PDC+++ Module 3 Class 8. Biodiversity

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Biodiversity is the variety of life in all its forms, levels & combinations.  To maintain the biodiversity of the Gaian organism is of vital importance because each species represents a node of connexion in the complex web of Life which sustains us.   At the moment our industrial & highly consumerist civilization is responsible for the disappearance of some 200 species per day.
  

These are converted into human biomass on a daily basis, but we're destroying the foundation that support our own survival.    So there is a big job to do.  In this class we explore some direct ways of increasing biodiversity at a local level, like seed recuperation, habitat protection, & starting to change our diet in a conscious way so that it adapts better to the indigenous ecosystem of our region, instead of trying to adapt nature to our whims.

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  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • Hybridization is a naturally occurring genetic process where individuals from two genetically distinct populations mate.
  • The major methods of asexual propagation are cuttings, layering, division, and budding/grafting. Cuttings involve rooting a severed piece of the parent plant; layering involves rooting a part of the parent and then severing it; and budding and grafting are joining two plant parts from different varieties.
  • Stems that are still attached to their parent plant may form roots where they come in contact with a rooting medium. This method of vegetative propagation is generally successful, because water stress is minimized and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient levels are high. The development of roots on a stem while the stem is still attached to the parent plant is called layering . A layer is the rooted stem following detachment (removal) from the parent plant. Some plants propagate naturally by layering, but sometimes plant propagators assist the process. Layering is enhanced by wounding the stem where the roots are to form. The rooting medium should always provide aeration and a constant supply of moisture.
  • Roots are most likely to develop at a stem wound that is in firm contact with moist soil. When a plant is wounded, hormones called auxins collect briefly around the wound and alter the ­nature of cell division in the cambium (inner “bark” of the stem) so that it begins to form embryonic root tissue. Meanwhile, callus material forms over the wounded area. If the wound is ­exposed to air, the callus dries and becomes hard; in contact with moist soil, the callus remains somewhat soft, and the burgeoning roots beneath it can emerge. Most herb stems darken as they harden, and the newer growth toward the tips will be a lighter color than that farther down. The succulent new growth is easiest and most likely to root; when the stems are just firm enough to snap instead of bending, they are ready to be taken as cuttings. Bay (Laurus nobilis) is a notable exception: take hardwood cuttings late in the season. Whatever the condition of the stem, it is wise to take cuttings only from the current year’s growth.
  • Vine nursery with newly grafted plants. Touraine, Loire, France T-budding is most commonly used for summer budding of apples, crabapples, dogwoods, peaches, and pears. T-budding must be one when the bark will "slip." Slipping means that, when cut, the bark easily lifts or peels in one uniform layer from the underlying wood without tearing. The exact time when this condition occurs depends on soil moisture, temperature, and time of year. It varies with species and variety.
  • This book is about one woman's sacred vision and commitment to learning to live sustainably and in harmony with life on Earth. Since 1976 Anna Edey has made one astonishing discovery after another, which she has been developing ever since under the name Solviva Solar-Dynamic Bio-Benign Design. The results of her experiments and methods have again and again exceeded highest hopes and expectations. This book describes the exciting trials and triumphs of her journey, and offers convincing proof that, with today's available technology and knowledge, we can live in ways that reduce pollution and depletion of resources by 80% or more, and that at the same time reduce cost of living and improve security and quality of life, in urban or rural locations anywhere on Earth. The book contains 224 pages, with 155 color illustrations, and many detailed instructions and recommendations to help others along their journeys toward living sustainably.
