anything that is living that
affects something else in
the rainforest: trees vines,
flowers, monkeys, bugs,
tigers, birds. These things
can also be dead but once
Temperature, amount of
humidity, sun, rocks, dirt,
Tropical rain forests grow in regions with
plenty of moisture and heat. They are also
referred as 'evergreen forests'.
Temperature and humidity are high and
has a very rich florestic and faunistic
Animals are active all the year. Many
animals use camouflage to hide from
predators; some can change the color to
match their surroundings. Animals that
live in the canopy have adaptations for
climbing, jumping, and/or flight.
Tropical dry forests, are located at tropical and subtropical latitudes. Though
these forests occur in climates that are warm year-round, and may receive
several hundred centimeters of rain per year, they deal with long dry seasons
which last several months and vary with geographic location.
The tropical dry forest is a type of forest found near the Equator that has
distinct rainy and dry seasons. Tropical dry forest can be found in some parts
of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Austraulia, and tropical
The animals that live in the dry forest have a
common characteristics. For example, the mammals
and birds include adaptations to a life in the trees.
Other characteristics are the color and sharp
patterns of some animals, loud vocalizations and the
diet that is compound of fruits.
This biome has a good biodiversity, because in it live a lot of animals.
The fauna is compound by the anteater, the jaguar, the red eye tree
frog, ocelot, quetzal, and others.
And the flora is compound by many plants, such as the babmo, banana
trees, rubber trees, and many fruit trees, as the avocado plants,
coffee, lemon, orange, peanut, peppers, and pineapples.
-The temperature of this biome is very warm and wet. It has an average
of temperatura of 20-34 °C.
-The tropical rainforest has a annual rainfall of 250 centimeters .
-His humidity is between 77 and 88%.
Tropical grasslands are located in the southern hemisphere.
They have two types of seasons: Dry season and rainy season.
The grass of tropical grasslands can get up to seven feet tall.
Animals that inhabit such biome includes the elephants, lions
In Australia, it would be common to find kangaroos.
Temperature, climate, seasons, dry season and rainy season.
Animal life: The animals that inhabit this area usually live in
herds, some hunting and some for protection from predators.
Characteristics of Deserts
There are different types of deserts ranging from hot and dry
deserts to cold deserts. A desert receives very little
precipitation throughout the year. Deserts will often be
extremely hot during the day and at night the temperature will
fall 40 - 50 degrees or more. The reason for this is that there
is little evaporation in the atmosphere to block sunlight during
the day and at night allows heat to escape easily.
The animals that live in the desert usually have special
adaptations that allow them to survive the extreme
temperatures and conditions that are present in a desert. A
good example of an animal with special adaptations is the
camel. A camel can drink very large amounts of water in one
day or survive for a relatively long time without
drinking any water.
Abiotic Factors: Sand, Sunlight, Water, Air, Temperature
Biotic Factors: Scorpions, Coyotes, Snakes, Lizard, Cacti
They are characterized by grasses as
the dominant vegetation, but are
devoid of trees and large shrubs.
Temperate grasslands are found in the
grasslands of the Great Plains of North
America, the pampas of South
America, the Asian steppes and
savannas of southern Australia.
Because temperate grassland
are such open, exposed
environment, predation is a
constant threat for smaller
animals. Camouflage and
burrowing are two common
dominant vegetation. Trees and
large shrubs are largely absent.
Seasonal drought, occasional
fires and grazing by large
mammals all prevent woody
shrubs and trees from becoming
pronghorn, pocket gophers and
prairie dogs, wolves, coyotes,
swift foxes, badgers and blackfooted
meadowlarks, quails, sparrows,
hawks and owls.
grasslands have hot
summers and cold winters.
•Moisture, the moisture in
located in the eastern United
States, Canada, Europe, China,
Japan, and parts of Russia.
Deciduous forests are broken up
into five zones.
Animals in temperate deciduous
forests have to adapt to
changing seasons. And they tend
to be browsers.
•Plants: Some common ones are ocote
white pine, Chinese pine sticks, ocote
chimonque pine, Chinese pine, pine
straight, hortiguillo, pine nuts and red
•Animals: They live deer, bobcat,
cougar, armadillo, opossum, gray fox,
squirrel, gray squirrel and northern
Rattlesnakes, black-tailed rattlesnake,
rattle snake Transvolcanic.
