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Djibouti geothermal project study

Djibouti geothermal project study

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The Djibouti Geothermal Project
Building 50MW geothermal power plant
2
 European Union will build the
transmission line from the power plant
to the grid.
 The Power Plant influence could be:
 Boost the country´s economy.
 Solution to Djibouti´s electricity scarcity.
 First nation to provide high percentage
of supply with a green electricity from
geothermal source.
 Regarded by other African countries as a
showcase for harnessing geothermal
energy.
 Train local people to become skilled
worker.
 Possible to contribute to the majority of
the UN Millennium Development Goals.
 Exclusive license 2007 for geothermal
utilization in the Assal Rift
 Head of Terms contracts for PA and
PPA signed in Djibouti April 2008.
 Joint Development Agreement
between REI and IFC June 2008.
 Initial stage 50 MW – possible
extension to 150 MW later.
 Project cost estimated 170 million
USD
 Pre-feasibility study completed
 Exploratory drilling now prepared
 Estimated cost is 30 million USD
 Electricity production expected to start
2014
Geothermal Power Plant in Assal area
2
3
About Djibouti
Facts about Djibouti
 French colony until 1977 – French Somaliland -
Djibouti
 GDP per capita: 1,200 USD and foreign
assistance
 Population ~800,000 and > 50% unemployment
 Desert land 22,000 km2 and most food
imported
 Access to water and electricity limits growth
 Electricity prices one of the highest in Africa
 Lack of infrastructure
 Strategic location and free trade zone
 Stands out to have stability and neutrality
 Ethiopia’s main hub for imports and exports
 French and USA army
 Previous drilling in Assal proved the
geothermal resource (360°C)
 The distance between Djibouti city and
the geothermal area in Assal is 100 km
 European Union will finance and build
the transmission line from the power
plant to the grid
 Transmission line to Ethiopia is under
construction
 The Port: Transhipment port for Asia,
Africa and Europe
4
5
 The port: DP World is rehabilitating the main port for 400 million USD
which serves as a transshipment port for Asia, Africa and Europe.
 Oil port for Djibouti and Ethiopia.
 Military bases: French, American and German. The US has plans to build a
large permanent base there (potentially the largest US base in Africa and
the middle-east).
 International Airport operated by DP World.
 Government operations: Administration, hospitals, schools, etc.
 Salt Investment (expected to export 4 million tons of salt per year). Their
development is in the same area as the potential power plant.
 Real estate development.
 Parallel to recent development in Djibouti various contractor and service
companies have been formed.
Activites in Djibouti
5
6
 Sector Context:
 Integrated monopoly supplier (EDD)
 No regulator
 Essentially no transmission outside Djibouti City
 Tariff range (mid 2008) 28 to 35 cents/kWh
 Ethiopia-Djibouti interconnection powerline under construction
 Existing Supply:
 EDD has 50 - 60 MW capacity
 Existing capacity is exclusively HFO/diesel
 Plant is on average 20 years old
Djibouti’s Power Sector
6

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Djibouti geothermal project study

  • 1. The Djibouti Geothermal Project Building 50MW geothermal power plant
  • 2. 2  European Union will build the transmission line from the power plant to the grid.  The Power Plant influence could be:  Boost the country´s economy.  Solution to Djibouti´s electricity scarcity.  First nation to provide high percentage of supply with a green electricity from geothermal source.  Regarded by other African countries as a showcase for harnessing geothermal energy.  Train local people to become skilled worker.  Possible to contribute to the majority of the UN Millennium Development Goals.  Exclusive license 2007 for geothermal utilization in the Assal Rift  Head of Terms contracts for PA and PPA signed in Djibouti April 2008.  Joint Development Agreement between REI and IFC June 2008.  Initial stage 50 MW – possible extension to 150 MW later.  Project cost estimated 170 million USD  Pre-feasibility study completed  Exploratory drilling now prepared  Estimated cost is 30 million USD  Electricity production expected to start 2014 Geothermal Power Plant in Assal area 2
