PDC+++ Module 4 Class 6 Renewables

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What Energy Sources are available & how do they work?

Civilizations are based on the fuels they use to power themselves. The fuel determines the technologies used, and the technologies determine the lifestyles, economies, and eventually the entire culture. So the transition to sustainable fuels is critical if we wish to design sustainable cultures.
This class explores which fuels can be considered 'renewable' & under which circumstances.
Also we look into the various transformer technologies which are needed to make this energy available to us, how they are most effectively used and we explore what a truly 'solar-powered civilization' might look like.

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PDC+++ Module 4 Class 6 Renewables

  1. 1. + PDC Module 4 of the PDC+++ + + Energy & EcoTechnology Class We dedicate this Module to the Mother & Father of Integral Permaculture: Dana M4.6 Meadows & Howard Odum, two original pioneers who helped humanity makeRenewables great strides in understanding systemic thinking, in all four quadrants. What Energy Sources are available & how do they work? Civilizations are based on the fuels they use to power themselves. The fuel determines the technologies used, and the technologies determine the lifestyles, economies, and eventually the entire culture. So the transition to sustainable fuels is critical if we wish to design sustainable cultures. This class explores which fuels can be considered renewable & under which circumstances. Also we look into the various transformer technologies which are needed to make this energy available to us, how they are most effectively used and we explore what a truly solar-powered civilization might look like.
  2. 2. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  3. 3. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  4. 4. “That you may live in interesting times” we are destroying 200 species per day - all being tranformed to human “In times of biomass biodiversity right now are alive 3/4 of the extraordinary extinction 65+ year olds that have ever change, energy-matter & lived. A fundamental problem of the 21st century. the gray wave the problem isNOT in achievingall that we could PEAK OIL 2000 CLIMATE dream, 2020 CHANGE but in NOTdreaming all that monetarywe could achieve” instability & (Dee Hock) in the last 20years, the 500 the information largest firms in the world revolution ... things are a lot more increased their production & sales by 700% whilst REDUCING interesting than we their labour force usually imagine ...
  5. 5. What happens with sources & consumption of energy? Fossil Fuels + BioEnergies Nuclear
  6. 6. What happens with complexity? knowledge >> general principles See Class M4.4 Energy & Class M4.4 Odum 300.000 emjoules are needed to produce a joule of electric energyA society RE-DESIGNED for an energy descent HT Odum "A Prosperous Way Down"
  7. 7. Basically there are 3Energy SOURCES: Thermo-Solar Gravitational Photovoltaic Wind GeoThermic Waves Hydro Solar BioEnergy (Plants & Animals) Fossil Reserves (Coal, Oil, Gas)
  8. 8. GeoThermal Tidal Dams Gas from Rubbish Gravi- Marine Windtational Small Hydro Terrestial Wind Solar Big Hydro source: The Ecologist Concentrated Solar Magazine Tidal Currents Waves Solid Biomass Thermo-Solar PhotoVoltaic Conventional Coal GeoThermal Nuclear Heat Pumps Clean Coal BioDiesel Ethanol Tar Sands
  9. 9. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  10. 10. In 1865, the English economist William Stanley Jevons observed that technologicalimprovements that increased the efficiency of coal use led to the increased consumption of coal in a wide range of industries.He argued that, contrary to common intuition, technological improvements could not be relied upon to reduce fuel consumption.
  11. 11. History has repeatedly shown that energy-efficiency rarely leads to net energy reduction.In fact, quite frequently, efficiency improvements make things worse by actually encouraging anet waste in energy.This counter-intuitive effect is known as the Jevons Paradox.
  12. 12. The end aim is NOT ENERGY higher REDUCTION efficiencies
  13. 13. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  14. 14. Gravitational Energy Height of tides in the port of Brest (France) in December 2000
  15. 15. Gravitational Energy (PowerBuoy in Reedsport, Oregon) WAVE POWERTIDAL POWER (SeaGen inStrangford Lough, UK)
  16. 16. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  17. 17. Geothermal Energy Geothermal gradient
  18. 18. Geothermal Energy Applications ¡
  19. 19. Geothermal Energy Biggest hotspots in the world
  20. 20. Geothermal EnergyHigh-temperature deposits (>100ºC): Electricity generation
  21. 21. Geothermal EnergyMid-temperature deposits (>30ºC & <100ºC): Heating
  22. 22. Geothermal EnergyMid-temperature deposits (>30ºC & <100ºC): Heating