•Climate: They thrive in areas
with temperatures between 12
and 23 ° C, while in winter the
temperature can drop to below
This is a small biome in terms of area
covered. The main stretch of this habitat
is along the northwestern coast of North
America from northern California though
southern Alaska. There are also small
areas in southern Chile, New Zealand,
Australia and a few other places around
the world, most of which don't show up on
the scale of the map to the right. In
general, such forests form were relatively
warm offshore waters affect inland
Animals must cope
with changing weather.
Some hibernate; others
migrate to warmer
climates. Animals that
camouflaged to escape
predation in the winter
when bare trees leave
them more exposed.
winters; warm summers;
The trees that prevail are
the chestnut-tree, the haya,
the oak, the oak, the maple,
the walnut, the elm, and the
linden. And the animals that
abound are:ardillas, mice,
wolves, weasels, otters,
genets, hares, the dun bear
Are home to more species
than all other biomes
combined. Rain forests get
a lot of rain. Tall trees
form a dense, leafy
covering called canopy
form 50 to 80 meters
above the forest floor.
In the Coniferous forests, the
amphibians and reptiles are scarce.
The birds, insects and mammals are
common. Not many animals can live
in the coniferous forest, because the
climate is very cold in winter, which
is very long. Some animals hibernate
in the winter, and others migrate to
warmer climates. Some animals of
those stay in the coniferous forest die
•The temperature is between
10 °C and 20 °C in summer
and between -15 °C and 5 °C
•The climate is cold and wet.
•The soil has minerals that the
plants needs to his growth.
•The water has minerals and
nutrients, especially iron salts,
magnesium and manganese.
We can find tall trees in the
coniferous forest, such as the spruce,
fir, larch, pine, birch besides mosses
The fauna has many animals. We can
find sap-sucking, porcupine arboreal,
birds that eat conifer, bats, grizzly
bear, and many others
The Taiga or Boreal Forest exists as a
nearly continuous belt of coniferous
trees across North America and
Eurasia. It extends over areas of
glaciers and permafrost patches on
both continents. It is a mosaic of
successional plant communities and
sensitive subclimax vary.
Staying warm is the major
challenge for animals. Mosta
have extremities and extra
insulation in the form of fat
or downy feathers.
The climate of the taiga has subarctic
and cold climates.
* Needle-leaf conifers are the
dominant plants of the biome, the
evergreen "red fir", "fir", "pine", and
the "larch", deciduous trees and
shrubs broadleaf, "alder" "birch" and
The "Lynx" and several family
members of the "weasel" ermine,
mink, lratas, hares and lemmings
squirrels, elk, "the" wapiti ", and red
deer, beaver, among the
insectivorous birds as the" Warblers
wood "," finches "and omnivores
such as sparrows and crows.
The tundra is a cold, windy, dry region. The tundra is located in the
Northern Hemisphere just south of the polar ice caps in Alaska, Canada,
Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, and Russia. In the Southern Hemisphere,
the region that would be the tundra is covered by oceans. The tundra is one
of the larges biomes, making up almost 10 percent of the Earth's
surface. However, fewer organisms live in the tundra than in any other
biome. The lack of biodiversity makes tundra ecosystem very fragile and
unstable if disturbed.
Animals that live in the tundra have special adaptations that allow
them to survive the
extreme temperatures and conditions that are present in a tundra.
* Strong Winds
* little precipitaion (rainfall)
* short summer days
* very long and cold winters
* poor soil
permanently frozen subsoil
* Plants like Heaths and mosses
have to adapt to the very long
and cold winters because the sun
does not come up in the winter
* Wildlife like arctic tundra
animals include snowy owls,
reindeer, polar bears, white
foxes, lemmings, arctic hares,
wolverines, caribou, migrating
birds, mosquitoes, and black
Mexico’s Major terrestrial ecosystems
It is found mainly in Baja California,
Chiapas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Oaxaca,
They are found mainly in the north and
covering large areas in Chihuahua,
Coahuila, Sonora, Durango,
Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi and
It is found mainly in Tamaulipas,
Sonora, Baja California, Chihuahua,
Coahuila, Zacatecas, etc.
Arid and semiarid chaparral scrub
Jungle low or Rain Forest
It is found mainly in Sinaloa, Sonora,
Tamaulipas, Puebla, Guerrero, etc.
Jungle Medium and High or Rain
It is mainly found in Yucatan, Veracruz
Libro de Geografía 4° grado
Rivers and streams Rivers come in lots of
different shapes and sizes, but they all
have some things in common. All rivers
and streams start at some high point.
