A CASE IN EDUCATION
- A Case in Education can be defined as
a particular detailed instructional incident
or narrative that involves a richly described
and a well documented problem for which
students seek reasonable solution(s)
utilizing their BAK (Background
CASE-BASED METHOD IN TEACHER
- The case-based method in teacher
education is the method that has a clear
intent to help the prospective teacher
learn and apply basic theoretical
principles in systematic ways.
- Emphasis is placed on crating special
simulations that will enable novice
teachers to learn how to identify issues
and problems in context as to follow
theoretical principles in determining
CASE-BASED METHOD IN TEACHER
- Case-based method means embracing a
belief that knowing theoretical principles
without an understanding of their
flexible application in different
situation, is of little use.
- Case-based Method affects students’
critical thinking, reasoning
ability, flexibility, attitudes towards the
case-method, and attitudes towards
ESLEFL in general.
- By Critical thinking we refer to that type of thinking which requires
the learner to pay special attention to
the validity of evidence and that
helps himher to achieve careful
application of logic solving different
problems in different situations with
- Degree of flexibility; It is the extent
that a student identifies, knows, and
suggests acceptable multiple
solutions to any problem based
situations relatedsimilar to the
- Reasoning ability; It is the ability of
student teachers to convince by
supporting hisher views with
logic, evidence, and appropriate
IMPORTANCE OF CASE-BASED
should prepare you to;- Identify the major understanding in your
- Directly involve you in decision making.
- Enhance your ability to think critically.
- Solve the educational problems.
- Tie together theory and practice.
- Frame and construct the educational
Using a case-based approach engages students
in discussion of specific scenarios that
resemble or typically are real-world examples.
- This method is learner-centered with intense
interaction between participants as they build
their knowledge and work together as a group
to examine the case.
- The instructor's role is that of a facilitator
while the students collaboratively analyze and
address problems and resolve questions that
have no single right answer.
ELEVEN BASIC RULES FOR CASE-BASED
Tells a story.
Focuses on an interest-arousing issue.
Set in the past five years
Creates empathy with the central characters.
Relevant to the reader.
Must have pedagogic utility.
1. Small group is created;
2. The initial problem/narrative is established
to develop further inquiry and discussion;
3. The problem is then analyzed, with a study
path being formulated;
4. Self-discovery of information, data, literature
and clinical implications;
5. Supporting evidence, data, lab results and
patient information is provided as required by
6. Hypothesize potential answers; and
7. Collect and disseminate new information.
1. Case is
7. Identify areas for
Improvement & Integrated
into educational practice
6. Group shares
of new findings
2. Case is
Writing a good case for teaching is
neither simple nor quick, but
sometimes is preferable to using one
of the thousands that are now
available. Wasserman (1994) offers
some helpful guidance about writing a
good case. After first being clear in
your own mind about the “big idea” of
use the following guidelines:
• Draw the reader into the story during
• Build the case around an event of
• Elevate the tension between
conflicting points of view
• Write the story so that readers grow
• Be sure the case is believable.
• End the case on the “horns of the
DESIGNING LEARNING ACTIVITIES
- Just writing the story is not finishing the job.
Developing discussion and study questions is also
important. They help to keep the discussion on
track and the focus on the pertinent issues.
Again, Wasserman (1994) offers some helpful
Sequence questions to provoke developmental analysis
1. Begin with an examination of the events, issues and
2. Move to an analysis of what lies behind the surface of
3. Pull the students deeper into the case with
generative questions that call for evaluations and
judgments, applications and proposed solutions.
STUDENT ASSESSMENT IN CASE-BASED
Initially, assessment and performance
evaluation in case-based learning may
It can be more subjective than some other
methods and some teachers may be
uncomfortable with that.
However, with careful lesson planning and
preparation, assessment in case-based
learning can be done
efficiently, effectively and fairly.
STANDARDS & CRITERIA FOR STUDENT
ASSESSMENT IN CBL
Written & Oral
Quality of thinking
Communication, research and
Personal perspectives, beliefs and
Evidence of research; analysis of
information; organization & layout;
creativity and originality
Organization; fresh perspective; use of
examples; development of ideas; use
of facts to substantiate arguments;
quality of thought and analysis
Hypothesis; systematic data
collection; relevance of conclusions;
identification of relationships
Ability to zero in on significant factors; extensive comparison
Recognize principles or rules that apply; logical connection
of principles and situations
Specific, reasonable, sound and appropriate criteria; clear
Comprehension of big ideas; analyses focused on important
meaning; articulation of importance; discernment of implicit
content and making inferences; speculation presented with
Reflection of key ideas; succinct, accurate representation of
key issues; articulate and intelligible summaries
Connected attributes; larger purpose; enable new meaning;
beyond the obvious
Articulated values behind choices; humanly sound values;
informed choice using best available data; carefully thought
Cognitive risks; truly new, fresh and imaginative;
appropriate to demands of the task
Frame problem for thoughtful investigation; logical,
thoughtful investigation plans; data will yield information
about the problem; viability; built-in evaluation; clear
relationship between plan and problem
A CASE STUDY IN SOCIAL STUDIES
A case study in social studies
is the in-depth investigation of a
unit, e.g. Individual, program, or
A CASE-METHOD IN OTHER FIELDS
- In Law, the case method is intended to train lawyers to reason dispassionately from existing
precedents that are themselves knit together by
- In Medicine, the case methods have mostly taken
the form of studying patients’ simulations where
medical students are required to analyze conditions
and prescribe the course of action.
- In Business, cases are real events or problems
confronting business executives and managers
intended to encourage discussion and analysis.