Chemical Bonding123


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Chemical Bonding123

  1. 1. Chemical Bonding By: Nolan Begley Mrs. Sipiera 2010
  2. 2. Hemoglobin <ul><li>Hemoglobin- Is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of vertebrates and tissues of some invertebrates. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How Hemoglobin’s transport Oxygen <ul><li>Hemoglobin has four parts (subunits) to it, each with an iron atom bound. Each iron atom can be oxidized by binding a molecule of oxygen, and each time this happens the protein changes shape so that it can bind more oxygen molecules more effectively, this is known as cooperativity. Hemoglobin’s travel through your body collecting oxygen and moving it through out your veins (body). </li></ul>
  4. 4. How is Hemoglobin and oxygen like chemical binding. <ul><li>The Hemoglobin’s catch the oxygen molecules and trap the them. Then this big mound of oxygen and the hemoglobin travel through out your body. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How are Hemoglobin’s related to a successful climb on Mt. Everest <ul><li>When you make it to the top you’re really high up and when you’re high up there is less air. The less amount of air means less oxygen. Hemoglobin needs oxygen to trap to take it through out our bodies. So if we have less oxygen we soon start getting closer to death. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does pH have to do with the transport of oxygen by Hemoglobin <ul><li>A drop in pH decreases the amount of oxygen that will bind the hemoglobin. The low pH reduces the attraction between oxygen and hemoglobin and causes the hemoglobin to release more oxygen than usual. This increases the oxygen delivered to the muscle. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Blood Doping <ul><li>Blood doping- is the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. Because they carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, more red blood cells in the blood can improve an athlete’s aerobic capacity and endurance. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Autologous vs. Homologous <ul><li>With an autologous transfusion, an athlete receives his or her own blood. An athlete donates blood, stores it, and then receives the blood at a later point in time. The advantages of this technique are the avoidance of diseases such as HIV or hepatitis, the reduction of the risk of detection through testing, and the alleviation of potentially deadly transfusion reactions. </li></ul>In a homologous transfusion, the blood comes from another person. The benefit of homologous transfusion is no decrease in performance during the donation period.
  9. 9. What are EPO’s and why is it used <ul><li>EPO or Erythropoietin is a glycoprotien hormone that controls red blood cell production. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medical uses of blood doping <ul><li>Increasing red blood cell mass and thereby sending more oxygen to the muscles. Can help improve an athletes endurance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why is Blood doping used in sport? <ul><li>To help improve an athletes endurance in sports that require a lot of endurance like cross country, and soccer. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Documented blood doping used in sport <ul><li>THE AMERICAN Jim Courier prompted a new doping row in men's tennis yesterday by claiming that only drug </li></ul><ul><li>cheats could survive the gruelling season. </li></ul><ul><li>As the Australian Open </li></ul><ul><li>champion, Petr Korda, began his title defence after escaping a one-year ban for steroid use, the former world No 1 said he was more concerned about blood doping in the sport than steroids. &quot;I'm much more inclined to have a concern for something that we cannot test for under the current system of testing, which is blood doping,&quot; Courier told a news conference. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood doping, involving blood transfusions to boost an athlete's crucial red cell count, is usually linked to endurance sports such as cycling and cross-country skiing. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain's Greg Rusedski joined in the debate by saying he is prepared to see prize-money reduced so the tennis world can crack down on drug abusers. Rusedski said: &quot;I think tennis should take a stance and make all the players take a blood test three or four times a year. That's the only way you can trace it, and I'd be happy to have the money to fund it taken out of our prize-money.&quot; </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2 nd document of blood doping <ul><li>On the last day of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City , three cross-country skiers were booted out of the Games for blood doping. Two of the skiers lost their medals, the other was disqualified from the games. Blood doping by athletes is cheating - just like using steroids or bribing a judge. How Does Blood Doping Work? Blood doping is a method of increasing the number of red blood cells in the body which in turn carry more oxygen to the muscles . It is most often used by athletes who compete in high endurance races like cycling or cross-country skiing. In the past, a liter of blood would be removed from an athlete's system and then frozen and stored for several weeks. A day or two before a big race, the stored blood would be re-injected into the athlete's system - creating extra red blood cells. These extra red blood cells would carry more oxgen to the muscles - giving the athlete an advantage over the other racers who don't use blood doping. </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes don't re-inject blood very much anymore. Instead, cheating athletes will inject genetically engineered drugs which cause the body to create extra red blood cells. The most common type of blood doping chemical used is called EPO - which is used to treat patients who have kidney disease. The one supposedly used by those scamming skiers in Salt Lake City is called darbepoetin, which is also used to treat kidney disease. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Effects of blood doping <ul><li>in case of homologous doping method: </li></ul><ul><li>the athlete may contract blood borne diseases, </li></ul><ul><li>transfusion reactions may develop, </li></ul><ul><li>he/she may develop increased transfusion sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of autologous doping method: </li></ul><ul><li>the athlete show decrease in efficacy of training when blood is drawn out. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Resources <ul><li> </li></ul>