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The Capital of Russian

Published in: Travel
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  1. 1. Moscow Mikhail Nokhov Gymnasium # 1 Khasavyurt
  2. 2. The Coat of Arms of Moscow
  3. 3. The Flag of Moscow
  4. 4. <ul><li>The oldest evidence of humans on the territory of Moscow dates from the Stone Age (Schukinskaya Neolithic site on the Moscow River). Within the modern bounds of the city other late evidence was discovered (the burial ground of the Fatyanovskaya culture, the site of the early-Stone Age settlement of Dyakovskaya culture, on the territory of Kremlin, Sparrow Hills, Setun River, Kuntsevskiy forest park, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>In the end of 1st millennium AD the territory of Moscow and the Moscow Oblast was inhabited by the Slavic tribes of Vyatichi and Krivichi. In the end of 11th century Moscow was a small town with the feudal center and trade suburb situated at the mouth of the Neglinnaya River. </li></ul><ul><li>The first reference to Moscow dates from 1147 when it was an obscure town in a small province inhabited mostly by Merya, speakers of a now extinct Finnic language. In 1156, Knjaz Yury Dolgoruky built a wooden wall and a moat around the city. After the sacking of 1237-1238, when the Mongol Khanate of the Golden Horde burned the city to the ground and killed its inhabitants. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>In 1300 Moscow was ruled by Daniil Aleksandrovich, the son of Alexander Nevsky and a member of the Rurik Dynasty. Its favorable position on the headwaters of the Volga river contributed to steady expansion. Moscow was also stable and prosperous for many years and attracted a large numbers of refugees from across Russia. By 1304, Yury of Moscow contested with Mikhail of Tver for the throne of the principality of Vladimir. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Ivan I eventually defeated Tver to become the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal, and the sole collector of taxes for the Mongol rulers. By paying high tribute, Ivan won an important concession from the Khan. Unlike other principalities, Moscow was not divided among his sons but was passed intact to his eldest. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>While Khan of the Golden Horde initially attempted to limit Moscow's influence, when the growth of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania began to threaten all of Russia, the Khan strengthened Moscow to counterbalance Lithuania, allowing it to become one of the most powerful cities in Russia. In 1380, prince Dmitry Donskoy of Moscow led a united Russian army to an important victory over the Mongols in the Battle of Kulikovo. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>After that, Moscow took the leading role in liberating Russia from Mongol domination. In 1480, Ivan III had finally broken the Russians free from Tatar control and Moscow became the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of Russia and Siberia, and parts of many other lands. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>In 1571 the Tatars from the Crimean Khanate seized and burned Moscow. From 1610 through 1612, troops of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied Moscow, as its ruler Sigismund III tried to take the Russian throne. In 1611 Moscow suffered a great fire. </li></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>In 1612, the people of Nizhny Novgorod and other Russian cities conducted by prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin rose against the Polish occupants,besieged the Kremlin and expelled them. In 1613, the Zemsky sobor elected Michael Romanov tsar, establishing the Romanov dynasty. </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Moscow ceased to be Russia's capital when in 1703 Peter the Great constructed Saint Petersburg on the Baltic coast. When Napoleon invaded in 1812, the Moscovites burned the city and evacuated, as Napoleon's forces were approaching on September 14. Napoleon's army, plagued by hunger, cold, and poor supply lines, was forced to retreat. </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>In January 1905, the institution of the City Governor, or Mayor, was officially introduced in Moscow, and Alexander Adrianov became Moscow's first official mayor (current mayor is Yuriy Luzhkov). In the beginning of 20th century, several strikes and armed risings in Moscow paved the way to the October Revolution. In 1918 the Bolsheviks moved the seat of government from Saint Petersburg back to Moscow. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>During the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet State Committee of Defense and the General Staff of the Red Army were located in Moscow. In 1941 16 divisions of the national volunteers (more than 160,000 people), 25 battalions (18,000 people) and 4 engineering regiments were formed among the Muscovites. In November 1941, German Army Group Centre was stopped at the outskirts of the city and then driven off in the course of the Battle of Moscow. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Many factories were evacuated, together with much of the government, and from October 20 the city was declared to be in a state of siege. Its remaining inhabitants built and manned antitank defenses, while the city was bombarded from the air. On May 1, 1944 a medal &quot;For the defense of Moscow&quot; and in 1947 another medal &quot;In memory of the 800th anniversary of Moscow&quot; were instituted. On May 8, 1965 due to the actual 20th anniversary of the victory in World War II Moscow was awarded a title of the Hero City. In 1980 it hosted the Summer Olympic Games. </li></ul>
  16. 20. <ul><li>In 1991 Moscow was the scene of a coup attempt by conservators opposed to the liberal reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev. When the USSR was dissolved in the same year, Moscow became a capital of Russia. Since then, the emergence of a market economy in Moscow has produced an explosion of Western-style retailing, services, architecture, and lifestyles. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Mikhail Gorbachov and Boris Yetsin
  18. 22. The First President of Russia Boris Yeltsin.
  19. 23. The Second President of Russia Vladimir Putin.
  20. 24. The Third President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev
  21. 25. Yuri Luzhkov Mayor of Moscow
  22. 26. The Kremlin
  23. 27. The Spas Tower
  24. 28. The Kremlin Embankment
  25. 29. The White House
  26. 30. The State Duma
  27. 31. The History Museum
  28. 32. <ul><li>Moscow’s architecture is world-renowned. Moscow is also well known as the site of Saint Basil’s Cathedral, with its elegant onion domes, as well as the Cathedral of Christ the Savior and the Seven Sisters. The Patriarch of Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov Monastery, serves as the head of the Orthodox Church. For a long time, the view of the city was dominated by numerous Orthodox churches. The look of the city changed drastically during Soviet times, mostly due to Joseph Stalin, who oversaw a large-scale effort to modernise the city. He introduced broad avenues and roadways, some of them over ten lanes wide, but he also destroyed a great number of historically significant architectural works. Despite the economic growth experienced in Moscow since the dawn of the twenty-first century, many industries have undergone various crises in recent years. Some of them have been sold to foreign investors, such as OTIS and British American Tobacco, and others have been closed down to make room for new buildings constructed as business centres. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, some industry is now being transferred out of Moscow to improve the ecological state of the city. Nevertheless, the city of Moscow remains one of Russia's major industrial centres. </li></ul>
  29. 33. Saint Basil Cathedral
  30. 34. Cathedral of Christ the Savior
  31. 35. The Variety Theatre
  32. 36. The Bolshoi Theatre
  33. 37. The Tretyakov Gallery
  34. 38. Museum of the History of Moscow
  35. 39. Pushkin Museum
  36. 40. Ostankino Palace
  37. 41. Paveletsky Railway Station
  38. 42. Paveletsky Tower Business Centre
  39. 43. Entrance to Moscow ZOO
  40. 44. Kotelnicheskaya Embankment
  41. 45. Kyivski Railway Station
  42. 46. The Building of Moscow University
  43. 47. State Department Store
  44. 48. International Business Centre
  45. 49. All-Russia Exhibition Centre
  46. 50. Northern River Terminal
  47. 51. Europe Square
  48. 52. Stadium in Luzhniki