Personality and its relation to health


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This presentation includes an insight to personality , its types, theories and its influence on health

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Personality and its relation to health

  3. 3. CONTENTS • Introduction • Components/determinants of personality • Theories on personality • Personality related to illness • Personality and oral health • Personality and stress • Conclusion • References
  4. 4. WHY PERSONALITY???? Personality is the sum total of who you are - your attitudes and reactions, both physical and emotional. It's what makes each person different from every other person in the world. How can any study of human behaviour not include the study of who we are and how we got to be that way???
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION • Personality is derived from the Greek word ―Persona‖ meaning mask. • Behaviour is shaped by social roles as well as by personality and its differences. Personality is regarded as a dynamic concept of describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system
  6. 6. RB Cattell (1965) defines it, as that which determines behaviour in a defined situation and a defined mood. The assumption here is that the behaviour of the individual will depend not only on the situation in which he finds himself but also on his emotional state at that time.
  7. 7. • Gorctn Allport, a pioneer in personality research has defined personality as a dynamic organization within the individual, of psycho-logical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. • According to Mischel (1976) personality consists of distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize each individual's adaptation to his life.
  8. 8. • Character and temperament. • Character is a word that tends to be used in a morally judgemental way; the individual is evaluated in terms of cultural norms against which he is seen 'good' or 'bad'. • Temperament refers to the emotional responsiveness of a person, such as hot tempered-placid, fearful-un worried.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONALITY • Personality is what one is. • Personality of each individuals is unique and specific. • It is not static but dynamic in nature. • It is the product of heredity and environment
  10. 10. HISTORY • Hippocrates - four humours • Galen- explanation was further refined during the second century CE. The 'four humours' that Greek doctors used as a basis for medical diagnoses
  11. 11. • A person's personality was based on the balance of bodily humours; yellow bile, black bile, phlegm and blood. • Excess of yellow bile - Choleric people - making them irascible. • High levels of black bile - melancholy and pessimism. • Phlegmatic people were thought to have an excess of phlegm, leading to their sluggish, calm temperament. • Finally, people thought to have high levels of blood were said to be sanguine and were characterized by their cheerful, passionate dispositions
  12. 12. • In contrast the Medieval European's sense of self was linked to a network of social roles: the household, the kinship network, the guild, the corporation - these were the building blocks of personhood observed by Stephen Greenblatt. • The modern sense of individual personality is a result of the shifts in culture originating in the Renaissance, an essential element in modernity
  13. 13. COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY • Determinants that shape personality are viewed from different perspectives. • Major distinction is drawn between biological influences, most likely to be genetically determined and environmental influences determined by family, school, peer group and culture.
  14. 14. GENETIC COMPONENTS - Heredity • Heredity in the formation of adult personality - studied by twin studies and statistical methods. • Eysenck studied personality dimensions in identical twins and non-identical twins and found that the score on the dimensions of extra-version and neuroticism showed no significant correlation between the non-identical twins but were closely related for the identical twins.
  15. 15. Physique • Kretschmer – personality types based on physique. • The two types being schizothymic and cyclothymia personalities - two types were correlated to major psychiatric disorders - schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis . • The schizo-thymic is shy, inward looking with long and. narrow body build - Jung's introvert personality. • This cyclothymic is sociable, outward looking, but liable to swings of mood have muscular or fat body build - Jung's extrovert perso-nality.
  16. 16. • Sheldon identified three types of physique from a large number of photographs of male college students - three personality types associated with functions of the body organ and systems developed from the embryonic layers. • The endomorphic, (the viscerotonic persona-lity is characterized by a love of comfort and of food) • The mesomorphic, (muscular build individuals with a somatotonic personality, are vigorous, active and assertive) • The ectomorphic, dominated by the (the cerebrotonic central nervous inhibition, restraint and little social contact personality system is with
  17. 17. ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS • Family • School and peer group , • Culture - McClelland - differences between ratings of achievement imagery in TAT scores of school boys in Japan, Germany, Brazil and India – differences - found in cognitive style and different child rearing practices.