  23. 23. Geothermal EnergyLow-temperature deposits (<30ºC): Heat pump
  24. 24. Geothermal EnergyLow-temperature deposits (<30ºC): Heat pump
  25. 25. Geothermal EnergyLow-temperature deposits (<30ºC): Heat pump
  26. 26. Geothermal EnergyGeoVentilation: Canadian Well Winter: Outside temperature 3º C House air inflow 14.5º C Summer: Outside temperature 31.5º C House air inflow 19.5º C
  27. 27. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  28. 28. Sunlight in the areas represented by black disks could produce enough energy to power the world. Credit: ez2c.de
  29. 29. GravitationalGeoThermal Solar Thermal Energy Solar Photovoltaics Wind power Hydropower BioMass (Plants & Animals)
  30. 30. Solar Thermal Energy Direct Circulation
  31. 31. Solar Thermal Energy Forced Circulation
  32. 32. Solar Thermal EnergyWe‟ll study many solar devices in the M4.9 & M4.10 – EcoScience – classes… and you can build many of them :)
  33. 33. GravitationalGeoThermal Solar Thermal Energy Solar Photovoltaics Wind power Hydropower BioMass (Plants & Animals)
  34. 34. Photovoltaics
  35. 35. PhotovoltaicsIsolated
  36. 36. PhotovoltaicsConnecting to the grid
  37. 37. PhotovoltaicsConnecting to the grid
  38. 38. PhotovoltaicsConnecting to the grid
  39. 39. PhotovoltaicsConnecting to the grid
  40. 40. PhotovoltaicsSolar Cooperative
  41. 41. PhotovoltaicsSolar Guerrilla
  42. 42. GravitationalGeoThermal Solar Thermal Energy Solar Photovoltaics Wind power Hydropower BioMass (Plants & Animals)
  43. 43. Wind PowerConnecting to the grid
  44. 44. Wind PowerMicro Wind Turbines
  45. 45. Wind PowerHomemade Wind Power
  46. 46. GravitationalGeoThermal Solar Thermal Energy Solar Photovoltaics Wind power Hydropower BioMass (Plants & Animals)
  47. 47. HydroPowerMicroHyro Systems
  48. 48. GravitationalGeoThermal Solar Thermal Energy Solar Photovoltaics Wind power Hydropower BioMass (Plants & Animals)
  49. 49. BiomassBiomass boiler
  50. 50. BiomassDistrict heating
  51. 51. BiomassElectricity generation
  52. 52. BiomassEfficient stoves
  53. 53. BiomassBiogas
  54. 54. BiomassBiogas
  55. 55. BiomassUsed oil biodiesel
  56. 56. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Direct Link to this chapter in the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System
  57. 57. Class M4.5 9) Numbers. Meadows 8) Material stocks and flows PermaCulture were building 7) Regulating negative feedback loops. 6) Driving positive feedback loops. 5) Information flows. 4) The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). What weve got / already built 3) The power of self-organization 2)The goals of the systemPlaces 1) The mindset or paradigm out of whichto the system arisesIntervene 0) The power to transcend paradigmsin a System
  58. 58. The GOALS of the System DeGrowth! DESIGN is conscious creation
  59. 59. Re- design myths! &The mind- FACILITATE set or healing ofparadigm addictions
  60. 60. Mad Max etc. ... apocalyptic cinema
  61. 61. a flotilla ofWhilst current society rescue-(the Destructo-Culture)continues sailing along, in great boats is notpart ignorant of its wake-up call enoughwith Nature... beyond the ABC in the modern Titanic ... How many are still : A) enjoying the view, B) re-organizing the deck-chairs C) trying to persuade the captains to change course?
  62. 62. The Jetsons, Venus Project, etc.“TechnoFantasy”
  63. 63. The Metaphor of the Chrisalis The waking of Planetary Consciousness after much pruning & eating the caterpillar encloses itself in a chrysalis& some imaginal cells appear,apparently „from nowhere‟... & at the start are killedas „foreign‟ to the system
  64. 64. ... but then more & more imaginal cells appear, & little by little they group to form new organs &dramatically changethe design ... when the chrysalis opens, acompletely new creature emerges
  65. 65. The Green Planet, Avatar, ...
  66. 66. PermaCultureScience.com
  67. 67. Class M4.5 9) Numbers. Meadows 8) Material stocks and flows PermaCulture were building 7) Regulating negative feedback loops. 6) Driving positive feedback loops. 5) Information flows. 4) The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). What weve got / already built 3) The power of self-organization 2)The goals of the systemPlaces 1) The mindset or paradigm out of whichto the system arisesIntervene 0) The power to transcend paradigmsin a System
  68. 68. We are all in Transition, Re-designing ...as imaginal cells (activists)Inventingour newbutterflyself(empowered)& we need to CONNECTin order to co-create the new structure, together
  69. 69. M4.6 * What Energy Sources areavailable & how do they Work? Our Imagination, Hope, Intelligence, Optimism Energy Sources & Societal Design Jeevons Paradox Gravitational In the e-book: www.bit.ly/Renewables46 GeoThermal Solar Energy Leverage Points in a System

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