Dna 130805152406-phpapp01

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Dna 130805152406-phpapp01

  1. 1. Presentation by NW Maholwana Please view references on the last slide.
  2. 2. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down. Watson and Crick also found that if they paired Thymine with Adenine and Guanine with Cytosine DNA would look uniform.
  3. 3. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  4. 4. • How old are you? ? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  5. 5. • Answer: Billions of years old. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy This Product Belongs to Ryan P. Murphy Copyright 2010
  6. 6. • Answer: Billions of years old. – How? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy This Product Belongs to Ryan P. Murphy Copyright 2010
  7. 7. • The back story of our lives are that we are the product of billions of years of evolution. The very DNA that allows us to pass on our genetic information to our offspring has its roots in primitive microbes that existed billions of years ago. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  8. 8. • The back story of our lives are that we are the product of billions of years of evolution. The very DNA that allows us to pass on our genetic information to our offspring has its roots in primitive microbes that existed billions of years ago. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  9. 9.  DNA  -  -  -  - Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  10. 10.  DNA: Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  11. 11.  Shape is called double helix. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  12. 12.  DNA is a polymer (Long molecule). Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  13. 13.  DNA is a polymer (Long molecule). Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy A tightly wound package of DNA.
  14. 14. • Question! How long is the DNA chain inside of a cell? – Take your best guess. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  15. 15. • Answer: The DNA in cells can hold lots of information and are very long. – Each cell has about 1.8 meters (6 feet) of DNA. 1.8 meters of DNA Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  16. 16. • DNA wrapping. Shows how 1.8 meters of DNA can be found in a single cell. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  17. 17.  The units of DNA are called nucleotides. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  18. 18.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  19. 19.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  20. 20.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  21. 21.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  22. 22.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  23. 23.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  24. 24.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  25. 25.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  26. 26.  DNA has the information for our cells to make proteins. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  27. 27.  DNA through transcription makes mRNA.  mRNA = Messenger RNA. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  28. 28. Transcription, Learn more at http://biology.about.com/od/cellularpro cesses/ss/Dna-Transcription.htm
  29. 29.  mRNA through translation makes proteins with the help of ribosomes. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  30. 30. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  31. 31. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  32. 32. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  33. 33. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  34. 34. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  35. 35. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  36. 36. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  37. 37. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  38. 38. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  39. 39. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  40. 40. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  41. 41. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  42. 42. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  43. 43. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  44. 44. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  45. 45. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  46. 46. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  47. 47. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  48. 48. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  49. 49. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  50. 50. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  51. 51. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  52. 52. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  53. 53. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  54. 54. • . Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  55. 55. • Transcription and Translation.
  56. 56. • Important Note: Most DNA is found in the nucleus.
  57. 57. • Important Note: Most DNA is found in the nucleus.
  58. 58. • Important Note: Most DNA is found in the nucleus. Small amounts of DNA are found in the mitochondria organelle (mtDNA) –Learn more abaout mtDNA at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_DNA
  59. 59. • Important Note: Most DNA is found in the nucleus. Small amounts of DNA are found in the mitochondria organelle (mtDNA)
  60. 60. • Watson and Crick (1953) Discovered structure of DNA. – One of the most important biological discoveries in the last 100 years. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  61. 61. • Watson and Crick (1953) Discovered structure of DNA. – One of the most important biological discoveries in the last 100 years. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  62. 62. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down.
  63. 63. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down.
  64. 64. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down.
  65. 65. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down. Watson and Crick also found that if they paired Thymine with Adenine and Guanine with Cytosine DNA would look uniform.
  66. 66. Watson and Crick were able to figure out that one strand went up and one went down. Watson and Crick also found that if they paired Thymine with Adenine and Guanine with Cytosine DNA would look uniform. Learn more at… http://www.nobelprize.org/educa tional/medicine/dna_double_heli x/readmore.html?referer=www.cl ickfind.com.au
  67. 67. James Watson
  68. 68. James Watson Francis Crick
  69. 69. “Am I Watson or Crick?”
  70. 70. “I am James Watson.”
  71. 71. “Am I Watson or Crick?”
