"Tourism is a collection of activities, services
and industries which deliver a travel experience
comprising transportation, accommodation,
eating and drinking establishments, retail shops,
entertainment businesses and other hospitality
services provided for individuals or groups
traveling away from home"
"The sum of the phenomena and relationships
arising from the interaction of tourists, business
suppliers, host governments and host
communities in the process of attracting and
hosting these tourists and other visitors"
-Macintosh and Goeldner
R'tist @ Tourism, PU
First Definition for Tourism
The first definition of tourism was made
by Guyer Feuler in 1905.
UNWTO Definition of Tourism
"Tourism comprises the activities of persons
traveling to and staying in places outside
their usual environment for not more than
one consecutive year for leisure, business and
R'tist @ Tourism, PU
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or
The World Tourism Organization defines
◦ tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places
outside their usual environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and other
Tourism has become a popular global leisure
In 2011, there were over 983 million
international tourist arrivals worldwide,
representing a growth of 4.6% when compared
to 940 million in 2010.
International tourism receipts grew to
US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011,
corresponding to an increase in real terms of
3.8% from 2010
R'tist @ Tourism, PU
Learning objectives: in this topic the
learners are going to learn about :
of what a tourist and an
Different types of tourist
to draw tourist profiles
TOURIST DEFINED AND TYPES
What is a Tourist?
Is a person who travels away from home for leisure, business
or other purposes for longer than a day e.g. 24 hours but less
than a year. An excursionist is a person who arrives at the
destination and departs on the same day.
Tourists are classified, according to their needs and their
reasons for travelling, into four broad categories:
business and professional tourist
leisure and holiday tourists
tourists travelling to visit friends and relatives (VFR)
Youth tourists, including backpackers and gap year travellers.
The tourism industry tries to meet the needs of all types of
tourists by providing suitable facilities and services for each
1.1 Tourists travelling for
business and professional
Business tourist: travel is related to business and the world of work. MESE which stands for
meetings, exhibitions and special events. These are all part of the business world. All major cities have
conference centres that cater for the needs of business tourists. An example of a business tourist would
be a salesman who travels to another city to attend a trade show and promote the products he sells.
Education tourists: travel to attend a place of learning in another town, city, or country, in order to
study for or improve a qualification. They may also be people that attend workshops to learn new skills
or improve existing ones. A clinic nurse who travels to another province to attend a workshop about
infectious diseases is an example of an educational tourist.
Incentive tourists: are people who are rewarded in the form of a company paid holiday for their hard
work, or for achieving goals set by their company. This incentive to travel motivates employees to work
harder, improves work relationships, and builds team spirit. A salesman who receives a holiday package
for achieving the most sales in the company is an example of an incentive tourist.
Health or medical tourist: travel because they want to visit a holiday spa, needs medical special
treatment that is only available away from home, undergo procedures that are cheaper in another
country, or are recovering from an illness in a healthier climate. Many tourist come from oversees
countries to South Africa to have plastic surgery.
Tourist travelling for leisure and holiday
Adventure tourist: want an unusual and exciting experience. They want to participate in
activities that may be dangerous, such as rock climbing, river rafting, skydiving, shark cave
diving and bungee jumping.
Cultural tourist: want to experience different cultures, such as San rock art, or cultural
related festivals such as the National Art Festival in Grahams-town, or the International Jazz
Festival in Cape Town. They would also want to experience the World Heritage Sites in the
travel to experience nature such as traveling to Bonita Gardens in
Bloemfontein South Africa
Leisure tourist: want to rest and relax and have a break from the usual routine Examples
of this type of tourism are a cruise on a cruise liner, a trip on a Blue train, attending a special
music special music performance or relaxing on the beach.
1.3 Tourist travelling to visit friends
and relatives (VFR)
Tourist visiting friends and relatives (VFR) want to stay
in contact with friends and relatives and travel away
from home to visit them. These tourist may travel to
attend a wedding, funeral, or birthday celebration of
friends or relatives.
1.4 Youth travel: backpackers and gap
Backpacking or youth tourist: generally have little
luggage, are on a budget, want to experience adventure and
excitement, tend to travel independently, enjoy meeting
other traveller, and have flexible travel schedules. A group of
young tourists on a weekend walking tour in the mountains,
or a student touring around the country by bus are examples
of this group of tourist.
Gap year travellers: do not study further or enter job
opportunity after school, instead they take break called a gap
year. They travel, work and earn money, learn new skills or do
volunteer work in another country. During this time they
gain skills and life experience before starting tertiary
education.These young people are also known as “gappers”.
2 Drawing up a tourist profile
To make sure that the needs of all
types of tourist are met it is important
for travel agents to draw up tourist
profile. This is a summary of facts
about what tourists want and expect
form the travel experience.
A basic tourist profile contains the
following information about the
contact details such as address and telephone number
need and preferences, for, example, adventure, sport, one
specific requirement such as accommodation, transport, or
and the length of the trip, and arrival and departure date.
Travel agents prepare tourist profiles of their clients and use
the information when arranging trips for them. This will
ensure that the specific needs of the tourist are met.
Learners Activity: Types of tourists
1 Explain the following acronyms
used in tourism
2 Match the type of tourist with tourism experience:
(1) Loves wildlife
(A) A wetland sanctuary
(2) Enjoys nature
(B) Run the Comrades
(3) Keen on sports
(c) Shark cage diving
(4) Keen on adventure
(D) The White Lions of Timbavati
Learner activity cont….
