Creating Order from Chaos: Facilitating Groups and Teams


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Presentation on using tools, scripts, and tips for working with groups or teams in four situations: meetings, brainstorming, problem-solving, and arriving at consensus.

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  • We will use the second definition of facilitate
  • Today, we’ll look at facilitation methods and models in four situations. For each situation, we will discuss a tool that can be used effectively in that situation. I have experienced all of these situations and tools as an association leader and have used in the workplace and for association groups. The more facilitation I do, the more I learn how to combine various methods or piggyback on the models. Each of the methods and models we explore today can be combined in various ways to meet a variety of situations and present the opportunity for using multiple tools. As we go through this presentation, we will work through two situations using specific tools.
  • But First – A couple of things to keep in mind whenever you facilitate a group. A good facilitator is always prepared with a bag of toys and supplies – You’ll see how we use these later in the presentation.
  • If possible – Visit the room where you will hold the facilitated event before hand. Are there tables? What kind of tables – rectangle, round, oval? I prefer using round tables because it makes conversation easier. Round tables usually seat 6-8 people which is a good size for a smaller working group. If no tables – do the seats have writing surfaces? What are the seats like – theatre style, two sections divided by an aisle, are the seats moveable? What types of collaborative media are in the room? Are there whiteboards, flipcharts, screens or monitors in the room – what are the locations of each? Will everyone be on the same level or are there tiers or balconies? Is there room for people to get up and walk around? Can the lighting be adjusted? – Dimmed, Brightened, Blinds or shades on the windows? Is the room comfortable – can the temperature be controlled from inside the room – keeping the room cooler, but NOT COLD, will help stimulate thinking and creativity; Can people have coffee, water while in the room – is there a place for them to set their drink on? If you can’t visit room in person prior to the presentation – see if the facility has a website. On the website, check out the room by looking at room layouts, seating arrangements, photos. Call the facility’s event manager or banquet manager and ask questions. If you can’t do that, plan to arrive at least 1 hour before the scheduled start of the event so that you can inspect the room and ask questions from the facility staff.
  • Why Schedule: Status Updates, Reviews, Planning, Conduct official business, Power Play, Provide Information, Learn Something Why Hate: Waste Time, Nothing Gets Accomplished, People are not Prepared
  • I call this the Hallmark Model because I was introduced to it by a manager at Hallmark who used it for our association’s board meetings. He used the same model for workplace meetings. Email agenda 7 Business Days prior to Meeting Email agenda a second time (without materials) 2 business days prior to meeting – Note if there are changes from first agenda or if attached simply as a duplicate Because questions/fact finding (dialogue) is done separately from the deliberation, the time spent in deliberating is significantly reduced. Further, by separating the two processes, people focus on the issue and process, rather than arguing back and forth.
  • All Norms are listed in Resources at end of presentation
  • Features: * Date – Time – Conference call in instructions * Time of item – Name of Item – Person responsible or champion * Times indicated for Dialog and Deliberation and Vote * Definitions of Dialog and Deliberation at bottom of Agenda
  • When – want lots of ideas, want different perspectives, want range from practical to outrageous, inexpensive to off the chart How – Norms (expected behavior); in oral brainstorming, watch that all ideas initially accepted at face value Disadvantages Round the Group – trying to come up with idea when it’s your turn; may elicit expressions of support or boos, may be sentences rather than 1 or 2 words or simple phrase
  • As the facilitator, you’ll have to give the group some instructions. The first instruction: Tell them they will need to take out a sheet of paper and find a piece of scrap paper or the margins of second sheet (they can use the sheet your taking notes on) Remember -- A Good facilitator always has a supply bag of goodies – in this case, have sheets of paper and a few pens or pencils on hand in case someone needs something. GIVE INSTRUCTIONS: On the next slide is an issue that needs to be brainstormed. Take a couple of minutes to jot down as many thoughts, ideas, words, phrases that you can think of – you should have at least five ideas --- and you may want more ….Don’t compare with your neighbor or best friend – these are your ideas. Just jot your ideas down on your scrap paper or in the margins of your notes ….
