PDC+++ Module 3 Class 1 The Soil

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We could say that the destructo-culture, based on industrialized agriculture, carries a basic dysfunction, which is to see the soil as an inanimate thing, a resource to be exploited, & even something that can be seen as 'property' of human beings.
This paradigm has to change because it is at the base of great injustices & of the destruction of the most important base for life on Earth.
In this class we meet the soil as a living being, an organism of enormous complexity & importance, studying how it works in detail, from the microscopic to the global level.
To know soil intimately is fundamental for any sustainable design & to have a direct & vital relationship with this great organism helps us re-connect, physically as well as emotionally, with the Planet.

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  • Se puede decir que la destructo-cultura, basada en la explotación agrícola, tiene una disfunción básica, que es la de ver el suelo como una cosa inanimada, un recurso para explotar, y algo que además puede ser 'propiedad' de los seres humanos.   Este paradigma debe cambiar porqué es la base de grandes injusticias y de la destrucción de la base más importante para la vida en la Tierra.  En esta clase encontramos el suelo como ser vivo, un organismo de enorme complejidad e importancia, estudiando como funciona en detalle, desde el nivel microscópico al nivel global.   Conocer el suelo íntimamente es fundamental para cualquier diseño sostenible y tener una relación directa y vital con este gran organismo nos ayuda re-connectar, físicamente como emocionalmente, al Planeta.
  • cuando interviene la vida entonces empieza toda otra fase en la sucessión natural del suelo. El tipo de vegetación, su tamaño, salud, etc. depende de cuanto se ha desarrollado el suel, de los minerales presentes en la roca madre, a lo depositado, lluvia, etc. Aquí hay un tipo de vegetación en primer plano y otro en segundo plano:
  • la mayoría de nuestras prácticas agrícolas retrasan la sucesión natural del suelo
  • macroporos: ESPACIOS ENTRE LAS PARTÍCULAS GRANDES (ARENA, GRAVA, RESIDUOS DE CULTIVOS) Y SON IMPORTANTES PARA LA AIREACIÓN ADECUADA, microporos: MUCHOS MÁS PEQUEÑOS, ENTRE LIMO Y ARCILLASY SON LOS ENCARGADOS DE RETENER EL AGUA Y POR LO TANTO MANTENER LA HUMEDAD
  • suelos super-compactados son típicos de nuestras tierras agrícolas ... luego se debe arar para aerearlos... la malva es una hierba que intenta romper el suelo .. y suavizarlo (también en ph). aquí es muy bajita (puede crecer muy alta si el terreno lo permite!)
  • aún que sea más o menos la misma mentalidad, algunos tipos de agricultura ecológica sí dan mucha énfasis en CREAR suelos - mejorarlos cada año
  • este suelo fue creado aportando materia orgánica todo el rato (imitando la creación de suelo por las forestas perennes)
  • Most people are familiar with the above-ground food web: Plants are eaten by herbivores are eaten by carnivores, and so on. But most plant matter is not eaten by herbivores; it is decomposed by the underground food web. All plants depend on the soil food web for their nutrition. File name: A-3 (145KB). (Also fw.jpg 574K, and fwb.jpg at 422K) Image courtesy of the USDA-NRCS.
  • Credit: Courtesy of USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service File name: TwobugsB, 181K (Also: TwoBugs.jpg at 403KB shows the whole box on p. B-7. And TwoBugs.eps at 228KB)
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Endophytes (similar to mycorrhizae) and polysaccharides secreted by the plant and fungi bind sand to the root. Photo credit: Jerry Barrows, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces. File names: BWSHEATH COL-SH~1
  • Photo and image credit: North Appalachian Experimental Watershed, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Coshocton, Ohio
  • Credit for both photos: Clive Edwards, The Ohio State University, Columbus File names: CE8a-cocoon CE8c mating
  • More than 75% of nutrients are stored in twigs.
  • Credit: Clive Edwards, The Ohio State University, Columbus File names: CE2c residue pair
  • En Mesopotamia, conocida como la cuna de la civilización, surgieron algunos de los primeros asentamientos del mundo. Mesopotamia, cuyo nombre se deriva de la palabra griega que significa ‘entre dos ríos’, abarcaba el área entre los ríos Tigris y Éufrates, que en la actualidad constituye la mayor parte de Irak. La civilización sumeria, que surgió en la región aproximadamente en el año 3250 a.C., construyó un sistema de canales y las primeras ciudades del mundo.