  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • who are we humans? this is about really root questions. can we respect ourselves? can we live with ourselves? what stories are we putting into motion? These are some of our local varieties of maize, which we exchanged through our seed & plants exchange ... another way of 'genetically manipulating' seeds! Through culture
  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • 1 - biodiversidad, principio diversidad, interna y externa C2- Semillas y propagación de plantas S3- invernaderos S5 - habitat y transgénicos C6 - vandana shiva C
  • PDC+++ Module 3 Class 8. Biodiversity

    1. 1. M3.8 PDC+++ <ul><li>Biodiversity is the variety of life in all its forms, levels & combinations.  To maintain the biodiversity of the Gaian organism is of vital importance because each species represents a node of connexion in the complex web of Life which sustains us.   At the moment our industrial & highly consumerist civilization is responsible for the disappearance of some 200 species per day. </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>These are converted into human biomass on a daily basis, but we're destroying the foundation that support our own survival.    So there is a big job to do.  In this class we explore some direct ways of increasing biodiversity at a local level, like seed recuperation, habitat protection, & starting to change our diet in a conscious way so that it adapts better to the indigenous ecosystem of our region, instead of trying to adapt nature to our whims. </li></ul>of the M3.8 BIODIVERSITY an integral exploration PDC + + +
    2. 2. wangari maathai &quot;Until you dig a hole, plant a tree, you water it & make it survive, you haven't done a thing. You're just talking&quot; “ The essential role of the environment is still marginal in discussions about poverty. While we continue to debate these initiatives, environmental degradation, including the loss of biodiversity and topsoil, accelerates, causing development efforts to falter.” Kenia, 1 April 1940 - 25 September 2011
    3. 3. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    4. 4. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    5. 5. Biodiversity Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth, from the genes to species and populations to the complex ecosystems in which they live
    6. 6. 14 million species is an an estimate of the biodiversity of the Earth we've only documented 1.7 million habitat destruction & pollution play major roles in destroying animal & plant species 2004 team of scientist estimated that 15 to 37% will extinct due to global warming
    7. 7. Importance of Biodiversity <ul><li>Biodiversity is crucially important also because because the Earth's Vital Cycles depend on a great variety of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Our lives depend on preserving biodiversity </li></ul>&quot;EarthCare&quot; as an ethic implies that we take care of all of Earth's creatures' rights to thrive.
    8. 8. Importance of Biodiversity Climate change will severely test ecosystems' resilience , & resilience is a factor of biodiversity
    9. 9. we are all &quot;odd-balls&quot; And it is our weirdness interacting with other people weirdness that CREATES BIODIVERSITY CULTURALDIVERSITY
    10. 10. a Social Model (RC) owning class working class sexism classism racism adultism/ageism isolated BY OPPRESSIONS (which are combinations of PATTERNS) ISOLATION is the pattern we perceive but INSIDE each group there is also tension The Oppressions (inner and outer) don't allow us to appreciate a care for our diversity
    11. 11. Internalized Oppression External Oppression (institutions & people who limit & batter us from outside) (patterns that limit & batter us from the inside) LOTS OF PRESSURE!! eg. adultism sexism racism classism ... > we attempt to ‘liberate’ it by acting as oppressors whenever the opportunity presents itself (= PERPETUATES the pattern) > or we anesthetize ourselves (drugs of any kind: it's their function = PERPETUATES the pattern)
    12. 12. Biodiversity it's a matter of the four quadrants
    13. 14. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    14. 15. Seeds <ul><li>&quot;The Seed is today's Spinning Wheel&quot; (Vandana Shiva) </li></ul><ul><li>Patenting & Genetic Engineering are major threats </li></ul><ul><li>Seed saving & recuperation of local species therefore crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Also very good business! </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>we have a great Seed Saving Manual in the e-Book! </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting Heritage Varieties & </li></ul><ul><li>Locally adapted crops </li></ul><ul><li>very important for your bioregion </li></ul>Seed Banks Learn how to collect your own seeds & how to support your nearest Seed Bank
    16. 18. Combining a wide variety of species underpins any good design
    17. 19. A Herb Spiral is lots of complementary varieties in one place
    18. 20. Grow your own locally adapted varieties to enjoy
    19. 21. Plant Reproduction I <ul><li>Sexual Reproduction (Seeds, some spores) - involves genetic re-combination </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids & non-hybrids > seed propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridization: a naturally occurring genetic process where individuals from two genetically distinct populations mate </li></ul>
    20. 22. Plant Reproduction II <ul><li>Asexual Reproduction - exactly same plant as 'mother' plant </li></ul><ul><li>There is a great number of methods for this, see Plant Propagation section under Biodiversity in e-Book! </li></ul><ul><li>Cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Layering </li></ul><ul><li>Division </li></ul><ul><li>Budding/grafting </li></ul><< some of the most commonly used ways there are lots!