  • Give people a couple of minutes to read the slide. Your next instruction: Take a couple of minutes to jot down as many thoughts, ideas, words, phrases that you can think of – you should have at least five ideas --- and you may want more ….Don’t compare with your neighbor or best friend – these are your ideas. Just jot your ideas down on your scrap paper or in the margins of your notes … (then give them 2-3 minutes. Remember to check that everyone has jotted down ideas before you proceed. All instructions that the Facilitator must give to participants are indicated in green type.
  • Facilitator MUST Give the instructions
  • Important to remember that the facilitator is part of the team addressing the problem. The team or champion or CEO or Board will make the final determination on how to resolve the problem. Facilitator’s role is to help the problem-solving process go smoothly and effectively. WHEN TO USE – When decisions need to be made; when you need consensus from a group, when new or different perspectives are needed WHY USE -- to address leadership or management issues, to improve business processes, to find the cause of a problem
  • I call this the Zurich model because I was introduced to it by a communications manager from Australia who uses it in her work with Zurich Financials. By the way she was promoted and now works in Zurich, Switzerland! Time should enable robust and full discussions – suggest minimum of 30 minutes per session; maximum of 1 hour per session
  • TOYS -- This is a Great time to use some of the TOYS in your bag to stimulate creativity – provide some crayons, colored ink pens, modeling clay, water paints – even items that can be twisted into different shapes – Anything that will help people to tap into all areas of the brain to express themselves and stimulates thinking Paper – I like to use Freezer Wrap – Put shiny side down. When people draw, doodle, write on paper, it does not “bleed through” to the tablecloth. Cut into sections long enough to run length of round table. Be sure to have plenty of extra sections because scribes will likely use at least 2 sheets per session.
  • Critical to have as wide a representative sample of participants as possible so that multiple perspectives are working on the problem If the problem is isolated to one location, then only include participants from that location; if systemic throughout organization, then hold multiple meetings at various sites OR bring in participants from other locations Most round tables will seat 6-8 people comfortably
  • Scribe/reporter – This is a KEY PLAYER in success of Event. You can ask for volunteers OR you can populate each table with pre-selected scribe/reporter that you personally know (or has been recommended) can handle the duties. If a large group and a critical problem-solving event, then I would pre-select scribes/reporters and meet with them as a group about 30 minutes prior to start of event to explain duties and answer their questions. They can also help with table needs – i.e. paper, toys.
  • AFTER DISCLOSING RESOLVE -- If all this sounds a bit familiar – we talked about this earlier in discussing NORMS. One suggestion, as you work with managers to shape and agree on the questions used in this exercise, you might also agree on the Norms that the groups will use during the exercise. If you use Norms, these should be clearly posted around the room so that all participants can see them without having to turn around (that action may disrupt the group synergy)
  • Number of questions determines the number of sessions Questions should be designed to get at the heart of the problem/root cause of problem and possible solutions ASK if everyone knows what progressive disclosure is
  • Remember to limit to 3-5 questions. Arrive at consensus for the questions from those on the team. Questions must reflect the problem at hand and will vary from business to business – organization to organization. Questions should be broad in scope to encourage discussion and varying perspectives.
  • Welcome – tell them why they were selected (multiple perspectives) Describe the problem – very briefly indentify the WHAT of the problem (i.e., net profit or membership decreased 150% in last fiscal year) – Do not go into the why, the how, the who – this should surface during the discussions If using Norms, explain why they are used and what they are (acceptable behavior and expectations for participants) – point out postings around the room Scribe/Reporter – If scribes/reporters not previously selected, describe what duties are and ask for volunteer at each table. Each table MUST have scribe/reporter If table(s) don’t have a volunteer – Ask entire group if there are X number of people who would like to be a scribe/reporter and have them switch places with someone at the table(s).