  • “ Man...despite his artistic pretensions and many accomplishments, owes his existence to a thin layer of topsoil ...and the fact that it rains”. Chinese proverb
  • patrones = actitudes ... que tenemos sobre todos tipos de cosas (suelo, situaciones, personas, productos ... todas son 'cosas' para los consumistas)
  • Giles Lemeauix
  • PDC+++ Module 3 Class 1 The Soil

    1. 1. M3.1 pdc+++ <ul><li>We could say that the destructo-culture, based on industrialized agriculture, carries a basic dysfunction, which is to see the soil as an inanimate thing, a resource to be exploited, & even something that can be seen as 'property' of human beings. </li></ul><ul><li>This paradigm has to change because it is at the base of great injustices & of the destruction of the most important base for life on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>In this class we meet the soil as a living being, an organism of enormous complexity & importance, studying how it works in detail, from the microscopic to the global level. </li></ul><ul><li>To know soil intimately is fundamental for any sustainable design & to have a direct & vital relationship with this great organism helps us re-connect, physically as well as emotionally, with the Planet. </li></ul>del M3.1 SOIL An integral exploration PDC + + +
    2. 2. Wangari Maathai &quot;Until you dig a hole, you plant a tree, you water it and make it survive, you haven't done a thing. You are just talking.&quot; ... and a tree needs many cubic meters of soil rich in organic matter and millions of bugs ... Kenia , April 1th 1940 - September 25 th 2011
    3. 3. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    4. 4. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    5. 5. Soil geology Types Texture Plants Support Diversity Profile (layers) Drainage Water absorption and retention Structure Minerals Acidity (pH)
    6. 6. Alteration of the bedrock How is soil created? Life
    7. 7. How are soils created? Water Wind Organic Matter OM Create Structure Interactions Wind Rivers & Seas Bedrock Temperature Magmatic Eruptions Modeled by erosive agents Trees and plants Sedimentation
    8. 9. 13 oct 2011
    9. 11. 13 oct 2011
    10. 12. Mineral fragments of various sizes Soil physical composition Macro pores - aireation Micro pores - humidity Silt Clay Gravel Sand Stones > 256 mm  Pebbles 64 a 256 mm  Coarse Gravel 4 a 64 mm  Fine Gravel 2 a 4 mm  Coarse Sand 1 a 2 mm  Sand 0.2 a 2 mm  Finer Sand 0.02 a 0.2 mm  Silt 0.002 a 0.02 mm  Clay < 0.002 mm
    11. 14. Soil Properties by Type   Sandy Clay Calcareous Permeability High   None medium Water Storage Low High Low Aireation Good Bad Good Nutrients  Low High Lots of Calcium
    12. 15. retains water and nutrients many possibilities for improvement Lack of oxigen Cold Warm more gaseous exchange rapid decomposition many macropores, do not retain moisture nor nutrients almost only micropores easily waterlogged Clay Sandy
    13. 16. A 0 Leaf Litter A superficial (accumulates humus, and materials are washed down into B) B accumulation of materials that come from A C 1 disaggregated Bedrock C 2 Bedrock Soil Profiles
    14. 18.