  72. 72. “I am Francis Crick.”
  73. 73. Francis Crick
  74. 74. Francis Crick
  75. 75. Francis Crick James Watson
  76. 76. James Watson
  77. 77. James Watson
  78. 78. James Watson Francis Crick
  79. 79. “What year did we discover the structure of DNA.”
  80. 80. 1953
  81. 81. • Rosalind Franklin? Who is she? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  82. 82. • She took X-Ray pictures of DNA’s structure and lectured about phosphate being a part of the outside of the molecule. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  83. 83. • She took X-Ray pictures of DNA’s structure and lectured about phosphate being a part of the outside of the molecule. – Watson attended her lecture. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  84. 84. • Watson and Crick used her photograph and lectures to create a failed model of the helix. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  85. 85. • Watson and Crick used her photograph and lectures to create a failed model of the helix. – Maurice Wilkins who was working with Rosalind Franklin showed Watson her experiments. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  86. 86. • In 1962, Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  87. 87. • In 1962, Watson, Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  88. 88. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  89. 89. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  90. 90. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  91. 91. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  92. 92. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine. – Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  93. 93. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine, – Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer. – The cancer that killed her may have been caused by working with X-Rays.
  94. 94. • In 1962, Watson, Crick, and Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for physiology/medicine, – Franklin had died of Ovarian Cancer. – The cancer that killed her may have been caused by working with X-Rays. – The Nobel Prize only goes to living recipients, and can only be shared among three winners.
  95. 95. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  96. 96. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  97. 97. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  98. 98. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  99. 99. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  100. 100. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  101. 101. • Who thinks we should give an honorary Nobel Prize to Rosalind Franklin? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  102. 102. • Who thinks we should give an honorary Nobel Prize to Rosalind Franklin? – Lets give a short round of applause to Rosalind Franklin. – “Our Lady of DNA” Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  103. 103. • Who thinks we should give an honorary Nobel Prize to Rosalind Franklin? – Lets give a short round of applause to Rosalind Franklin. – “Our Lady of DNA” Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  104. 104. • Draw DNA in Detail. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  105. 105. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  106. 106. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  107. 107. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  108. 108. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  109. 109. A A AG T C T T Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  110. 110.  Each unit called a nucleotide of DNA consists of 3 parts.  -  -  - Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  111. 111. A A AG T C T T Nucleotide
  112. 112.  Phosphate backbone Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  113. 113. A A AG T C T T Phosphate Backbone Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  114. 114.  A 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  115. 115. A A AG T C T T Ribose Sugar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  116. 116.  A nitrogen base attached to the sugar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  117. 117. A A AG T C T T Nitrogen Base Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  118. 118. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  119. 119. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  120. 120. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  121. 121. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  122. 122. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  123. 123. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  124. 124. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  125. 125. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  126. 126. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  127. 127. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  128. 128. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  129. 129. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  130. 130. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  131. 131. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  132. 132. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  133. 133. • Nucleic Acids – P O N C H (Nucleotide) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  134. 134.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  135. 135.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  136. 136.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  137. 137.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  138. 138.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  139. 139.  There are four different types of nucleotides found in DNA  A is for adenine  G is for guanine  C is for cytosine  T is for thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  140. 140. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  141. 141. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  142. 142. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  143. 143. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  144. 144. A A AG T C T T Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  145. 145. A A AG T C T T Nucleotide Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  146. 146. A A AG T C T T Phosphate Backbone Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  147. 147. A A AG T C T T Ribose Sugar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  148. 148. A A AG T C T T Nitrogen Base Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  149. 149. • Can you touch the following on this moving image of the double helix. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  150. 150. • Can you touch the following on this moving image of the double helix. Phosphate Backbone Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  151. 151. • Can you touch the following on this moving image of the double helix. Phosphate Backbone Ribose sugar Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  152. 152. • Can you touch the following on this moving image of the double helix. Phosphate Backbone Ribose sugar Nitrogen Base Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  153. 153.  A goes with T  C goes with G  WRONG! T – C or G - A Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  154. 154.  A goes with T  C goes with G  WRONG! T – C or G - A Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  155. 155.  A goes with T  C goes with G  WRONG! T – C or G - A Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  156. 156.  A goes with T  C goes with G  WRONG! T – C or G - A Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  157. 157. • Try and figure out the picture under the boxes. – Raise your hand when you think you know. – You only get one guess. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  158. 158. “Remember me.” “I’m Rosalind Franklin and I took X-ray pictures of DNA.”