  18. 18. THEORIES OF PERSONALITY • The theories of personality try to describe the basic structure and underlying entities or constructs involved in personality in one way or the other, along with the processes by which these entities interact. • Two different approaches to study the concept are the ideographic and the nomothetic
  20. 20. TYPE OF THEORY THEORIST /THEORY Biological (or Trait) William Sheldon/Constitutional Psychology Gordon Allport/Psychology of the individual Raymond B. Cattell/Factor theory BASIC IDEA Human behaviour is traced to the joint effects of the organism’s inherited capabilities and past experience
  21. 21. Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud/psychoanalytic theory of psychosexual development Erik Erickson/Psychosocial theory of adjustment Carl G . Jung /Analytical Psychology Human behaviour is determined by a person’s past (childhood) experiences, which color his /her perceptions of current events
  22. 22. Social / Learning theory Albert Bandura/Social learning theory B.F.Skinner/Radical Behaviourism John Dollard and Neal E.Miller / Reinforcement theory Human behaviour results from an organism’s past learning, current perceptions, and higher level processes of thinking and organization
  23. 23. Humanistic Carl R.Rogers/ Person – centered Theory Human behaviour can be understood only in terms of the person’s internal perceptions of self and others leading toward personal fulfillment Abraham Maslow/Holistic theory
  24. 24. TRAIT THEORY • Personality is viewed in terms of various traits. • Trait – relatively permanent and relatively consistent general behaviour patterns that an individual exhibits in most situation. • These patterns are said to be the basic units of one’s personality that can be discovered through observing one’s behaviour in a variety of situations.
  25. 25. • William Sheldon (1899 - 1977) - identified three different general forms of human physique, or somatotypes - 7-point scale as to the amount of each form represented in our body. • In addition, Sheldon also suggested that there is a close relation between measures of our physique taken from somatotype photographs and our personal temperament (measured by observer ratings). This is, in fact, the single, essential assumption of Sheldon's theory -- that a continuity, or a high correlation, exists between physique and behaviour.
  26. 26. Gordon Allport's trait theory • 1936 - psychologist Gordon Allport found - English-language dictionary alone contained more than 4,000 words describing different personality traits. He categorized these traits into three : cardinal, central and secondary traits • Cardinal Traits: Traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, often to the point that the person becomes known specifically for these traits. E.g. : Consider the origin and meaning of the following descriptive terms: Freudian, Machiavellian, narcissism, Don Juan, Christ-like, etc. • Allport also suggested that cardinal traits are rare and tend to develop later in life.
  27. 27. • Central Traits: These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality. These central traits, while not as dominating as cardinal traits, are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person. • Terms such as intelligent, honest, shy and anxious are considered central traits. Secondary Traits: These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances. • E.g. : would be getting anxious when speaking to a group or impatient while waiting in line.
  28. 28. Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factor • Raymond B. Cattell – reduced the number of main personality Questionnaire traits from Allport’s initial list of over 4,000 down to 171,mostly by eliminating uncommon traits and combining common characteristics ---- Cattell rated a large sample of individuals for these 171 different traits ---- Factor analysis early 1960s ----. identified major personality factors both within individuals and across people in general ---- Identified 16 factors – considered as source of human personality --- Introduced 16 personality factor
  29. 29. CATTELL'S FACTOR THEORY • MAJOR PERSONALITY FACTORS • outgoing—reserved • more intelligent—less intelligent • stable—emotional • assertive—humble • happy-go-lucky—sober • conscientious—expedient • venturesome—shy • tender-minded—tough-minded • suspicious—trusting • imaginative—practical • shrewd—forthright • apprehensive—placid
  30. 30. Eysenck’s Three Dimensions of Personality • British psychologist - Hans Eysenck - model of personality based upon just three universal trails. • Major complaint Catell’s factors were overlapping. • Three major personality types or dimensions which have been listed by Eysenck neuroticism and psychoticism ---- extroversion,
  31. 31. Introversion/Extraversion: Introversion involves directing attention on inner experiences, while extraversion relates to focusing attention outward on other people and the environment. So, a person high in introversion might be quiet and reserved, while an individual high in extraversion might be sociable and outgoing. Neuroticism/Emotional Stability: This dimension of Eysenck’s trait theory is related to moodiness versus even-temperedness. Neuroticism refers to an individual’s tendency to become upset or emotional, while stability refers to the tendency to remain emotionally constant.
