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Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Clay for Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil

Pollution caused by crude oil has become a major problem in Nigeria. It is dangerous to human health, fueling climate change, poisoning soil dwelling organisms amongst others. However, physical and chemical approaches for its remediation are in use but most of these methods are less-effective, costly and even non-environmentally friendly. In this research, magnetite-magnesium sulphate- sodium dodecyl sulphate clay composite that is eco-friendly and less expensive were synthesized, characterized and applied in remediation of crude oil polluted soil. Magnetite was synthesized by co-precipitation of ferric and ferrous Sulphate. Magnesium Sulphate was prepared by recrystallization of Epsom salt and SDS clay was prepared by dissolving 0.6g of SDS in 250ml of distilled water which was further homogenized with calcined clay. Characterization of the composite and constituents were done using the following techniques; XRD, FTIR, XRF and SEM for the determination of mineral structure, functional groups, elemental composition and surface morphology respectively. In remediation, varying concentrations of the composite were added to fixed amount of the polluted soil sample. i.e 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% to 10g of soil sample. The remediation was conducted within the period of 7 and 14 days on parameters of interest such as Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Zylene (BTEX), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) and the soil samples were further, analyzed using GC-MS for the determination of BTEX and PAHs while GC-FID for TPHs before and after treatment with the composite. XRD results showed mixed mineral compounds of Silica, MgSO4, Alumina and Fe3O4 as expected. FTIR results showed prominent bands at 872cm-1 for bending mode of Si-O-Si group in the composite, 1028cm-1 for Si-O-Al group in the SDS clay, 864 cm-1 for bending vibration of SO42- in Magnesium Sulphate and 582 cm-1 for Fe-O group in Magnetite. EDXRF results showed Fe2O3, SiO2, MgO as significant elemental composition in the composite. SO3, MgO, Al2O3 as significant elemental oxides in Magnesium Sulphate, Fe2SO3 in Magnetite and SiO2, Al2O3, CeO2 in SDS clay. The results of SEM micrographs showed apparently porous, platy and irregular sized polycrystallites. BTEX, PAHs and TPHs analysis in 7 and 14 days remediation showed decreased in concentration of pollutants as the concentration of composite increases from 2% to 10%. The efficiency of degradation of BTEX, PAHs and TPHs was found to be higher in 14 days remediation compared with 7 days. Moreover, above 91% was recorded on PAHs and TPHs while 100% was achieved on BTEX. The order of magnitude of degradation by the three constituents of the composite on BTEX, PAHs and TPHs pollutants in the soil sample was SDS clay>MgSO4>Fe3O4. Above all, the efficiency of degradation of BTEX, PAHs, and TPHs increases due to increase in concentration of the composite with respect to time.

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETITE-MAGNESIUM
SULPHATE-SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE - CLAY FOR REMEDIATION OF
CRUDE OIL POLLUTED SOIL
PRESENTED
BY
NKIN, GIFT KIISI
PG:2020/00731
SUPERVISORS:
DR. J. L KONNE and DR. O. M AKINFOLARIN
1
JUNE, 2023
OUTLINE
 INTRODUCTION
 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
 LITERATURE REVIEW
 METHODOLOGY
 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCES
2
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, RIVERS STATE
UNIVERSITY
 Dr. J. L. Konne and Dr. O. M. Akinfolarin: Supervisors
 Prof. N. Boisa and all the lecturers in the Department of Chemistry: Head of Department and
staff.
Mr. D. Bekee, Mr. Emmanuel Dornubari Iyor and Mr. Chinedu Enyindah: Technologist
Mr. Sunday Nwaagor, Mr. Nkin Bariyaradum Lincoln, Mrs. Nkin Doris Akunna: Parents, siblings
and friends.
God almighty: For his protection, good health, and enablement to execute this research.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
INTRODUCTION
 Crude oil exploitation in Nigeria has triggered prodigious damage to the ecosystem, most
especially in the Niger-Delta Region (Kadafa, 2012).
 Soil pollution caused by the petroleum industries occur as a result of accidents involving oil
drilling, transportation and storage (Wang et al., 2017).
 Common soil pollutants associated with petroleum industries include; Total Petroleum
Hydrocarbons(TPHs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs), Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze
and Zylene(BTEX) amongst others (Constantin et al., 2018).
 Crude oil polluted soil is dangerous to human health, flora and fauna (Esin et al., 2011).
