Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

PDC+++ Module 4 Class 4 H. T. Odum

1,775 views

Published on

Howard T. Odum studied in great detail the energy flows & interactions in complex life systems, creating a simple pattern-language that serves as a powerful model for understanding how ecosystems work, in useful detail.    

This model includes visible as well as invisible components of a system, & is so holistic that human economy as well as minerals & weather processes can be accounted for.      

He also proposed a new & provocative law of thermodynamics that includes Life.    

In this class we will explore the basics of this work and explore how it is an essential base of Integral Permaculture.

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

PDC+++ Module 4 Class 4 H. T. Odum

  1. 1. + PDC Module 4 of the PDC++++ + Energy & EcoTechnology We dedicate this Module to the Mother &Class Father of Integral Permaculture: Dana Meadows & Howard Odum, two original M4.4 pioneers who helped humanity makeEnergy great strides in understanding systemic thinking, in all four quadrants. Howard T. Odum studied in great detail the energy flows & interactions in complex life systems, creating a simple pattern-language that serves as a powerful model for understanding how ecosystems work, in useful detail. This model includes visible as well as invisible components of a system, & is so holistic that human economy as well as minerals & weather processes can be accounted for. He also proposed a new & provocative law of thermodynamics that includes Life. In this class we will explore the basics of this work and explore how it is an essential base of Integral Permaculture.
  2. 2. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  3. 3. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  4. 4. The Importance of Theory + Experience:Chefs & Recepy Followers Great chefs dont follow Aristotle: recepies, they create & improvise The problem is that young people know the theory but dont have experience, & the old people have experience & have forgotten the theory. The two TOGETHER are essentialBecause they know the THEORY (chemistry & physicsof the ingredients) intimately+they have much, varies & detailed EXPERIENCE inapplying it
  5. 5. 7 Energetics Principles4 Laws of Thermodynamics + 3 Additional from Odum 1. Zeroth principle of energetics If two thermodynamic systems A and B are in thermal equilibrium, and B and C are also in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are in thermal equilibrium. 2. First principle of energetics The increase in the internal energy of a system is equal to the amount of energy added to the system by heating, minus the amount lost in the form of work done by the system on its surroundings. 3. Second principle of energetics The total entropy of any isolated thermodynamic system tends to increase over time, approaching a maximum value. 4. Third principle of energetics As a system approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value or zero for the case of a perfect crystalline substance.
  6. 6. 7 Energetics Principles4 Laws of Thermodynamics + 3 Additional from Odum1. Fourth principle of energetics There seem to be two opinions on the fourth principle of energetics:In the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power, the fourth principle of energetics. Odum also proposed the Maximum empower principle as a corollary of the maximum power principle, and considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary self- organization.1. Fifth principle of energetics The energy quality factor increases hierarchically. From studies of ecological food chains, Odum proposed that energy transformations form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase (Odum 2000, p. 246). Flows of energy develop hierarchical webs in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed by work processes into energy forms of higher quality that feedback amplifier actions, helping to maximise the power of the system" — (Odum 1994, p. 251)2. Sixth principle of energetics Material cycles have hierarchical patterns measured by the energy/mass ratio that determines its zone and pulse frequency in the energy hierarchy. (Odum 2000, p. 246). M.T. Brown and V. Buranakarn write, "Generally, energy per mass is a good indicator of recycle-ability, where materials with high energy per mass are more recyclable" (2003, p. 1).
  7. 7. & Energy Theory is VERY important because quite counter-intuitive ... Ref: Chris Martensons Crash Course & what our societys practice is BASED ON