  32. 32. • Psychoticism: Later, after studying individuals suffering from mental illness, Eysenck added a personality dimension he called psychoticism to his trait theory. Individuals who are high on this trait tend to have difficulty dealing with reality and may be antisocial, hostile, non-empathetic and manipulative
  33. 33. Psychodynamic/Freud theory • Structure Mind • View of personality • Psychosexual Stages • Criticisms
  34. 34. Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach • Structure of the mind has 3 levels of awareness • Conscious : contents of current awareness • Preconscious : inactive but accessible thoughts and memories • Unconscious awareness : All memories, urges, conflicts beyond
  36. 36. Id • Governed by inborn instinctual drives, especially those related to sex and aggression • Obeys the pleasure principle Superego • Motivates people to act in an ideal fashion, according to moral customs of parents and culture • Obeys the idealistic principle Ego • Induces people to act with reason and deliberation, and to conform to the requirements of the outside world • Obeys the reality principle
  37. 37. Criticisms of psychodynamic Formulation • Poor Testability • Inadequate evidence • Sexism – stressed Infantile sexuality too much • Did not give enough emphasis to social and cultural factors • ―
  38. 38. HUMANISTIC APPROACH • Humanistic psychologists speak of growth and potential • Gestalt : people are more than a sum of predictable parts ………………. ―each person is unique and individual whole‖…………………… • CARL ROGERS
  39. 39. Carl Rogers Theory • The Self • An organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself • Mental picture of yourself • Once our self-concept is established, we have a need to maintain it
  40. 40. • Because we have a need to maintain our self concept. We have two kinds of needs: • Self-Consistency An absence of conflict among self perceptions • Congruence Consistency between self-perceptions and experience • Any experience inconsistent with our self concept evokes
  41. 41. Criticisms of Humanistic Approach • Adopts too positive a view of human nature • Concepts are vague Difficult to test scientifically • Inadequate evidence • Rely too much on reports of personal experience Take what people say at face value
  42. 42. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES • They see personality deve-lopment as being a set of learned responses. • Bandura – Social learning theory • Bandura believed personality largely shaped through learning. • Contends conditioning is not a mechanical process in which people are passive participants
  44. 44. EYSENCK (1990) The big Five: bipolar, one of the ends of the dimension describes the 'high' pole and the opposite end describes the 'low' pole. - Openness to experience: creative intellectual arid open minded vs. simple, shallow and unintelligent. - Conscientiousness : organized responsible and cautious vs. careless frivolous, irresponsible. - Extroversion : talkative, energetic and. assertive vs. quite received and shy. - Agreeableness : sympathetic, kind and affectionate vs. cold, quarrelsome and cruel. - Neuroticism : emotionally stable, calm and contented vs. anxious, unstable and temperamental.
  45. 45. PERSONALITY RELATED TO ILLNESS • Based on observations of clinical groups, correlations between particular diseases and personality types were reported, and striking psychological similarities among patients suffering from the same organic disease were described. • These similarities were formulated and linked to specific disorders such as coronary heart disease (CHD), peptic ulcer, and asthma.
  46. 46. • Recent studies suggest that epidemiological evidence for a link between Type A and CHD is no longer unequivocal. • A number of studies have quantified the degree of coronary artery disease present in patient, undergoing coronary angiography and have correlated disease seve-rity with measures of Type A behaviour. • Patients with Type A personality were likely to have severe coronary artery disease in comparison to Type B patients. • However, subsequent studies found that Type A was not associated with extensive coronary artery disease.
  47. 47. PERSONALITY AND ORAL HEALTH  Research has shown at least three processes to be involved. First, particular personality traits may predispose to poor oral health; an example of this might be a predisposition to bruxism (and subsequent temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction) among individuals who score more highly on the trait of aggressiveness.  Second, personality traits may predispose to poor oral health because they are associated with health-damaging behaviours; for example, individuals who are low on constraint might be more likely to smoke and be, in turn, more likely to suffer periodontitis.
  48. 48.  Third, personality characteristics may shape the way in which individuals react to (interpret) symptoms and thus construct their illness state.  Of the three possible mechanisms described above, the first and second are germane to the issue of the influence of personality on clinical disease status, and the third has the greatest immediate relevance to the issue of the influence of personality differences on oral health measurements using self-report global items and Oral-health related quality of life scales.
  49. 49. PERSONALITY AND STRESS  Certain personality types are prone to specific illnesses. People who are perfectionists, self-sacrificing, conforming, self- conscious, inhibited, shy and nervous, sensitive, get easily worked up, are more prone to get physical diseases if exposed to prolonged and severe stress .
  50. 50.  Type A personality has often been associated with stress and illness. These people are intensely ambitious, competitive and impatient. They are always pre-occupied with deadlines and want to achieve things in the shortest time possible. Type A person expends enormous energy in pursuit of his goals. Migraine and tension headaches are also associated with this personality type
  51. 51. REFERENCES • Angler B. (2009). Personality Theories: Eighth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cenage Learning. • Storm Paula, "Personality Psychology and the Workplace", MLA Forum, 2006. • Carlson Neil and et al. 2010. Psychology the Science of Behaviour, p. 438. Pearson Canada, United States of America. ISBN 978-0-205-64524-4. • Thomson WM, Caspi A, Poulton R, Moffitt TE, Broadbent JM. Personality and oral health. European Journal of Oral Sciences, 2011; 119: 366–372.
  52. 52. • Gareth E. Hagger-Johnson and Martha C. Pollard Whiteman. Personality and health - So what? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1052–1063. • Maslow A. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row • Rogers C. (1961). On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Personality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
  53. 53. Thank