FAYOL’SPRINCIPLES OFMANAGEMENT ANDFUNCTIONS OFMANAGEMENT By- NITEEN.P B.com 1 st Sem Roll no. 305
HENRI FAYOL (1841-1925) Fourteen Principles of as one of the classical organization theory that is PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT were developed by Henri Fayol and have been considered universally applicable to every type of organization.
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DIVISION OF WORK OR SPECIALIZATION AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY DISCIPLINE UNITY OF COMMAND UNITY OF DIRECTION SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL REMUNERATION CENTRALIZATION LINE OF COMMAND/SCALAR CHAIN ORDER EQUITY STABILITY OF TENURE INITIATIVE ESPRIT DE CORPS
DIVISION OF WORK OR SPECIALIZATION Division of work makes a man specialist. The reason is thatdivision of work helps to specialize in an activity whichincreases the output with perfection. It also avoids wastage oftime. Division can be applied to both technical and managerialkind of work.
AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY Management is getting things done by others. A superiorgives direction to his sub-ordinates to perform the job. Thenthe super-visor may exercise his authority. The post he holdsinvests him with this authority. Authority is closelyconnected with responsibility. Responsibility is shoulderedwhenever authority is exercised . Responsibility is essential toperform a job correctly.
DISCIPLINE Discipline is essential in all levels of management. Disciplineis obtained through judicial application of penalties. Limits ofacceptable behavior are absolutely necessary to define, so thateveryone in an organization knows what can and cannot bedone. Often this principle is difficult for a supervisor to applyimpartially.
UNITY OF COMMANDAn employee should receive orders from only onesupervisor. Yet, because of a number of interactingvariables in any job situation, line and staff as authoritybecome opposed to line and staff as function
UNITY OF DIRECTIONThere should be only one plan, and the person should beresponsible for supervising it; all activities have the sameobjective, should be supervised by one person.
SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL The individual should subordinate self-interest to the generalgood. It is incumbent upon management to reduce conflictbetween the individual and the general well being whereverpossible.
REMUNERATIONRemuneration for work must be fair and accurate, affordingmaximum satisfaction for both employee and employer. Themanager must examine tasks, identify responsibilities, anddecide upon a just level of compensation.
CENTRALIZATIONFayol thought centralization of authority to be desirable, atleast for overall control. Certainly, both formulation ofpolicy and the generation of basic rules and procedures oughtto be centralized.
LINE OF COMMAND/SCALAR CHAINOrganizations need a formalized hierarchy that reflects the flowof authority and responsibility. Fayol suggested that a chain ofcommand is necessary most of the time, but, at times, it is bestignored. The communication flows to top to bottom or bottomto top. It should be proper.
ORDERIt is applied to both material and men. The materialshould be kept in order in the place where it is necessary.The personnel are selected scientifically and assignedduties according to there qualification and ability.
EQUITYEmployees must be seen as persons, not things to bemanipulated. If managers hope to create a good workingenvironment, they must treat everyone fairly and withequity. Equity refers to a combination of fairness, kindnessand justice.
STABILITY OF TENUREThe management should ensure stability or security ofjob to every employee of the undertaken.
INITIATIVEThe power of thinking out, proposing and executing.Management should encourage employees to originate andcarry out plans. This urging tends to boost levels of effort.
ESPRIT DE CORPSThis means union is strength or Team Spirit. He felt that allsuccessful organizations survive only when a feeling of unitypervades the group and that viable organizations cleat withcrises as a team.
FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENTFayols six primary functions of management, which gohand in hand with the Principles, are as follows:Forecasting.Planning.Organizing.Commanding.Coordinating.Controlling.