  8. 8. The Energy Lawsreview - in picturesConservation of Energy
  9. 9. The Energy Laws review - in picturesConservation of EnergyEntropy
  10. 10. The Energy Laws review - in picturesAcceleration of EntropyByhigher energy transformationsfrom one form to another& more inefficiency (heat loss)in the transformations(INDUSTRIAL processesare typically hot - NATURESarent - see biomimicry)
  11. 11. The Energy Laws review - in picturesLife? The Mother Eros Goddess in ancient times was arepresentation of Life-Death Thanatos
  12. 12. Aristotle:mothers kill the weakest ... The problem is that young people know the theory but dont have experience, & the oldAND ALSO people have experience & have forgotten thefiercely defend their young theory. But THEORY is often also WAY ahead in time
  13. 13. The Energy Lawsreview - in picturesLife?Chaos Theory Fractals, attractors
  14. 14. A Natural Succession Pattern Increase of Life / Efficiency / Fertility > general direction of EvolutionThe work of ecologist HowardOdum a Life & Deathprovided a theoretical storyframework and conceptualtoolwhich was critical in the = an energy economicsdevelopment of the storypermaculture concept.
  15. 15. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  16. 16. Howard T. Odum “As sometimes attributed to past cultures, people may again find glory in being an agent of the earth” Odum was a scientist, teacher, an agent of the earth, and an Integral permaculturist “If the bewildering complexity of human knowledge developed in the 20th century is to be retained and well used, unifying concepts are needed to consolidate the understanding of systems of many kinds and to simplify the1924,Chapel Hill, North teaching of general principles” Carolina2002, Gainesville, Florida
  17. 17. Odum developed a large part of his work together with his brother Eugene, a biologist an also a systems ecology pioneer They wrote the first Ecology Textbook everYou can search for “Eugene Odum” in the e-book www.PermaCultureScience.org and watch an interview with him
  18. 18. Odum left an incredible legacy in many fields associated with ecology, systems, and energetics.He studied ecosystems all over the world, and pioneered the study of several areas, some of which are now distinct fields of research: Ecological modeling (Odum 1960a); Ecological engineering (Odum et al. 1963); Ecological economics (Odum 1971); Estuarine ecology (Odum and Hoskins 1958); Tropical ecosystems ecology (Odum and Pidgeon 1970); General systems theory
  19. 19. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory• Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  20. 20. EnergyEnergy Transformation ProcessThe ability to do work…and WORK is defined as any useful energy transformationone type of energy is transformed into another kind of energy, with some beingturned into a non-usable form (no longer has the potential to do further work)
  21. 21. energy SOURCES • Solar energy • Wind energy • Bio energy • Geothermal energy • Tidal energy FORMS of energy • Nuclear energy • Hydroelectric energy • Fossil fuels • Thermal energy • Chemical energy • Electric energy • Radiant energy Potential • Nuclear energy • Magnetic energy & Kinetic • Elastic energy • Sound energy In Class 4.6 we will go deeper intorenewable sources of energy + mixtures • Mechanical energy • Luminous energy • Mass (E=mc²)
  22. 22. Not all forms of energy are equivalents... Thermic = electricity = quemical = …. X X XIn its ability to do work flexibility convertibility Not all energy has the same quality Ease of transportation concentration
  23. 23. In order to compare we need another concept of energyEmergy: energy (of the same form) needed directly orindirectly to do something Usually expressed in solar energy form Units: Solar Joules or emjoules
  24. 24. Emergy Intensities The ratio between emergy input and output The lower the value >> the more efficient is the processExpressed in:- sej/J ------> transformities- sej/g ------> specific emergy- sej/$ ----- > emergy dollars
  25. 25. An Eg. 300.000 emjoules are needed to produce a joule of electric energy
  26. 26. Using a conversion factorwe can express emergy in its economic equivalent An Eg.Every dollar spent in the USeconomy has embodied in it 1xE12 sej.
  27. 27. Environmental support of human economy...Environmental support of human economy...
  28. 28. Trough the emergy evaluation (emergy synthesis) we can:Evaluate the fitness and efficiency of a systemCompare between development alternativesFind out which is the more efficient way to use a resource.And it give us the ability to analyze complex systems integratingthe human economic resources and the “free” naturalresources.