    21. 24. Layering Many plants propagate themselves this way in nature: stems produce roots when they come into contact with the ground. Eg. Strawberries (below) <ul><li>Water stress minimized </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients high </li></ul><ul><li>Natural or assisted </li></ul><ul><li>When root formed can detach from mother plant </li></ul>can't go wrong :)
    22. 25. Auxins - when plant is wounded > alter nature of cell division in cambium layer > embryonic root tissue <ul><li>New year's growth </li></ul><ul><li>Stem snaps </li></ul><ul><li>scratch to cambium </li></ul><ul><li>Rosemary </li></ul><ul><li>Sage </li></ul><ul><li>some Basils </li></ul><ul><li>Mints </li></ul><ul><li>Geraniums ... </li></ul>Cuttings
    23. 26. Budding & Grafting Lots of fruit-trees are reproduced this way, can use different root-stock. Also roses & vines for eg. (below) <ul><li>Budding when bark 'slips' (growing season) </li></ul><ul><li>apples, peaches, pears </li></ul><ul><li>Grafting when dormant (winter) </li></ul><ul><li>Must match cambium layers </li></ul>
    24. 27. Marcotting Like with budding & grafting, used for fruit trees & bushes also because fruit quicker than by seed. <ul><li>Woody stems 1-2cm </li></ul><ul><li>Bark cut off section </li></ul><ul><li>When enough roots appear </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off mother plant & potted </li></ul><ul><li>Also low-risk, like layering </li></ul>
    25. 28. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    26. 29. many types of nursery tree nurseries especially VITAL & easy
    27. 30. the Green Belt Movement <ul><li>Through creating their own tree nurseries – at least 6,000 throughout Kenya – and planting trees, women began to control the supply of their own firewood, an enormous power shift that also freed up time for other pursuits. </li></ul>GreenBelt Movement representatives visiting Haiti
    28. 31. nurseries of perennials are particularly important
    29. 32. How to Grow $500,000 on One Acre, and Peace on Earth
    30. 33. Anna Edey Since 1976 Anna Edey has made one astonishing discovery after another, which she has been developing ever since under the name Solviva Solar-Dynamic Bio-Benign Design.
    31. 34. Anna Edey Stacking Chickens for Heat & CO2 Passive Solar Water filled temperature buffer walls www.solviva.com
    32. 35. Our more humble efforts at FincaLuna I Started with seedlings on the ground (whole terrace for business production)
    33. 36. Temporary for because still observing, observing, etc. & more humble efforts at FincaLuna II & now working up to the super-duper definite article (after 10yrs of observation :) Nursery in Zone 1 normally, this quite important in our case
    34. 37. Victorian Greenhouses Research Project!