Therefore, for the normal functioning of ecological and biological system in the region of oil
production, there is a need for efficient remediation and utilization (Esin et al., 2011).
4
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
 Crude oil polluted soil can be remediated using different technologies but the
application of composite is one of the effective and current remediation technologies.
 It offers advantages such as, faster transformation kinetics, larger surface area for
adsorption, better penetration and most importantly, possibility of in-situ treatment
(Xiaoming et al., 2021).
5
INTRODUCTION CONT’D
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
AIM
To Synthesize Magnetite -Magnesium sulphate –Sodium dodecyl sulphate-Clay for remediation of Crude
Oil polluted Soil.
OBJECTIVES
Sampling, air drying, sieving and apportioning of crude oil polluted soil for treatments.
Synthesis of each constituents of the composite(Fe3O4, MgSO4.7H2O, SDS-Clay).
Characterization of each constituents and the composite using XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM for the
composite only.
Remediation of the crude oil polluted soil using the composite and the constituents.
Monitoring the level of remediation by testing for parameters such as Total Petroleum
Hydrocarbons(TPHs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and
Xylene(BTEX) on the crude oil polluted soil control experiment and the treated samples.
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 6

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Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetite-Magnesium Sulphate-Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Clay for Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil

  • 1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MAGNETITE-MAGNESIUM SULPHATE-SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE - CLAY FOR REMEDIATION OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTED SOIL PRESENTED BY NKIN, GIFT KIISI PG:2020/00731 SUPERVISORS: DR. J. L KONNE and DR. O. M AKINFOLARIN 1 JUNE, 2023
  • 2. OUTLINE  INTRODUCTION  AIM AND OBJECTIVES  JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY  LITERATURE REVIEW  METHODOLOGY  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE  CONCLUSION  REFERENCES 2 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY, RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY
  • 3.  Dr. J. L. Konne and Dr. O. M. Akinfolarin: Supervisors  Prof. N. Boisa and all the lecturers in the Department of Chemistry: Head of Department and staff. Mr. D. Bekee, Mr. Emmanuel Dornubari Iyor and Mr. Chinedu Enyindah: Technologist Mr. Sunday Nwaagor, Mr. Nkin Bariyaradum Lincoln, Mrs. Nkin Doris Akunna: Parents, siblings and friends. God almighty: For his protection, good health, and enablement to execute this research. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • 4. INTRODUCTION  Crude oil exploitation in Nigeria has triggered prodigious damage to the ecosystem, most especially in the Niger-Delta Region (Kadafa, 2012).  Soil pollution caused by the petroleum industries occur as a result of accidents involving oil drilling, transportation and storage (Wang et al., 2017).  Common soil pollutants associated with petroleum industries include; Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons(TPHs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs), Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze and Zylene(BTEX) amongst others (Constantin et al., 2018).  Crude oil polluted soil is dangerous to human health, flora and fauna (Esin et al., 2011). Therefore, for the normal functioning of ecological and biological system in the region of oil production, there is a need for efficient remediation and utilization (Esin et al., 2011). 4 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY
  • 5.  Crude oil polluted soil can be remediated using different technologies but the application of composite is one of the effective and current remediation technologies.  It offers advantages such as, faster transformation kinetics, larger surface area for adsorption, better penetration and most importantly, possibility of in-situ treatment (Xiaoming et al., 2021). 5 INTRODUCTION CONT’D
  • 6. AIM AND OBJECTIVES AIM To Synthesize Magnetite -Magnesium sulphate –Sodium dodecyl sulphate-Clay for remediation of Crude Oil polluted Soil. OBJECTIVES Sampling, air drying, sieving and apportioning of crude oil polluted soil for treatments. Synthesis of each constituents of the composite(Fe3O4, MgSO4.7H2O, SDS-Clay). Characterization of each constituents and the composite using XRD, XRF, FTIR and SEM for the composite only. Remediation of the crude oil polluted soil using the composite and the constituents. Monitoring the level of remediation by testing for parameters such as Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons(TPHs), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons(PAHs) and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene(BTEX) on the crude oil polluted soil control experiment and the treated samples. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 6
  • 7. JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY Crude oil pollution has become a major problem in the environment. It is dangerous to human health, fueling climate change, poisoning soil dwelling organisms amongst others. However, physical and chemical approaches for its remediation are in use but most of these methods are less-effective, costly and non-environmental friendly. The application of Magnetite-magnesium sulphate-sodium dodecyl sulphate clay composite that is ecofriendly, though not yet been reported in the available literature will be investigated in crude oil remediation in this research work. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 7
  • 8. REVIEW STUDIES 8 TITLE FINDINDS STRENGHTS LIMITATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soil The surfactants were found to have considerable potential in removing crude oil from different contaminated soils. The removal of crude oil with either rhamnolipid or SDS was within the repeatability range of ± 6%. The most influential parameters on oil removal were surfactant concentration and washing temperature. Low crude oil removal was achieved. The study recommended that, two or more materials should be combined with surfactants so as to achieve high level of crude oil removal. Kingsley et al., 2004. Application of Biochar in the remediation of contaminated soil with high concentration of lead and zinc. The results showed that after 56 days curing, the biochar treated soil had a neutral PH and EC value and higher soil fertility compared with the PC treated soil. It was observed that the biochar was more effective than Portland cement (PC) on heavy metal immobilization The period of curing was just 56 days. Extension of curing period was recommended Xiaoming zhao et al., 2021.