  159. 159. • Question! What is the mystery animal in the box below? • G - ___ • T - ___ • A - ___ Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  160. 160. • Answer! What is the mystery animal in the box below? • G - __ • T - __ • A - __ CATGAA! Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  161. 161. • Question! What is best game to play in the whole wide world? • A - ___ • T - ___ • C - ___ Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  162. 162. • Answer! What is best game to play in the whole wide world? • A - _T__ • T - _A__ • C - _G__ Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  163. 163. • Purines are the larger of the two types of bases found in DNA. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  164. 164. • Pyrimidine Bases are the smaller bases found in DNA. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  165. 165. • Which one of the two nitrogen base pairs is Purine? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  166. 166. • Answer! Guanine is Purine, Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  167. 167. • Answer! Guanine is Purine, Thymine is a Pyrimidine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  168. 168. • Which one of the two nitrogen base pairs is Pyridimine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  169. 169. • Answer! Thymine is the Pyridimine and Guanine is the Purine (These two don’t pair) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  170. 170. • Answer! Thymine is the Pyridimine and Guanine is the Purine – (These two don’t pair) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  171. 171. • A big base (Purine) goes with a little base (Pyrimidine). A-T / C-G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  172. 172. • A big base (Purine) goes with a little base (Pyrimidine). A-T / C-G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  173. 173. • A big base (Purine) goes with a little base (Pyrimidine). A-T / C-G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  174. 174. • A big base (Purine) goes with a little base (Pyrimidine). A-T / C-G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  175. 175. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  176. 176. • Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  177. 177. • Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  178. 178. Purines (Bigger) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  179. 179. Purines (Bigger) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  180. 180. Purines (Bigger) Pyrimidines (Smaller) Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  181. 181. • Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  182. 182. • Which is the Purine, and which is the Pyrimidine? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  183. 183. Pyrimidine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  184. 184. Pyrimidine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  185. 185. Pyrimidine Purine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  186. 186. Pyrimidine Purine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  187. 187. • Can you point to a Purine on the twisting double helix below? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  188. 188. • What are differences between DNA and RNA? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  189. 189.  RNA  - Single strand  - Uracil replaces Thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  190. 190.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Uracil replaces Thymine Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  191. 191.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Uracil replaces Thymine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Just Ribose sugar, not deoxy like DNA
  192. 192.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Uracil replaces Thymine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  193. 193.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Uracil replaces Thymine. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy –Note: Should probably be the other way around. RNA likely evolved long before DNA.
  194. 194.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Thymine replaces Uracil Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy –Note: Should probably be the other way around. RNA likely evolved long before DNA.
  195. 195.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Thymine replaces Uracil Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy –Note: Should probably be the other way around. RNA likely evolved long before DNA. –One suggestion is this: cytosine (C) occasionally converts into uracil (U) by deamination. If this U is not removed, at the next replication it will act as a template for an adenine (A) on the new strand, and there will have been a mutation from G to A. Having thymine (T) as the regular base in DNA makes it easy for a cell to spot a deamination, because U should not be there at all. The cell then removes the U with a DNA repair enzyme (e.g. uracil glycosylase). –Do you want to know why Thymine replaces Uracil in DNA? –The short and sweet explanation is under this box.
  196. 196.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Thymine replaces Uracil Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy –Note: Should probably be the other way around. RNA likely evolved long before DNA. –One suggestion is this: cytosine (C) occasionally converts into uracil (U) by deamination. If this U is not removed, at the next replication it will act as a template for an adenine (A) on the new strand, and there will have been a mutation from G to A. Having thymine (T) as the regular base in DNA makes it easy for a cell to spot a deamination, because U should not be there at all. The cell then removes the U with a DNA repair enzyme (e.g. uracil glycosylase).