    15. 19. Good to know what we have before starting in order to make adjustments The optimum pH for most vegetables is 6.8 (or 6 to 7) pH= - log[H + ] o pH= log (1/log [H + ]) pH Acidic Basic Neutral
    16. 20. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    17. 21. <ul><li>Ecology is concerned about the erosion (disappearance) of soils and biodiversity </li></ul>eg. U.S.A loses more than 1,000 tons of soil / year, equiv. To 300,000 Has about 100 million hectares are affected by chemical degradation and salts It is a huge problem
    18. 22. 'stable soils' (fertile) in orange - largely under the ice! “ Deserts are the footprint of Civilization”
    19. 23. External Actions Result Resource   Elimination of weed flora Excessive and too deep tillage None return of Organic Matter Burning Crop residue Overgrazing Irrigation with brackish water Pesticide application and industrial fertilizers Excessive and too deep tillage None return of organic matter Burning crop residue Pesticide application and industrial fertilizers SOIL Hydric and Eolic Erosion chemical degradation and salt excess Biological and Physical degradation (elimination of beneficial microbial life)
    20. 25. Affect more when the soil is exposed deforestation soil compaction Overgrazing plaguicides fertilizers Soil Erosion Wind Water Aggresive Agricultural Techniques
    21. 26. mallow
    22. 27. 'Weeds' <ul><li>There is a technical definition (not just “plants that grow without having been planted&quot;): </li></ul><ul><li>of many types they have in common: they produce a lot of biomass, many seeds, prefer (they are “invited by”) anaerobic compacted and poor soils with Nitrogen surges ups and downs </li></ul><ul><li>are &quot;volunteers&quot; and are called &quot;Adventitious Flora&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>their job is to cover the ground, BRING UP minerals from the sub-soil, HARVEST water and seeds , CREATE BIOMASS to create humus. THEY CREATE SOIL! </li></ul><ul><li>'Weeds' = abundant biomass production </li></ul>
    23. 28. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    24. 29. As plant support - for human use - <ul><li>attitude of 'mining' the soil (removing and replace nutrients in a repeated annual cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>'takers' have a dietary preference for annual plants - particularly cereals (addictive?) </li></ul><ul><li>also crops for animals (especially crazy in a sustainability level) </li></ul>
    25. 31. Considerations <ul><li>How much soil is left, what type and what minerals have and lacks </li></ul><ul><li>whether it is flat or not, sunny or shade, if you have water, good access, climate, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>cost and legality of the land (private property or rent, security, markets, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>profitability of the operation </li></ul>
    26. 36. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    27. 37. A healthy soil is a live web In each gram of fertile soil there can be a billion micro-organisms
    28. 38. The Soil Food Web
    29. 39. of greatest importance Details on the functions of each in the e-Book www.PermaCultureScience.com Annelids, Arthropods, Molluscs Lombricus terestris (Worms) Edaphic Biomass the roots of plants Macroorganisms Bacteria Fungi Algae Microorganisms Mycorriza
    30. 40. <ul><li>Plants interchange gases between soil & the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Plants & in particular Trees create soils & protect them </li></ul><ul><li>The Roots of Plants go breaking & fragmenting the Mother rock </li></ul><ul><li>Roots open paths through which water & air will circulate later </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves & Fruit that falls + the deposits of animals who come to feed off them are Organic Matter which is added to the soil </li></ul><ul><li>A Soil covered with vegetation is more protected from external erosive agents </li></ul>Marsh plants showcase their hold in the soil on the banks of Boat Meadow Bay in Eastham, Massachusetts. by Mary Schwalm Plants & the Soil
    31. 41. some plants specialize in braking rock
    32. 42. Interdependance <ul><li>The Soil is part of the Digestive System of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>Plants are the aerial part of soil </li></ul><ul><li>Everything affects everything </li></ul>
    33. 43. Two bugs better than one <ul><li>Effects of bacteria & bacteria-eating nematodes on the growth of blue grama grass growth </li></ul>Weed biomasa in 77 days
    34. 44. <ul><li>Are Fungi associated by symbiosis to the Roots of Plants </li></ul><ul><li>These obtain Hydrocarbons & a protected place to live </li></ul><ul><li>in exchange they provide the Plant with a better capacity for absorbtion of Water & Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Resistence of the Plant to ... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pathogens, draught, acid soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some Leguminous plants can increase efficiency of biological fixing of Nitrogen </li></ul></ul>Mycorriza
    35. 45. Actions that destroy Mycorriza: 1) dig the soil 2) adding nitrogen Studies of organic growing with & without mycorriza more micro-nutrients in those with mycorriza
    36. 46. Mycorrhizal Fungi polysaccharides secreted by the plant and fungi bind sand to the root Endophytes (similar to mycorrhizae)
    37. 47. Worms • Eat dead vegetable matter which they degrade into simpler compounds > biochemical transformation • In one He there can be 500 Kg to 2 Tn of worms • There are some 220 different species • They have an effect of activation on the bacterian metabolism • They increase the contribution of Organic Matter • Diminish with the adding of Agrochemicals BioDegradation Aeration Stimulating Bacterial Activity Metabolic Function Mechanical Function Biological Function
    38. 48. They take Organic Matter down into the soil
    39. 49. Reproduction Increase their food - increase the population Collect ALL type of biomass & add as mulch to the soil
    40. 50. & in the DestructoCulture ...