  29. 29. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer• Importance of Theory• Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  30. 30. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle <<< Can you figure out what this diagram might represent by the next class?Systems maximize power by:1) developing storages of high-quality energy, This is HD Odums work2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,3) recycling materials as needed,4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the system adapted and stable,5) setting up exchanges for needed materials,6) Contributing work to the next larger system >> 5th Law: All Systems are organized hierarchically
  31. 31. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle • Fourth Principle of Energetics • In the field of ecological energetics H.T. Odum considered maximum power,Systems maximize power by: the fourth principle of energetics.1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows, • Odum also proposed the Maximum empower principle3) recycling materials as needed, as a corollary of the maximum4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the system power principle, andadapted and stable, considered it to describe the propensities of evolutionary5) setting up exchanges for needed materials, self-organization.6) Contributing work to the next larger system
  32. 32. More Flowers, more 4th Law of Honey, Wax larvae Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle Pollen, nectar, > fruit Recycle, Hibernate, SwarmSystems maximize power by:1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,3) recycling materials as needed,4) organizing control mechanisms that keep the systemadapted and stable,5) setting up exchanges for needed materials,6) Contributing work to the next larger system
  33. 33. 4th Law of Thermodynamics The Maximum Empower Principle“In time,through the process of trial and error,complex patterns of structure and processeshave evolved...the successful ones survivingbecause they use materials and energies wellin their own maintenance,and compete well with other patternsthat chance interposes.” H.T. Odum
  34. 34. 5th Law of Energetics The Energy Quality Factor increases hierarchicallyFrom studies of ecological food chains,Odum proposed that energy transformations In 1987 Scienceman proposed that the phrases,form a hierarchical series measured by Transformity increase > "energy quality",(Odum 2000, p. 246). > "energy quality factor", andFlows of energy develop hierarchical webs > "energy transformation ratio", all used by H.T.Odum,in which inflowing energies interact and are transformed be replaced by the word "transformity" (p. 261).by work processes into energy forms of higher quality That is to say that it aims tothat feedback amplifier actions, quantify quality.helping to maximize the power of the system"— (Odum 1994, p. 251)
  35. 35. 5th Law… All systems are organized hierarchicallyEnergy flows of the universe are organized into energy transformationhierarchies.The position in the energy hierarchy can be measured by the amountof energy required to produce something Example: The techno–human “food-chain”
  36. 36. More about Systems StructuresHierarchy eagle Energy Quantity Holarchy Energy Quality 2) complex systems in turn are made up of sub- Holons systems rabbit 3) & sub-systems organize themselves into nested hierarchies (holarchies) herbs
  37. 37. Energy Transformation Hierarchy Spatial view of units and their territories Energy networks including transformation and feedbacksAggregation of energy network into an energy chainBar graph of the energy flows of the levels in the energyhierarchy Bar graph of solar transformities
  38. 38. M4.4 Howard Odum *Systems Ecology Pioneer Importance of Theory Odums Biography Emergy The 4th & 5th Principle Corollaries & Applications
  39. 39. There are lots of Fertile Connections yet to make!! Odums Work is not yet applied to designing Economies >> & this is a very important job for the next generation of Integral Permaculture Designers eg. What would an integration of the work of Silvio Gessell (M5.2) & Howard Odums + Dana Meadows (M4.5) work look like? Because it will be very likely produce important break- throughs ....“If the bewildering complexity of human knowledgedeveloped in the 20th century is to be retained and well used, unifying concepts are needed to consolidate the understanding of systems of many kinds and to simplify the teaching of general principles." knowledge >> general principles
