and time variable electricity tariff is more expensive than building one that operates at a flat capacity because there are many hours when the plant’s production capacity is only partially utilized. Plant production can be reduced dramatically, twice a day and by up to 60 percent within a half hour time period. This requires changing recovery ratios, feed flow rates, pressures, fluxes, chemical dosing and more. While this type of operation is complicated, it does reduce equipment wear, shortens startup times, saves water for flushing and shortens the time to stabilize the process and water quality after the change. It is also the only way that one can imagine achieving a total water cost of $0.585/m3 ($2.21/kgal). Metrics Consistently inconsistent For new readers and those regular readers who may be mystified by WDR’s use of various units of measure in our stories, we offer the following explanation: Nothing illustrates the local complexion of the global desal market more than the units used to measure a facility’s production capacity. The primary units of measure used in a WDR article are those used by the facility that is the subject of the article itself, or those commonly used in the region in which the facility is located. The most frequently used and universally understood unit used to measure water volume is the cubic meter (m3 ). Conveniently, a cubic meter of water weighs one metric ton. The term many Australasian countries use to measure water volume is the megaliter (ML), which equals one million liters, or one thousand cubic meters. Americans measure water volume using the US gallon, and plant capacity is described in terms of million gallons per day (MGD). However, many Western US states rely on the acre-foot (ac-ft, or AF), a unit used in agriculture to describe the volume of water that would cover a one-acre area to a depth of one foot. Many Middle Eastern countries measure desal plant output in million Imperial gallons per day (MIGD), where one Imperial gallon is 20 percent greater than a US gallon. Israel flexibility offsets high energy costs All large-scale SWRO plants installed in Israel have been designed with hourly peak production capabilities that are much higher than their nominal capacities would indicate. The Sorek plant, profiled in last week’s WDR, is one example. Sorek’s production capacity is generally referred to as being 150 million m3 /y. This equates to an average of 411,000 m3 /d (108.5 MGD), or 17,125 m3 /hr (4.5 Mgph). However, the plant actually has a maximum production capability of 26,000 m3 /hr (6.9 Mgph), which equates to 624,000 m3 /d (164.9 MGD), or 227.8 million m3 /y. The 51 percent increase in Sorek’s maximum production capacity over its contracted production is necessary due to the country’s seasonal fluctuation in water demand, and this also allows plants to reduce production during the day, when electricity tariffs are at their highest, and increase production during nighttime, off-peak periods when electricity tariffs are significantly lower. IDE’s Yaron Egozy told WDR that the monthly/bimonthly production quantities differ from month to month because the summer production requirements are much higher than the winter requirements. “The daily production quantities change from day to day and are limited within minimum and maximum boundaries. The hourly production also changes from hour to hour based on Israel Electric Company’s load and time variable electricity tariff [TAOZ]. According to this tariff plan, shown below, there are three different levels of electricity costs, depending on the time of day: a peak, shoulder and base tariff. “The changing electricity prices dictate the hourly production capacity, and our plant designs are based on two modes of operation: maximum water production at low electricity rates and minimum water production at high electricity rates. US$perkWh 0.05 0.11 0.16 0.21 0.27 0.32 0.06 0.070.08 0.10 0.14 0.24 0.26 0.10 0.06 Spring-Autumn Winter Peak Tariff Shoulder Tariff Base Tariff Summer Electricity Prices at Variable Tariffs
  4. 4. The use of the various units is further complicated when projects are delivered on a BOO or BOT basis and a plant’s production capacity is expressed on a per-year, rather than per-day or per-hour basis. When projects are described in terms of million cubic meters per year (MCM/y) – or when US plants are referred to in terms of acre-feet per year (AFY) – the volumes do not reflect the actual production capacity of a plant, but rather, the amount of water the plant has been contracted to furnish over the course of the year; the actual production capacity is usually significantly higher (see “Energy Cost” story, this issue). In most WDR articles, a secondary unit is routinely included, parenthetically, as a reference. Some frequently used volumetric units and their conversions are: • 1 cubic meter = 264.2 US gallons, or 1,000 liters • 1 US gallon = 3.785 liters • 1 Imperial gallon = 1.2 US gallons, or 4.546 liters • 1 acre-foot = 325,900 US gallons, or 1,233.6 m3 • 1 megaliter (ML) = 1,000 cubic meters • 1 gigaliter (GL) = 1 million m3 • 100 million m3 /y = 72.4 MGD (avg) • 1 MGD = 1,120 acre-feet/year (AFY) • 1 gigaliter = 1,000,000 cubic meters Texas Desal advocacy group formed Prompted by the state’s recent drought and the resulting water shortages, desal boosters have formed the Texas Desalination Association (TDA), a non-profit trade organization that will focus on developing mechanisms for making desalination more accessible. Kyle Frazier, an agent for the group, told WDR that the Austin-based organization will advocate on behalf of desal technology before the Texas Legislature and regulatory agencies and will work to streamline the regulatory process. “We will bring together experts in desal technology with those who need new sources of water,” he said. The TDA is now finalizing the organization’s by-laws and establishing a nine-member board of directors. Membership is open to public utilities, municipalities, desal companies and technologists, academics and private citizens. For more information, contact Kyle Frazier at jkf1@texas. net. The website, www.TexasDesal.org, should be online later this week. In brief New York’s Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) has accepted United Water’s Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed 7.5 MGD (28,385 m3 /d) Haverstraw Desalination Plant as complete. Public hearings are scheduled for 28 February and, last week, the DEC agreed to extend the public comment period by an additional month, to 18 April. United Water has conducted a one-year pilot study at the plant site in Haverstraw, on the Hudson River’s western shore, 35 miles north of New York City. The plant is planned to be operational in 2015. Earlier this month, the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD) announced that it had completed the construction of 22 solar-powered BWRO plants across the Emirate. Each unit consists of 300m2 (3,230 ft2 ) of solar panels that generate approximately 35 kWh to produce 30 m3 /d (8,000 GPD) of fresh water. The pilot project is intended to provide findings that will help reduce the capital cost and increase the efficiency of future units. Rate for one year: £290 or US$500. Subscribe and renew online at: www.waterdesalreport.com Reproduction or electronic distribution is forbidden. Subscribers may circulate their copy on their immediate premises. To e-mail or create additional copies for other office locations, contact Clair Blakeway (cblakeway@globalwaterintel.com) to arrange a site license. Page 4WATER DESALINATION REPORT – 30 January 2012 The NationalWaterResearch Institute (NWRI) will accept nominations for its 19th Annual Athalie Richardson Irvine Clarke Prize for excellence in water research. The Prize is awarded to individuals contributing towards the discovery, development, improvement and/or understanding of the issues associated with water quality, quantity, technology or public policy. Last year’s recipient was Duke University’s Mark Wiesner. Nomination procedures are available at: www.nwri-usa.org/nominations.htm.   Zulal Water Technology’s Tripoli office has announced that it has resumed full operations in Libya. The company said that it has already restored water and wastewater operations for a major oil company and has received an order to supply emergency water at another oil production facility. NanoH2O has released Version 1.2 of its Q+ membrane projection software. The new version provides an option for permeate split flow calculations and the ability to convert the results report into PDF formats. The software can be downloaded at www.nanoh2o.com/software-tools. A Solar-powered BWRO Plant