  • 4. Facts about Djibouti  French colony until 1977 – French Somaliland - Djibouti  GDP per capita: 1,200 USD and foreign assistance  Population ~800,000 and > 50% unemployment  Desert land 22,000 km2 and most food imported  Access to water and electricity limits growth  Electricity prices one of the highest in Africa  Lack of infrastructure  Strategic location and free trade zone  Stands out to have stability and neutrality  Ethiopia’s main hub for imports and exports  French and USA army  Previous drilling in Assal proved the geothermal resource (360°C)  The distance between Djibouti city and the geothermal area in Assal is 100 km  European Union will finance and build the transmission line from the power plant to the grid  Transmission line to Ethiopia is under construction  The Port: Transhipment port for Asia, Africa and Europe 4
  • 5. 5  The port: DP World is rehabilitating the main port for 400 million USD which serves as a transshipment port for Asia, Africa and Europe.  Oil port for Djibouti and Ethiopia.  Military bases: French, American and German. The US has plans to build a large permanent base there (potentially the largest US base in Africa and the middle-east).  International Airport operated by DP World.  Government operations: Administration, hospitals, schools, etc.  Salt Investment (expected to export 4 million tons of salt per year). Their development is in the same area as the potential power plant.  Real estate development.  Parallel to recent development in Djibouti various contractor and service companies have been formed. Activites in Djibouti 5
  • 6. 6  Sector Context:  Integrated monopoly supplier (EDD)  No regulator  Essentially no transmission outside Djibouti City  Tariff range (mid 2008) 28 to 35 cents/kWh  Ethiopia-Djibouti interconnection powerline under construction  Existing Supply:  EDD has 50 - 60 MW capacity  Existing capacity is exclusively HFO/diesel  Plant is on average 20 years old Djibouti’s Power Sector 6
  • 7. Assal Area 7  The geothermal plant in Djibouti will be located in the Assal Area.  From 1975 to 1988 studies of the area were conducted. They proved that there is a heat source (350°C) in the area and that the fluids are highly saline.  Since then technology has been developed that is able to cope with the salinity of the fluid.  A geothermal power plant in Iceland has applied that technology in an area that is geologically similar to the Assal Area. Sea Fiale Lake Assal
  • 8. 8 The Presidents of Iceland and Djibouti, the Mayor of Reykjavik and the Chairman of the Board of RE 8
  • 10. 10 Project Phases  Phase I 2007-2008 - Pre-feasibility study - Completed  Surface exploration and negotiation of contracts for harvesting the geothermal energy  Phase II 2008-2011 - Feasibility study  Drilling of exploration wells and finalizing contracts  Phase III 2011-2014  Construction of the power plant.  Phase IV 2014  Operation of the power plant over 20 years plus 10-20 years 10
  • 11. Phase I 2007-2008 Pre-Feasibility Study - Completed 11 1. Evaluation of previous study 2. Surface exploration 3. Negotiation of contracts 4. Environmental management plan 5. Pre-feasibility study report Equipment from former drilling
  • 12. • Geology – bed rock* – Volcanology* – Tectonic* – groundwater • Geophysics – Resistivity* – magnetic – soil temperature – gravity – seismisity • Geochemistry – origin of water – geothermometry – mixing of water types – flow directions – extent of an area – exploitation characteristics • Environment* • Model of geothermal field* *research done by the current project, in addition to previous study, to complete the surface exploration 12 Phase I 2007-2008 Best Practice in Surface Exploration
  • 13. Phase I 2007-2008 Geochemistry 13  Ground water in the area is seawater, geothermal fluid is highly saline.  The main challenge with the fluid is scaling problems and surface corrosion when brine comes in contact with oxygen.  Geothermal power plants around the world are encountering and using saline geothermal fluids.  To counter act with the scaling and corrosion:  Current tariff calculation accounts for higher operation cost and shorter well life than in fresh water reservoirs (4% per year of construction cost).  Using of wellhead pressures exceeding 20 bars.  Drilling strategies from Icelandic projects; e.g. large diameter, directional wells.  Separation facilities designed to minimize scaling deposition in well.