  197. 197.  RNA  - Single strand.  - Thymine replaces Uracil Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy –Note: Should probably be the other way around. RNA likely evolved long before DNA. –One suggestion is this: cytosine (C) occasionally converts into uracil (U) by deamination. If this U is not removed, at the next replication it will act as a template for an adenine (A) on the new strand, and there will have been a mutation from G to A. Having thymine (T) as the regular base in DNA makes it easy for a cell to spot a deamination, because U should not be there at all. The cell then removes the U with a DNA repair enzyme (e.g. uracil glycosylase). “Short and Sweet?” “Holy Base Pair.”
  198. 198. • Transcription to Translation digital simulation – The Met codon is AUG
  199. 199. • Hip Hip Hooray for DNA
  200. 200. • Building DNA and labeling it. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  201. 201. • Building DNA and labeling it. – You are required to construct a model of DNA in the shape of double helix. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  202. 202. • Building DNA and labeling it. – You are required to construct a model of DNA in the shape of double helix. – The model should be a 3-D representation of the double helix. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  203. 203. • Building DNA and labeling it. – You are required to construct a model of DNA in the shape of double helix. – The model should be a 3-D representation of the double helix. – The 3-D model should be able to be placed on a sheet of paper towel with the correct parts labeled. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  204. 204. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! A T C G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  205. 205. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  206. 206. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s – Adenine – Green A T C G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  207. 207. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s – Adenine – Green – Thymine – Orange A T C G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  208. 208. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s – Adenine – Green – Thymine – Orange – Cytosine – Red Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  209. 209. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s – Adenine – Green – Thymine – Orange – Cytosine – Red – Guanine – Yellow T G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  210. 210. • Materials to build double helix. • Note: The better behaved you are, the more materials you get ! – Phosphate backbone = Twizzler’s – Adenine – Green – Thymine – Orange – Cytosine – Red – Guanine – Yellow – Toothpick – Deoxyribose sugar – Twist to make double helix. – Build a single stranded mRNA with clear representing Uracil with extra parts. A T C G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  211. 211. ?
  212. 212. PhosphateBackbone
  213. 213. PhosphateBackbone
  214. 214. Adenine PhosphateBackbone
  215. 215. Adenine PhosphateBackbone
  216. 216. Adenine Thymine PhosphateBackbone
  217. 217. Adenine Thymine PhosphateBackbone
  218. 218. Adenine Thymine Cytosine PhosphateBackbone
  219. 219. Adenine Thymine Cytosine PhosphateBackbone
  220. 220. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone
  221. 221. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone
  222. 222. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine
  223. 223. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine
  224. 224. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine
  225. 225. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine
  226. 226. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine
  227. 227. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine
  228. 228. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine
  229. 229. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine ????????
  230. 230. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine Ribose Sugar
  231. 231. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine Ribose Sugar
  232. 232. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine Ribose Sugar Nitrogen Bases
  233. 233. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine Ribose Sugar
  234. 234. Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine PhosphateBackbone Purine Purine Pryimidine Pryimidine Ribose Sugar Nucleotides
  235. 235. • DNA Khan Academy
  236. 236.  DNA replication: The double helix is unwound and bases are matched to create a new identical strand.
  237. 237.  DNA replication: The double helix is unwound and bases are matched to create a new identical strand. Hopefully 
  238. 238.  DNA replication: The double helix is unwound and bases are matched to create a new identical strand. Hopefully  –Step by step found at…(Advanced but visual) http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_repli cation/
  239. 239. • Proteins and enzymes pull DNA strands apart. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Transcription is when a segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme, RNA polymerase
  240. 240. • Activity! Each group 1-5 needs to verbalize to the class the corresponding base pair before it attaches to the DNA. – Teacher will point to a group so be ready. – Teacher may repeat as necessary.
  241. 241. • Primers add new nucleotides A-T, C-G Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  242. 242. • DNA and DNA Replication Crash Course. –Caution, some mild language used.
  243. 243. Reference list • Campbell & Reece,(2010) Biology • http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/under standingcancer/genetesting • http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/health _basics/genes_genetic_disorders.html • http://www.genetics.edu.au/Information/Un derstanding-Genetic-Testing

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