    35. 38. PolyTunnels Cheapest Easy to build Strong
    36. 39. & Ultra-Modern 100% Recycled 'double-glazed' Sun-resistant
    37. 40. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    38. 41. Seeds <ul><li>&quot;Seed&quot; could be said to be an archetype, a very important mythical symbol, full of meaning for us (consciously or not). </li></ul><ul><li>¿What does 'genetically manipulating' seed come to mean on a deeper, more symbolic level, for us & for our culture? </li></ul>
    39. 42. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story <ul><li>In the 1990s, a European biotech company prepared to commercially release a genetically engineered soil bacterium for use by farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought to engineer a bacterium that aggressively decomposes dead plant material- specifically wheat- into alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>In its pre-modified, natural form, K. planticola is partly responsible for the decomposition of all plant matter -a vital step in the natural life cycle--and it's notoriously aggressive in this role. </li></ul>The story of a bacterium called Klebsiella planticola
    40. 43. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story <ul><li>Burning off dead plant material, as was the standard practice, severely pollutes the air and damages the lungs of farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>They thought: why not turn it into alcohol instead? </li></ul>¿The problem they were trying to avoid? <ul><li>So they spliced an alcohol-producing bacterium into K. planticola . Once their product was released, farmers would simply gather the dead plant matter into buckets and let it ferment into alcohol. </li></ul>
    41. 44. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story <ul><li>Once the fermentation process necessary to turn that dead plant material into alcohol occurred, the sludge left over would be rich in nitrogen and other such beneficial substances, making it an ideal fertilizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan was to spread this sludge fertilizer back on the fields , thus eliminating all waste from the whole process. </li></ul>The Road to Hell is paved with Good Intentions
    42. 45. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story <ul><li>The fermentation process didn't kill the modified K. planticola - it was still there, ready to turn dead plant material into alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT ... It didn't wait until the plants were dead to start. </li></ul><ul><li>The normal K. planticola bacterium result in a benign layer of slime on the living root systems it inhabits ... </li></ul>What went wrong?
    43. 46. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story <ul><li>but the engineered version would also be producing alcohol in this slime - with levels as high as 17 parts per million, </li></ul><ul><li>and anything beyond 1 or 2 parts of alcohol per million is lethal to all known plant life. </li></ul><ul><li>So the engineered K. planticola gives all plant life it touches severe alcohol poisoning, putting them more than 10 times over the lethal limit. K. planticola is present in all plant life. It could be very damaging loose in the fields. </li></ul>Did they test for this? Not really ...
    44. 47. How Dr Ingham saved the World a horror story This bacterium was going to be released ; it had all of the necessary approval. It was only a matter of proper marketing and shipping. It was only by virtue of a random review by an independent scientist (Dr. Elaine Ingham, a professor at Oregon State University) that it was caught in time. the Environmental Protection Agency was the only overseer for all biotech releases, and their policy was to test new bacteria in sterile soil . The problem here being that the real world ... soil is anything BUT sterile.
    45. 48. The Moral of this Story? <ul><li>Enjoy every day, do what you really love & make peace with Death (they could be up to anything, don't take Life on Earth for granted - much less your own life) </li></ul><ul><li>>> if enough of us DARE to follow our passions without fear, maybe we can sort out this madness. </li></ul><ul><li>Do whatever we can to ensure future law enshrines the Precautionary Principle : if we aren't sure it's harmless, we don't do it) & be realistic about what genetic engineering can mean for Life on Earth. </li></ul>
    46. 52. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity
    47. 53. Vandana Shiva physicist, environmental activist, feminist, and author of many books. “ It is time to learn from the mistakes of monocultures of the mind and the essentialising violence of reductionist thought. It is time to turn to diversity for healing.”
    48. 54. = 9 seeds She established Navdanya, a movement for biodiversity conservation and farmer’s rights, and directs the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Natural Resource Policy. Navdanya was created 20 years ago, with the goal of saving seeds
    49. 55. Diversity creates harmony, and harmony creates beauty, balance, bounty and peace in nature and society, in agriculture and culture, in science and in politics. Grandmother's University Organic Farming Earth Democracy Seed Sovereignity Food Sovereignity Land Sovereignity Water Democracy Women for Diversity
    50. 56. <ul><li>Diversity Principle, inside & outside </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds & Plant Propagation </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries </li></ul><ul><li>Habitats & Transgenics </li></ul><ul><li>Vandana Shiva </li></ul>an integral exploration M3.8 Biodiversity

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