  • 14. Phase I 2007-2008 Finding of the Environmental Study  Area of interest is within the Lava Lake.  Physical activities will be outside the Lava Lake.  Drilling targets will be reached by directional drilling. 14 Lava Lake Picture: Aerial photograph of Fiale area
  • 15. Phase I 2007-2008 Findings of the Study 15  Of the three identified up flow zones the Fiale area is considered most attractive for development  The research indicates that the chemistry of the Fiale area is more benign than at the old well field  Well sites have been chosen to reach specific drilling target identified by the first conceptual model
  • 16. 16  The pre-feasibility study is complete.  Of the three identified up flow zones the Fiale area is considered most attractive for development  The research indicates that the chemistry of the Fiale area is more benign than at the old well field  Well sites have been chosen to reach specific drilling target identified by the first conceptual model  Favorable geological setting plus a 3-4 km2 reservoir with temperatures above 240 °C indicates a generating capacity at least 50 Mwe and up to 150 MWe  Methods that are applicable to the Assal chemistry will be designed based on previous plants and the well testing at Assal.  Activity´s will be kept outside the Lava Lake, but drilling targets will be reached by directional drilling. Phase I 2007-2008 Conclusion of the Pre-Feasibility Study
  • 18. 18  Main tasks of the current Phase:  Financing of feasibility study expected to be closed in 3Q of 2010.  Cost estimate for four deep directional drilled geothermal well is 30 million US$  Tender and evaluation of tenders for Drilling service (has been done)  Civil work - Roads, drilling pads, water supply, accommodations, etc.  Drilling of four exploration wells  Confirm the power potential  Conceptual design of the Power plant.  Finalize the PPA  Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the 50 MW Power Plant.  At Financial Close to acquire funding for the third phase. Phase II – 2008 - 2010 Current Phase 18
  • 19. 19  Civil work - Design and preparation for construction almost finished  Road to the site – tender out to local contractors  Drilling pads and cellars – tender out to local contractors  Water supply – purchase pipes, pumps and generators. Installation by local contractor  Drilling with small rig  Conductor and surface casings  Investigations wells  Accommodations for the drilling crew to be build close to Salt Investment. Phase II – 2008 - 2010 Civil work and preparation 19
  • 20. 20  Services needed for the drilling work  Drilling rig (from MB-Century)  Casings and liners – 3 months delivery time  Mud services  Cementing services  Directional drilling services  Aerated drilling services  Geological services – Icelandic and local scientist  Etc. etc. Phase II – 2008 - 2010 Drilling of geothermal wells 20
  • 21. Phase III 2010-2013 Future Phase  The designing and construction of the Power Plant will be based on:  Experience that has been gained in Iceland's during the last decades  Knowledge from Icelandic experts  Similarity between Djibouti and Iceland:  Similar chemistry of the fluids from the wells in Djibouti and in Iceland  Similar geological settings  Time period:  20 years concession.  Extension for 10-20 years  O&M contract with Reykjavik Energy. 21
  • 23. Project Company Assal Geothermal Power (AGP) in Djibouti 1. Sponsor(s) Funding 2. Lender(s) Financing PPA PA Power Off-taker Government guarantee 3. Contractor EPC Contract 4. Operator O&M Agreement Independent Power Producer model (IPP) 23 Risk Mitigation : WB PRG
  • 24. Estimated Project Cost USD 170 mn. USD 3,4 mn. per MW 24 Calculation based on: • 10 production wells or average MW per well • 2 re-injection wells • 2 turbines • Drilling cost is relatively high
  • 25. 25 Tariff: • 10 years tax holidays. • Repayment of loans 15 years. • Construction cost, interest rate and ROE are most critical to tariff calculation. • Tariff or levelized tariff to be negotiated. Tariff vs Levelized Tariff An example, not final.
  • 26. 26  ARGeo initially consisted of six African countries, the World Bank, GEF-fund and UNEP  The aim is to promote geothermal development in Africa  Djibouti and REI have applied for Risk Mitigation from ARGeo funds  The Environmental Management Plan is prepared according to World Bank and local requirements  Djibouti will be the first country to receives the ARGeo support  Waiting for final approvement and contracts from World Bank  Max. amount ca. 5 million USD26 ARGeo Mitigation
  • 27. 27 Similar geological setting in Djibouti and Iceland Picture from Fiale area in Djibouti
  • 28. Nesjavellir - Iceland 120 MW electricity 4 x 30 MW turbines 300 MW thermal 28 Hellisheiði - Iceland 213 MW electricity 4 x 45 MW + 33 MW 90 MWe under construction 400 MW thermal under construction Decision taken 2003 and 90 MW in operation late 2006 Power Plants owned by Reykjavík Energy
  • 29. 29 Similar geological settings in Iceland and Djibouti Iceland Djibouti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nesjavellir Power Plant Hellisheidi Power Plant Fiale - future Power Plant
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