    41. 51. ... biomass is thrown in the dump
    42. 52. Worms work at night ... With Lumbricus terrestris Without Lumbricus terrestris
    43. 53. in one hectare there can be as many bacteria = to the weight of one or two cows & in the forest each of your steps is supported by 120,000 bug legs Thank them!! & all keep you alive
    44. 54. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    45. 55. “ the cradle of civilization” The sumerian civilization, that rose in the region approximately in the year 3250 a.C. , built a canal system & the first cities in the world The half-moon of fertile soil of Mesopotamia
    46. 56. &quot;the footprint of civilization are deserts&quot; &quot;Man .. despite his artistic pretensions & many accomplishments, owes his existence to a thin layer of topsoil ... and the fact that it rains.&quot; agriculture, across the ages has MINED millenial soils created by forests & grasslands (perennial polycultures) aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Unsustainable Development degraded habitat
    47. 57. 2,011 d.c. 3,000,000 a.c. Leavers & Takers (Ismael by Daniel Quinn) See Class M 1.10 Leavers eat directly from the perennial polycultures of their region (they adapt to 'what there is' ) destroy perennial polycultures & replace them by agriculture based in annuals (they eat what 'they like' ) perennial polycultures > CREATE soils Abel hunter gatherer Cain farmer agriculture > CONSUMES soils 8,000a.c. Takers
    48. 58. The Tree of Good & Evil &quot;if you eat of this tree you will surely die&quot; Eva = Life the knowledge of
    49. 59. only the Gods can eat the fruit of wisdom ... & for it to work for knowing who shall live & who shall die The Tree of Good & Evil
    50. 60. The Tree of Life the Law of Life (that fosters biodiversity)
    51. 61. a small branch is the Law which permitted us to evolve (as human beings) The Tree of Life
    52. 62. & it's the Law we are violating with our way of living (being, thinking..) & this is the essence of our self-destruction, if we don't change direction DRASTICALLY The Tree of Life
    53. 63. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    54. 64. associations &quot;soil&quot; <ul><li>often as something dirty: dust, dirt, infection (esp. anglo) </li></ul><ul><li>>> health impacted for NOT having contact with the soil </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;to keep feet on the ground&quot; (1m of cement, in citiees) </li></ul><ul><li>mental, spiritual & physical health - disconnections </li></ul><ul><li>>> all is connected through soil, quite LITERALLY </li></ul><ul><li>radiobiology (sense of place, terrestial magnetism, 'feel at home', migratory animals) </li></ul>
    55. 65. Leavers Takers CREATE & ACCEPT give thanks CONSUME & FORCE complain Entitlement Pattern Responsability Pattern there is a GREAT EMOTIONAL conflict here <<< >>> eat directly from the perennial polycultures of their region (they adapt to 'what there is' ) destroy perennial polycultures & replace them by agriculture based in annuals (they eat what 'they like' )
    56. 66. what is difficult? <<< >>> a support group might surprise you Practices <ul><li>&quot;keep your feet on the ground&quot; </li></ul>history of the soil in your area (create a children's story) Explore under your feet
    57. 67. on which soil do you find yourself? & what does it NEED from you? what does it offer you without forcing it ? <ul><li>&quot;keep your feet on the ground&quot; </li></ul>
    58. 68. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ...
    59. 69. P E R M A C U L T U R E Unsustainable Development degraded habitat aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxaxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxmmmxmmmmmxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Regeneration of habitats = SUSTAINABILITY
    60. 70. ¿Wich is YOUR Path to create More soil?
    61. 71. Giles Lemeauix More than 75% of nutrients are accumulated in small branches
    62. 72. Elaine Ingham &quot;Soil Food Web&quot; Researh her job and Collect MULCH with passion! Especially biomass that is being thrown away, burning, ignoring ...
    63. 73. M3.1 SOIL <ul><li>Geology & Ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>History & Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>PermaCulture </li></ul>an integral exploration according to ... INTEGRATE all aspects & >> PRACTICE them! RE-CREATE soils as if our lives depended on it

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