Brief History of Computers

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Brief History of Computers

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Brief History of Computers

  1. 1. A Brief History of ComputersA Brief History of ComputersA Brief History of Computers By Debdeep Mukhopadhyay Assistant Professor Dept of Computer Sc and Engg IIT Madras
  2. 2. Pre-Mechanical Computing:Pre-Mechanical Computing:
  3. 3. Mechanical computersMechanical computers FromFrom The AbacusThe Abacus c. 4000 BCEc. 4000 BCE toto Charles BabbageCharles Babbage and his Difference Engine (1812)and his Difference Engine (1812)
  4. 4. Mechanical computers: The Abacus (c. 3000 BC) Mechanical computers: The Abacus (c. 3000 BC)
  5. 5. Napier’s Bones and Logarithms (1617) NapierNapier’’s Bones ands Bones and Logarithms (1617)Logarithms (1617) Picture courtesy IBM
  6. 6. Oughtred’s (1621) and Schickard‘s (1623] slide rule OughtredOughtred’’s (1621) ands (1621) and SchickardSchickard‘‘s (1623]s (1623] slide ruleslide rule
  7. 7. Blaise Pascal’s Pascaline (1645) Blaise PascalBlaise Pascal’’ss Pascaline (1645)Pascaline (1645)
  8. 8. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz’s Stepped Reckoner (1674) Gottfried Wilhelm von LeibnitzGottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz’’ss Stepped Reckoner (1674)Stepped Reckoner (1674)
  9. 9. Joseph-Marie Jacquard and his punched card controlled looms (1804) JosephJoseph--Marie Jacquard and his punchedMarie Jacquard and his punched card controlled looms (1804)card controlled looms (1804)
  10. 10. Preparing the cards with the pattern for the cloth to be woven Preparing the cards with the patternPreparing the cards with the pattern for the cloth to be wovenfor the cloth to be woven
  11. 11. Charles Babbage (1791-1871) The Father of Computers Charles Babbage (1791Charles Babbage (1791--1871)1871) The Father of ComputersThe Father of Computers
  12. 12. Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine Charles BabbageCharles Babbage’’s Differences Difference EngineEngine
  13. 13. Charles Babbage’s Analytical EngineCharles BabbageCharles Babbage’’s Analytical Engines Analytical Engine
  14. 14. Lady Augusta Ada Countess of Lovelace Lady Augusta AdaLady Augusta Ada Countess of LovelaceCountess of Lovelace
  15. 15. Electro-mechanical computersElectro-mechanical computers FromFrom Herman HollerithHerman Hollerith’’ss 18901890 Census Counting MachineCensus Counting Machine toto Howard AikenHoward Aiken and the Harvard Mark I (1944)and the Harvard Mark I (1944)
  16. 16. Herman Hollerith and his Census Tabulating Machine (1884) Herman Hollerith and hisHerman Hollerith and his Census Tabulating Machine (1884)Census Tabulating Machine (1884)
  17. 17. A closer look at the Census Tabulating Machine A closer look at the CensusA closer look at the Census Tabulating MachineTabulating Machine
  18. 18. The Harvard Mark I (1944) aka IBM’s Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) The Harvard Mark I (1944)The Harvard Mark I (1944) aka IBMaka IBM’’s Automatic Sequences Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC)Controlled Calculator (ASCC) Howard Aiken
  19. 19. The first computer bugThe first computer bugThe first computer bug Rear Admiral Dr. Grace Murray Hopper
  20. 20. Electronic digital computersElectronic digital computers FromFrom John Vincent AtanasoffJohn Vincent Atanasoff’’ss 19391939 AtanasoffAtanasoff--Berry Computer (ABC)Berry Computer (ABC) toto the present daythe present day
  21. 21. Alan Turing 1912-1954 Alan TuringAlan Turing 19121912--19541954 The Turing Machine Aka The Universal Machine 1936
  22. 22. John Vincent Atanasoff (1903-1995)John Vincent Atanasoff (1903John Vincent Atanasoff (1903--1995)1995) Physics Prof At Iowa State University, Ames, IA
  23. 23. Clifford Berry (1918-1963)Clifford Berry (1918Clifford Berry (1918--1963)1963) PhD student of Dr. Atanasoff’s
  24. 24. 1939 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) 19391939 The AtanasoffThe Atanasoff--Berry Computer (ABC)Berry Computer (ABC) The ABC was the first electronic digital computer, invented by John Vincent Atanasoff
  25. 25. 1943 Bletchley Park’s Colossus 19431943 Bletchley ParkBletchley Park’’s Colossuss Colossus The Enigma Machine
  26. 26. 1946 The ENIAC 19461946 The ENIACThe ENIAC John Presper Eckert (1919-1995) and John Mauchly (1907-1980) of the University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Engineering --Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer
  27. 27. The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer The ENIAC:The ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator andElectronic Numerical Integrator and ComputerComputer 30 tons, 18,000 vacuum Tubes (little powerful than the modern Calculator)
  28. 28. ENIAC’s Wiring!ENIACENIAC’’s Wiring!s Wiring!
  29. 29. Programming the ENIACProgramming the ENIACProgramming the ENIAC
  30. 30. 1951 Univac 19511951 UnivacUnivac Typical 1968 prices—EX-cluding maintenance & support! $40 millions for a calculator!!!
  31. 31. First Generation: Vonn Neuman Machine First Generation: Vonn Neuman Machine 1948 and beyond… 1903-1957
  32. 32. "Baby" at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester (MSIM), England "Baby" at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester (MSIM), England
  33. 33. Vonn Neuman ArchitectureVonn Neuman Architecture Stored Program Computer Programmable Instruction Set Architecture Memory bandwidth
  34. 34. UNIVAC-I: First Mass Produced Computer : Generation 2 UNIVAC-I: First Mass Produced Computer : Generation 2 Universal Automatic Computer Originally made by Remington Rand Sold 46 machines at $1 million each 1900 operations per second in a smaller and more efficient package than ENIAC.
  35. 35. The IBM Main Frame computersThe IBM Main Frame computers 1952, IBM announced the 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine First of its successful 700/7000 Mainframe computers Fortran was developed during 1955 and 56 Microprogramming was invented during this time
  36. 36. Punched CardsPunched Cards A punch card or punched card is a piece of stiff paper that contains digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions
  37. 37. Generation 3: Post-1960Generation 3: Post-1960 Jack St. Clair Kilby's and Robert Noyce's independent invention of the integrated circuit Invention of the microprocessor, by Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin at Intel. Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple Computer, is credited with developing the first mass-market home computers.
  38. 38. Future???Future??? Nano-technology Quantum Computing… Your mind (if applied)…

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