  • 9. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 9 TITLE FINDINDS STRENGHTS LIMITATIONS RECOMMENDATION REFERENCES Nanomaterial s for remediation of petroleum contaminated soils & water. The report suggested that the use of nanocomposites materials presents Interesting alternative to the existing remediation technologies. A wide treatable range of contaminants and faster transformation kinetics Repeated applications may be needed The study Recommended that more research should be conducted on nanocomposite material in remediation Jude, 2017. Bentonite composite: a potential immobilizing agent of heavy metals in soil The results showed that the desorption percentage of metals from the composite treated soil was significantly lower than the untreated contaminated soil. The finding indicated that immobilization of heavy metals in soils could be achieved by the chitosan bentonite, which would potentially be an inexpensive and sustainable environmental remediation technology The study demonstrated the usefulness of biopolymer composite in removing metals from aqueous solutions by adsorption mechanism. Kumararaja, 2018. REVIEW STUDIES CONT’D
  • 11. B 11 Filtration of Magnitite Recrystalization of MgSO4 Filtration of SDS clay Remediation of crude oil polluted soil Air drying of crude oil polluted soil Characterization of Composite and constituents. A Thermoscientific Diffractometer
  • 12. RESULTS 12 A B C D Fig 1: Surface morphologies of Magnetite-magnesium sulphate-sodium dodecyl sulphate clay composite (A) 50 µm (B) 80µm (C) 100 µm (D) 200 µm A B D C
  • 15. 15 FIG 10: XRF OF THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MAGNETITE-MAGNISIUM SULPHATE-SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE CLAY COMPOSITE XRF OF SDS CLAY XRF OF MAGNITITE MAGNETITE-MAGNISIUM SULPHATE-SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE CLAY COMPOSITE XRF OF MAGNISUM SULPHATE
  • 16. 16 TABLE 1: ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF MAGNETITE-MAGNISIUM SULPHATE-SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE CLAY COMPOSITE WITH CORRESPONDING CONCENTRATIONS ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION % CONCENTRATION Fe2O3 18.428% SiO2 13.168% SO3 12.827% MgO 10.74% Al2O3 4.612% MnO 1.1209% TiO2 0.3345% P2O2 0.2653% K2O 0.1241% ZrO2 0.02139% V3O5 0.0156 ZnO 0.01479 As2O3 0.0076% Cr2O3 0.00388 CuO 0.00125% EU2O3 0.000066%
  • 17. FIG 11: BTEX CONCENTRATIONS WITH VARYING PERCENTAGES OF COMPOSITE IN 7 DAYS REMEDIATION 17 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% BTEX CONCENTRATION (PPM) VARYING PERCENTAGES OF COMPOSITE Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene O-Xylene P-Xylene
  • 18. 18 FIG 12: PAHs CONCENTRATIONS WITH VARYING PERCENTAGES OF COMPOSITE IN 7 DAYS REMEDIATION 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% PAHs Concentration (PPM) Varying Percentages of Composite Naphthalene Acenaphthylene Acenaphthene Fluorene Phenanthrene Anthracene Fluoranthene Pyrene Benzo[a]anthracene Chrysene Benzo[b]fluoranthene Benzo[k]fluoranthene
  • 19. 19 FIG 13: PAHs CONCENTRATIONS WITH VARYING PERCENTAGES OF COMPOSITE IN 14 DAYS REMEDIATION 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% PAHs Concentration (ppm) Varying Percentages of Composite Naphthalene Acenaphthylene Acenaphthene Fluorene Phenanthrene Anthracene Fluoranthene Pyrene Benz[a]anthracene Chrysene Benzo[b]fluoranthene Benzo[k]fluoranthene
  • 20. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 20 FIGURE 14: % EFFICIENCY OF PAHs DEGRADATION IN 7 & 14 DAYS 0 37.46 68.8 78 86 87 0 81 91 92 97 99 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% Percentage Efficiency of Degradation Varying Percentages of Composite PAHs 7 DAYS PAHs 14 DAYS
  • 21. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 21 FIGURE 15: % EFFICIENCY OF TPHs DEGRADATION IN 7 AND 14 DAYS REMEDIATION 0 12 19 24 29 35 0 86 88 90 91 92 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% Percentage Efficiency of Degradation Varying Percentages of Composite TPHs 7 DAYS TPHs 14 DAYS
