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Chapter 1

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Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
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Chapter 1

  1. 1. CHEM 400 Introduction to Analytical Chemistry By Skoog, West, Holler, Crouch
  2. 2. The Role of Analytical Chemistry • Analytical chemistry plays a vital role in the development of science. • Plays a vital role in many research areas in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, geology, physics and the other sciences. • All branches of chemistry draw on the ideas and techniques of analytical chemistry. • The interdisciplinary nature of chemical analysis makes it a vital tool in medical, industrial, government and academic laboratories.
  3. 3. Chemistry as the Central Science
  4. 4. The Role of Analytical Chemistry -Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald “Analytical Chemistry, or the art of recognizing different substances and determining their constituents, takes a prominent position among the applications of science, since the questions which it enables us to answer arise wherever chemical processes are employed for scientific or chemical purposes.” http://www.pace.edu/dyson/academics/chemistryplv/
  5. 5. The Nature of Analytical Chemistry  Analytical Chemistry deals with methods for determining the chemical composition of samples. • Qualitative Analysis (identification) provides information about the identity of species or functional groups in the sample (an analyte can be identified). • Quantitative Analysis provides numerical information of analyte (quantitate the exact amount or concentration).
  6. 6. Analytical Methods • Classical Methods: Wet chemical methods such as precipitation, extraction, distillation, boiling or melting points, gravimetric and titrimetric measurements. • Instrumental Methods: Analytical measurements (conductivity, electrode potential, light absorption or emission, mass-to-charge ratio, fluorescence etc.) are made using instrumentation.
  7. 7. Classifying Quantitative Analytical Methods • Gravimetric Methods: Determine the mass of the analyte or some compound chemically related to it. • Volumetric Methods: The volume of a solution containing sufficient reagent to react completely with the analyte is measured. • Spectroscopic Methods: Based on measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and analyte atoms or molecules. • Chromatographic Methods: Separation techniques and quantitation is based on calibration curve. • Electroanalytical Methods: Involve the measurement of electrical properties such as voltage, current, resistance and quantity of electrical charge.
  8. 8. Steps in a quantitative analysis
  9. 9. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 1) Picking a Method: The first step is the selection of a method. Factors need to be considered in the selection process are: 1. Accuracy required 2. Cost of analysis (total investment) 3. Number of sample to be analyzed 4. Time required for analysis 5. Skill required 6. Complexity of the sample 7. Number of components in the sample
  10. 10. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 2) Acquiring the Sample: Sampling is the process of collecting a small mass of a material whose composition accurately represents the bulk of the material from which it was taken. To produce meaningful information, an analysis must be performed on a representative sample. For large heterogeneous sample, great effort is required to get a representative sample. Sometime proper sampling is the most difficult step in an analysis and the source of greatest error. The final result of an analysis will never be any more reliable than the reliability of the sampling step.
  11. 11. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 3) Processing the sample: The third step in an analysis is to process the sample. Sometimes no sample processing is required prior to the measurement step such as pH of water sample can be measured directly. Under most circumstances, sample need to be processed in a variety of different ways. i. Preparing a Laboratory Sample – hydrate or dehydrate ii. Defining Replicate Samples – improves the reliability iii. Preparing Solutions: Physical and Chemical Changes
  12. 12. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 4) Eliminating Interferences: Need to eliminate substances from the sample that may interfere with the measurement step. Few chemical or physical properties of importance in chemical analysis are unique to a single chemical species. Species other than the analyte that affect the final measurement are called interferences. An interference causes an error in an analysis by enhancing or attenuating the quantity being measured. A scheme must be devised to isolate the analytes from interferences before the final measurement is made.
  13. 13. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 5) Calibration and Measurement: An analytical results depend on a final measurement of a physical or chemical property (X). Ideally, the measurement of the property is directly proportional to the concentration (CA). CA = kX where, k is a proportionality constant. The process of determining k is an important step in most analyses. This step is called a calibration.
  14. 14. Stepping Through a Typical Quantitative Analysis 6) Calculating Results: Analyte concentrations from experimental data need to be calculated. These computation are based on the raw experimental data collected in the measurement steps, the characteristics of the measurement instruments and the stoichiometry of the analytical reaction. 7) Evaluating Results by Estimating Their Reliability: Analytical results are incomplete without an estimate of their reliability. Some measure of the uncertainties associated with computed results need to be provided.
  15. 15. FEED BACK CONTROL SYSTEM

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