The high point can be a mountain, hill or
other elevated area. Water from some
source like a spring, snow melt or a lake
starts at this high point and begins to
flow down to lower points. As the water
flows down, it may pick up more water
from other small streams, springs or or
from rain or snow melt. These streams
may slowly join together to form a larger
stream or river. Small rivers and streams
may join together to become larger
rivers. Eventually all this water from
rivers and streams will run into the
ocean or an inland body of water like a
The Rivers and the streams water
makes up only about 0.2 percent of
all the fresh water on Earth, it
plays a very important role. Rivers
are like roads. They carry water,
organisms and important gases and
nutrients to many areas. They also
help drain rainwater and provide
habitats for many species of plants
and animals. As they make their
way to the sea, rivers help shape
the features of the Earth. Rivers
are travel routes for people and
provide the power for
Characteristics and Importance:
They have distinct zonation and stratification,
the coastal zone is characterized by rooted
vegetation along the shore, open water
limnetic zone domiadas by plankton and
deep zone dominated by heterotrophs.
In temperate regions are thermally stratified
lakes with warmer upper (epilimnion) that is
isolated from the hypolimnion (lower part
and cold), are separated by the thermocline
that prevents exchange of materials.
The shallow lakes are more fertile so that fish
production is often inversely proportional to
The lakes are classified as oligotrophic to
eutrophic with little food and lots of food.
Water either covers the soil or is present at
or near the surface for at least part of the
year. Water may flow through freshwater
wetladns or stay in place. Wetlands are often
nutrient-rich and highly productive.
They purify water by filtering pollutants and
help to prevent flooding by absorving large
amounts of water and slowly releasing it.
* The Intertidal Zone is where the land meets the sea. It is the area
between high tide and low tide. Intertidal communities can be
found on sandy beaches, in bays and estuaries, and along rocky
shorelines. The rocky shores are the most diverse and highly
populated. In this area where rocks are covered and uncovered daily
by the ocean, unique and diverse tide pool communities are formed.
* The marine animals living in this zone are unique because of their
ability to withstand exposure to air and the force of the pounding
* Coastal ocean
It extends from the low-tide mark to the outer edge of
the continental shelf. Water here is brightly lit, and is
often supplied with nutrients by freshwater runoff from
land. It tend to be highly productive.
* The open oceans or pelagic ecosystems are the
areas away from the coastal boundaries and above
the seabed. It encompasses the entire water
column of the seas and the oceans and lies beyond
the edge of the continental shelf. It extends from
the tropics to the polar regions and from the sea
surface to the abyssal depths. It is a highly
heterogeneous and dynamic habitat. Physical
processes control the biological activities and lead
to substantial geographic variability in production.
The water column is subdivided into
distinct zones by water depth and
distance from shore. This is based on
water depth and population
composition. The distinct zones are:
* The epipelagic zone ranges from the
sea surface to a depth of about 200
metres. This is also the limit of the
photic zone. Light penetrates into this
surface water and is usually enough
for the photosynthesis.
* The mesopelagic zone lies
underneath the epipelagic zone and
extends to about 1,000 metres.
* The bathypelagic zone is the zone
between the 1,000 and 4,000 metres.
* The abyssalpelagic zone extends to a
water depth of 6,000 metres.
* The hadalpelagic zone is deeper than
6,000 metres and is found in deep-sea
* Lakes and Lagoons
The lakes are depressions in the
land occupied by water. The lakes
are bodies of water adjacent to
the ocean, it is often isolated
A river is a natural stream of
water flowing continuously. It has
a certain flow is rarely constant
throughout the year, and empties
into the sea, in a lake or another
Wetlands fed by permanent waterhole
abundant riparian vegetation and semisubmerged. Many times represent the
headwaters streams and small rivers,
especially in arid and semiarid
Dam is a barrier that impounds water or
underground streams. Dams generally
serve the primary purpose of retaining
water, while other structures such as
floodgates or levees (also known as dikes)
are used to manage or prevent water flow
into specific land regions
The sea is the interconnected
system of all the Earth's oceanic
Reef is a rock, sandbar, or any
other element that lies 6 fathoms
(about 11 meters) or less below
the surface of the water during
Strass, E. (2000). Biology, The web of life (2nd ed.). Canada: Land .
R. Miller, K., & S. Levine, J. Biology . Upper Saddle River, New Jersy