  • 22. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE 10% MAGNETITE 10% SDS CLAY TPHs CONCENTRATION (PPM) 10% OF CONSTITUENTS OF COMPOSITE 7 DAYS 14 DAYS FIGURE 16: EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE COMPOSITE ON TPHs CONCENTRATION IN 7 AND 14 DAYS REMEDIATION
  • 23. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 10% MAGNETITE 10% SDS CLAY 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE PAHs CONCENTRATION (PPM) 7 DAYS 14 DAYS FIGURE 17: EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE COMPOSITE ON PAHs CONCENTRATION IN 7 AND 14 DAYS REMEDIATION 10% OF CONSTITUENTS OF COMPOSITE
  • 24. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 24 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 10% SDS CLAY 10% MAGNETITE 10% MAGNESIUM SUILPHATE BTEX CONCENTRATION (PPM) 7 DAYS 14 DAYS FIGURE 18: EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE COMPOSITE ON BTEX CONCENTRATION IN 7 AND 14 DAYS REMEDIATION 10% OF CONSTITUENTS OF COMPOSITE
  • 25. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 25 FIGURE 19: COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF DEGRADATION OF TPHs, BTEX AND PAHs USING 10% COMPOSITE AND 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE, MAGNETITE AND SDS CLAY IN 7 DAYS 37.45 0.02 0.19 20.62 0.13 1.1 35.11 0.15 1.29 17.71 0.11 0.88 57.8 0.29 1.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 TPHs BTEX PAHs EFFICIENCY OF DEGRADATION 10 % COMPOSITE 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE 10% MAGNETITE 10% SDS CLAY 0%(CONTROL)
  • 26. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 26 FIGURE 20: COMPARISON OF EFFICIENCY OF DEGRADATION OF TPHs, BTEX AND PAHs USING 10% COMPOSITE AND 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE, MAGNETITE AND SDS CLAY IN 14 DAYS 4.92 0 0.014 17.86 0.11 0.59 32.72 0.12 0.6 15.78 0.04 0.77 57.8 0.29 1.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 TPHs BTEX PAHs 10 % COMPOSITE 10% MAGNESIUM SULPHATE 10% MAGNETITE 10% SDS CLAY 0% (CONTROL) EFFICIENCY OF DEGRADATION
  • 27. CONCLUSION  Sampling and preparation of Crude oil polluted soil was successfully done using standard method recommended by the U.S EPA 2016.  Constituents of the composite were successfully synthesized by standard methods which include Co-precipitation, recrystallization and calcination.  Characterization results showed surface morphology of the composite as apparently porous, platy and irregular sized polycrystallites, elemental composition indicated iron, silica and magnesium oxide peaks as the most prominent, XRD showed crystalline and amorphous phases denoted by sharp and broad peaks with elevated background and functional groups present were Si-O-Si, SO4 2-, C=O, Fe-OH being the most prominents.  The results of remediation showed decrease in the concentration of BTEX, PAHs and TPHs as the concentration of composite increases from 2% to 10%. This could be linked to catalytic effect of the composite which caused sigificant decrease in the concentration of the recalcitrant TPH from 57.8 to 4.92 ppm which is approximately 92% of degradation in 14 days.  The efficiency of degradation of BTEX, TPHs, and PAHs increases with increase in the concentration of the composite with respect to time. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 27
  • 28. CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE AND RECOMMENDATION The research showcased a novel eco-friendly composite for the degradation of BTEX, TPHs and PAHs by Ex-situ remediation of crude oil polluted soil. RECOMMENDATION Use of SDS clay is recommended for remediation of crude oil polluted soil. Supposing that, the composite is used in Ex-situ remediation, the duration of remediation and concentration should exceed 14 days and 1g(one gram) respectively. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY 28