3 Describe each of the following by giving
Gap year traveller
4 Using the illustration and the information below draw up a tourist profile for
John.You may need to make up some details to complete the profile:
John Brown, from Sydney, is visiting South Africa for ten days to
celebrate his 24th birthday. He wants to experience as many
adventure attractions as he can before he returns home on
Christmas day. He is a sports science consultant, does not eat
meat, and wants to taste some South African food. He wants to
take photographs of wildlife and the new friends in the hostels
in which he will stay. His back contains all his clothes and
sleeping bag. He does not have enough money for fancy
restaurant or expensive gifts. He forgot his international driver’s
license at home.
Memorandum or Answers for
SIT: Special Interest Tourist
MESE: meetings, exhibitions and
VFR:Visiting Friends and Relatives
A) Cultural Tourist: want to experience different cultures, such
as San rock art, or cultural related festivals such as the National
Art Festival in Graham-stown, or the International Jazz Festival in
Cape Town. They would also want to experience the World
Heritage Sites in the country.
B) Eco-tourist: want to travel to experience the natural
environment and experience different cultures. The sustainable of
resources is important to these tourists. An example of this type
of this tourism would be visiting the iSimangaliso Wetland Park in
C) Incentive tourists: are people who are rewarded in the
form of a company paid holiday for their hard work, or for
achieving goals set by their company. This incentive to travel
motivates employees to work harder, improves work
relationships, and builds team spirit. A salesman who receives a
holiday package for achieving the most sales in the company is an
example of an incentive tourist.
D) Gap year travellers: do not study further or enter job
opportunity after school, instead they take break called a gap year.
They travel, work and earn money, learn new skills or do
volunteer work in another country. During this time they gain
skills and life experience before starting tertiary education. These
young people are also known as “gappers”.
4. Tourist Profile
Mr. John Brown
2 Boundary Road, Bondi Beach Sydney
(Learners may supply made up contact
Sports Science Consultant
Needs and preferences
• Transport- bus, for journeys between
cities, minibus taxi in and around
towns, air for the long flight
Low to middle
Duration of visit
15 – 25 December
Accommodation – hostel
Sport – watch local rugby
Photography – trip to a game reserve
Food – visit to township restaurant.
Mr Brown is a vegetarian so make sure
vegetarian food is available
TRANSPORT : Transport is a system in which
passengers & goods are carried from one place to
Well known and coordinated transportation plays an
important role in the sustained economic growth of a
When different regions of a country start specializing
in certain selected products, the need for exchange
Exchange of product or sending products to other
places involves transportation.
Importance of Transportation
solve problem unemployment
Protect people from difficulties of war
large scale production
IMPORTANT MEANS OF TRANSPORT
Development and expansion of railways
lays revolutionized transport system
It is convenient mode of transport for
long distance and suitable for carrying
heavy and bulky goods.
It has played a crucial role in
industrialization and development of
Road transport is most suitable for short
and medium distance where other means
are unable to reach.
It provides door-to-door service , which is
not possible with other means.
It is the most promising means of
agricultural and industrial advancement of a
Today , it occupies a predominant position
in the transport network in the country.
Water transport are cheapest method of shipping heavy ,
low value , non – perishable goods .
Water transport can be divided into 2 categories.
Inland water transport
It includes natural modes such as navigable rivers and
India has about 14,500 kms of navigable waterways.
Development of IWT commenced from second five
year plan –total outlay was around rs.34cr.
Further rs.903cr was alloted for IWT in one tenth
Again, in 11th plan period three more waterways are
proposed to be added to include coverage of
Air transport is most modern ,quickest as well as latest edition
to the mode of transport.
Airports are managed by the Airports Authority of India (AAI).
Efforts are on to provide with the latest scientific technology
to ensure passengers safety and quick handling of passengers
and freight traffic.
In India, government first decided to air routes in 1920
Mumbai and kolkata
Kolkata and Rangoon
Subsequently, during 10th plan period an expenditure of rs.
12,928 cr was provided to the ministry of civil Aviation out
of which rs.7,792cr was spent.
Further ,in 11th plan rs.43,560 cr was kept aside as total
Provide food and Beverage
services and some
Discotheque, Tennis court.
Caters for families, travelers
and Holiday Makers.
Décor of such restaurants
feature higher quality
materials with an eye
towards the "atmosphere"
desired by the restaurateur.
Coffee shop is a part of
Run 24 Hours.
Pre-plated service has
Offered some snacks along
They Change their Menu
4 times in a day.
Used separate menu for
Breakfast, Lunch, Evening
Normally open in Nights
at Dinner, Dance and
A Dispensing Bar always
provided Decor is Lavish
while service is elaborate.
The pubs are Famous for
their expensive wines and
Spirits and other alcoholic
In Pubs Bartenders
cocktails and great
sommelier to keep the
wine glass full.
Sheethal Anchan, Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/sheethalanchan/transport-system-mbetn?qid=cf39c3d8-6d29-4215-83a5-d04dbaefc1ac&v=default&b=&from_search=2 (Accessed on
AMARESH JHA, Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/hotelierjha/foodandbeverageservicemanagement?qid=5dce812e-c9ef-4b3a-aaa105b7bc7ee1df&v=qf1&b=&from_search=8 (Accessed on 05 March 2014).
1stborn31, Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/1stborn31/types-of-tourist?qid=e4935d61e193-467e-b129-df379a0ea6e0&v=qf1&b=&from_search=2 (Accessed on 07 March 2014).
Alampy. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/randialampay/01introduction-to-tourismand-development?qid=a10f5458-3b0c-473e-bc67-65e52b7d43d6&v=default&b=&from_search=8
(Accessed on 05 March 2014).