  40. 40. Use of Energy & ResourcesExponential Growth of the EconomyLoss of BioDiversityPopulationPollution knowledge >> general principles Could it be that Cr we needed all ea this excess tiv nt e sce energy to get to De al A truly understand sce nt sustainability stri Indu engineering Post-Industrial Sustainable AS A Culture SPECIES? David Holmgren
  41. 41. Eg.2 -Multinationals asefficient predators NOT inevitable, just a good use of patternTo maximize power of an economic activity,local resources > used & exchanged for additional resources.Ej. Good land planted with addition of fertilizers > people buy lots of produce.> Good profits > buy more inefficient land > repeat process many times.> Successful management survives + copied by others.> Because their work helps to increase energy consumption of the whole economy> this behavior sustained by the economy & survives > keeps feeding off others ..
  42. 42. 1) developing storages of high-quality energy,2) feeding back work from storages to increase inflows,Each US $ is equivalent to some1,000,000,000,000 Solar emergy joules
  43. 43. 2) complex systems haveEnergy Hierarchies ... in turn sub-systems Multinationals 3) & sub-systems are organized in nested Companies hierarchies 1) have components Small Businesses > US at this level >
  44. 44. Odums Contribution toSystems Science  Howard Odum “Energy Basis for Man and Nature”  A base of PermaCulture (diploma work)  his contribution:  Ecosystems as flows of energy  Incorporate living & non-living elements  Incorporating human systems & economies as an integral part of the natural world An un-comfortable fit > sometime un-popular even with ecologists ...
  45. 45. Developed a "systems language" insymbols P a t h w a y L in e : a f lo w o f e n e r g y , o f te n w ith a f lo w o f m a te r ia ls . S O U R C E : o u ts id e s o u r c e o f e n e r g y ; a f o r c in g f u n c tio n . S T O R A G E : a c o m p a r tm e n t o f e n e r g y s to r a g e w ith i n th e s y s te m s to r in g q u a n tity a s th e b a la n c e o f in f lo w s a n d o u tf lo w s
  46. 46. systems pattern language IN T E R A C T IO N : p r o c e s s w h ic h c o m b in e s d if f e r e n t ty p e s o f e n e r g y f lo w s o r m a te r ia l f lo w s to p r o d u c e a n o u tf lo w in p r o p o r tio n to a f u n c tio n o f th e in f lo w s . P R O D U C E R : u n it th a t c o lle c ts a n d tr n a s f o r m s lo w - q u a lity e n e r g y u n d e r c o n tr o l in te r a c tio n s o f h ig h e r q u a lity f lo w s . . C O N S U M E R : u n it th a t tr a n s f o r m s e n e r g y q u a lity , s to r e s it, a n d f e e d s it b a c k a u to c a ta ly tic a lly to im p r o v e in f lo w
  47. 47. source Q ui ckTi m e™ and a TI FF ( LZW) decom pr ess or ar e needed t o s ee t hi s pi ct ur e. processproducer consumer storage 47
  48. 48. Emergy Accounting shrimp harvest +1092* losses to local region - 602 losses for Ecuador - 1100 gains for the USA + 710 Accounting * in millons of Em$ per year
  49. 49. There are lots of Fertile Connections yet to make!!Odums Work is not yet appliedto designing Ecologies, either>> which is crucial if were to create really thriving, long-term sustainable IntegralPermaculture Designseg. What would a truly mature International "Permaculture" Community look like?>> "Permaculture" in the general sense: everyone who is working towards a sustainableculture. Systems that maximize power are also systems that feed-back to a bigger system. Eg. a tree uses solar energy to increase leaf area ... in this process the tree supports the vegetation system, increasing nutrients, creating a stable micro-climate, cycling nutrients > & providing animal food. Thus the tree maximizes own power & the power of the system it belongs to.
  50. 50. The Big General Pattern that KILLS IDEAS- BIODIVERSITY & connection seems to be our INABILITY to Resolve Conflics Fear of Discussion Avoidance Get Impatient DemonizingMinimizing No adequate Technology & Dont Knowledge Listen knowledge >> general principles
  51. 51. & how will all this interactwith these other high energystores stories ..Petrol
  52. 52. & how will all this interact with these other high energy stores stories .. MoneyEach country by gold and foreign currency reserves minus external debt.It is based on 2009 data from the CIA Factbook Source: Wikipedia
  53. 53. & how will all this interactwith these other high energystores stories .. ¿Knowledge?

×