  • 29. REFERENCES Ahmad, A., Zabihollah, Y., Reza, A., Zohre, P.(2022). Measurement of BTEX(Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Concentration at gas station .Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 9(1), 23-31. Ajanta, S., & Dayakar, P. (2007). Identification of Microfabric of Kaolinite Clay Mineral Using X-ray Diffraction Technique. Journal of Geo- technical and Geological Engineering, 25(6), 603-616. Buchel, H. K., Dietmar, W. (2000). Industrial inorganic chemistry. John Wiley & Son publishers, Second Edition. ISBN-978-3527-6133-5. Constantin, S., Diana, M.C., Irina, A.l., & Adrian, A.B. (2018). Decontamination of Petroleum contaminated soils using the Electrochemical Technique: Remediation Defree and Energy consumption. Scientific Reports,8(1), 32-72. Damilola, A.K., Asaolu, S.S., Adefemi, S., Ibigbami, O.A., Akinsola, A.F., Marcus, A., Popoola, O.K. (2021). Surfactant Enhancement of Clay Properties for Heavy Metals Adsorption. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry, 21(4), 825-841. Dell’Anno, G., Treiber, J. W.G., Partridge, I. K. (2016). Manufacturing of composite parts reinforced through - thickness by tufting. ISSN 073-5845. Dunia, K.M. (2013). Determinationn of Microstructure Properties of Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) Thin Film. Material Science Research Journal of Social Science and Management. ISSN: 2251-1571. Esin, E.E, & Ayten, K. (2011). Bioremediation of crude oil polluted soils. Asian Journal of Biotechnology, 3(3), 206-213. Jude, N.C. (2017). Nanomaterials for remediation of petroleum contaminated soils and water. Umudike Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(2), 23-29. Konne, J.L., Obomanu, F.G., Kordah, M.(2019). Application of Caladium-Clay Composite as Oil Spill Treatment Agent in Soil from Bodo Oil Spill Site. Nigeria Journal of Chemical Research, 24(2), 67-76. Kumararaja, P., Manjaiah, K.M., Datta, S.C., Ahammed, S. (2018). Bentonite Composite: A potential immobilizing agent of heavy metal in soil, 25(7), 3985-3999. Kadafa, A. A. (2012). Environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research Environment and Earth Sciences, 12(3), 2249-4626. 29
  • 30. REFRENCES CONT’D Kingsley, U., & Mehmet, C. (2004). surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soil. Journal of colloid and interface Science, 276(2), 456-643. Kumari, P. (2019). Magnetite Nanoparticules for Environmental Remediation. LAP-Lambert Academic Publisher. ISBN- 6200501289. Odochian, L. (2010). Study of the nature of the crystallization water in some magnesium hydrates by thermal methods. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 45(6), 1437-1448. Paria, S. (2008). Surfactant – enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water. Advances in colloid and interface science, 138(1), 24-58. Rosen, M. J., KujappAu, J.T. (2012) Surfactants and interfacial Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons Publishers Fourth Edition ISBN- 978-1-118-22902-6. Sharma, p., Kumar, R., Chauhan, S., Singh, D., & Chauhan, M.S. (2014). Facile Growth and Characterization of Alpha-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology,14(6), 6153-6157. Waterman, P. J. (2007). The life of composite materials. desktop Engineering magazine, 41(10), 66-192. U.S. EPA. (2016). In situ Treatment Technologies for contaminated soil; Engineering Forum issue paper EPA 542/F – 061016. Wang, S., Yan, X., Lin, Z., Jishi, Z., Namkha, N., & Wei, L. (2017). The harm of petroleum – polluted soil and its remediation research. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1864(1), 020222. Xiaoming, Z., Binbin, Y., Yuan, L., Dongqi, T., & Dongdong, L. (2021). Application of Biochar in the Remediation of contaminated Soil with High concentration of lead and Zinc. Advances in Civil Engineering, 21(5), 1-7. 30