F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals

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F5 2.1 support & locomotion in humans & animals

  1. 1. Support & Locomotion in Humans & Animals
  2. 2. The necessity for support & locomotion in Humans & Animals • Locomotion - ability of a whole organism to move from one place to another in its environment. • Movement – a change in the position of any part of an organism’s body but it does not necessarily involve locomotion. • Humans & animals must move to get their needs as follow: a) looking for food b) getting protection from enemy & natural disaster c) looking for opposite sex for mating purposes • Problems faced: a) gravitational pull / weight b) resistance force / friction force c) instability in different media (air, land, water)
  3. 3. The necessity for support & locomotion in Humans & Animals • Skeleton functions are to: a) provide shape for body of organism b) supporting the soft body tissues c) making movements easier by having joints, muscle, tendon, ligament d) protect internal organs from injury, e.g.: Vertebral column – protect spinal cord e) stores certain minerals (calcium & phosphorous) f) produces blood cells • Multicellular animals, 3 types of skeletons: a) hydrostatic skeleton b) exoskeletons c) endoskeletons
  4. 4. Hydrostatic Skeleton Consist of internal fluids within the confined space of the body Example: earthworm, sea anemones External Exoskeleton Internal Endoskeleton Cuticle of an insect covers the space of its body. It is covered with wax to prevent loss. To increase in size, arthropods have to shed their skeletons through ecdysis Made of bones & cartilage to which muscles are attached. Vertebrates depend on bones for locomotion.
  5. 5. The Axial Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton
  6. 6. The Axial Skeleton The Appendicular Skeleton
  7. 7. The Axial Skeleton • The axial skeleton consists of the 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. • It is composed of three parts: The skull (22) • Cranial Bones (8): [Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Frontal (1), Occipital (1), Sphenoid(2)] • Facial Bones (14): [Maxilla (2), Zygomatic (2), Mandible (1), Nasal (2), Palatine (2), Inferior nasal concha (2), Lacrimal (2), Vomer (1) ]
  8. 8. The Axial Skeleton
  9. 9. The Axial Skeleton
  10. 10. The Axial Skeleton The chest (25) • Sternum (1) • Ribs (24) • • • • • The vertebral column (33) Cervical vertebrae (7) Thoracic vertebrae (12) Lumbar vertebrae (5) Sacral vertebrae @ sacrum (5) Caudal vertebrae @ coccyx (4)
  11. 11. Thoracic Cage Sternum
  12. 12. Vertebral Column 7 12 5 5 (FUSED) 4 (FUSED)
  13. 13. Vertebrae Typical Vertebra has a CENTRUM, an opening called VERTEBRAL FORAMEN, and projection called PROCESS
  14. 14. Cervical Vertebrae
  15. 15. Cervical Vertebrae • • • • • • ATLAS A pair of vertebrarterial canal is to allow the vertebral artery to pass through the brain. Have NO centrum. To support cranium and produce “nodded (yes)” movement. AXIS A pair of verterbrarterial canal. Have ODONTOID process to get in the odontoid location in the neural canal of the atlas vertebra. Produce “NO” movement.
  16. 16. Cervical Vertebrae
  17. 17. Cervical Vertebrae • A pair of vertebrarterial canal. • Short transverse process. • Presence of centrum.
  18. 18. Thoracic Vertebrae • Have LONG spinous process which is directed downwards. • Transverse process and centrum serve as point of attachment for rib.
  19. 19. Lumbar Vertebrae • The largest and strongest vertebrae in the vertebral column. • Their processes are short and thick. • Large centrums which bear the weight of the lower back.
  20. 20. Sacrum and Coccyx • The sacrum is a triangular bone structure formed through the fusion of 5 bones. • The coccyx is also a triangle bone structure formed through the fusion of 4 bones.
  21. 21. Lumbar Vertebrae
  22. 22. The Appendicular Skeleton • The appendicular skeleton consisting of 126 bones. • Appendicular referring to an appendage or anything attached to a major part of the body, such as the upper and lower extremities. • It is composed of : 1) The pectoral girdle • Clavicle @ collar bone • Scapula @ shoulder blade 2) The pelvic girdle - Ilium -Pubic -Ischium
  23. 23. The Pectoral Girdle
  24. 24. The Pelvic Girdle
  25. 25. The Pelvic Girdle
  26. 26. The Appendicular Skeleton 3) The upper limb • Humerus (1) • Radius (1) • Ulna (1) • Carpals (8) • Metacarpals (5) • Phalanges (14) 4) The lower limb • Femur (1) • Tibia (1) • Fibula (1) • Patella (1) • Tarsus (7) • Metatarsus (5) • Phalanges (14)
  27. 27. The Appendicular Skeleton

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