  • READ ALL GREEN INSTRUCTIONS Suggest that the person collecting the sheets from each scribe, staples all sheets from the same table together. Makes it easier to sort later on as team considers all the input. Remember – the Event’s questions all lead to possible solutions. It is up to the team – not the Event participants – to examine the comments to the questions and the possible solutions and to make the final choice or decision. PRESENTER AND AN ASSISTANT: ANNOUNCE A 10 MINUTE BREAK. DURING BREAK, PRESENTER AND ASSISTANT CREATE BUCKET SHEETS FROM THE BRAINSTORMING SESSION (TOOL 2)
  • Why Consensus: You may have noticed that in the Zurich model, we strongly suggested getting a consensus of the managers when drafting and deciding on the questions to be used for a Zurich event. WHY Consensus – Everyone is part of the decision-making; people more likely to support decisions when their concerns have been heard; easier to implement decisions when people understand the “WHY” that formed the consensus
  • Creating Order from Chaos: Facilitating Groups and Teams

    1. 1. Creating Order from Chaos: Facilitating Groups and Teams Presenter: Joy Lovejoy, ABC B2BCinci 19 November 2011
    2. 2. FACILITATE
    3. 3. SITUATIONS <ul><li>Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Arriving at Consensus </li></ul>TOOLS
    5. 5. THE ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>Think about the room you will be in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there tables? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the seats like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What type of collaborative media are in the room? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will everyone be on the same level or are there tiers or balconies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there room for people to get up and walk around? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the lighting be adjusted? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the room comfortable? </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. MEETINGS <ul><li>Why We Schedule Them </li></ul><ul><li>Why We Hate Them </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting Tool: The Agenda </li></ul>
    7. 7. TOOL: HALLMARK MODEL <ul><li>Prepare Agenda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute to all Attendees along with all meeting materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each agenda item is labeled as either Dialogue , Deliberation , or Vote </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue – open, informal discussion to clarify, illuminate, fact find </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberation – formal talk immedialy prior to vote; time for persuasive reasoning, consideration of the issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vote – simple majority?, bylaws? </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. TOOL: HALLMARK MODEL <ul><li>Norms – Acceptable, Expected Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>For Groups – at first meeting, decide on norms </li></ul><ul><li>Hallmark Norms </li></ul><ul><li>IABC Norms -- customized </li></ul>
    10. 10. BRAINSTORMING <ul><li>When to Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>How We Brainstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Tool: Pass Your Sheet </li></ul>
    12. 12. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congratulations – you’ve just won $83 million in the State Lottery!!! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You, your spouse, and three children (a girl – age 17, a boy – age 13, and another girl – age 6), are going to build a new house next year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What should go in the new house? Remember – anything and everything is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Jot down as many thoughts as possible in the next couple of minutes – you should have at least 5 thoughts. </li></ul>
    13. 13. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>Meanwhile, the facilitator should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count the number of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If more than 10 people you will need to subdivide the group into smaller groups of 5-8 people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subdivide the group BEFORE proceeding to the next step. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once people have jotted down ideas, you can give them instructions on the next 2 slides. </li></ul>
    14. 14. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>Put one of your ideas at the top of your sheet of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Pass your sheet of paper to the person on your right. </li></ul><ul><li>Put another of your ideas on the sheet of paper just passed to you … then pass the sheet to the person on the right. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to read all the ideas on each sheet – it may spark another idea in you! Jot it down to add on the next sheet you get. </li></ul>
    15. 15. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>Continue this routine until every person has listed EVERY one of his or her IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>If you have completely run out of ideas, just pass the paper to the person on your right </li></ul>
    16. 16. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>If there are several subgroups, exchange one group’s sheets with another group. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat the exercise, but this time people will list an idea IF the idea is NOT already on that sheet AND the idea was not used in an earlier round. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who has run out of ideas should “pass” on the remaining sheets until everyone in the second group has exhausted their ideas. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. TOOL: PASS YOUR SHEET <ul><li>What happens to the sheets? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post for everyone to read at the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compile all ideas to eliminate duplicates and send to all participants and to person who first requested the information OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compile all ideas to eliminate duplicates. Group similar ideas into “buckets” for use in a decision-making exercise. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. PROBLEM-SOLVING <ul><li>When to use group problem-solving methods </li></ul><ul><li>Why use group problem-solving methods </li></ul><ul><li>Group Problem-Solving Tool: “Zurich” Model </li></ul>
    19. 19. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>This model is critical thinking intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Model is best used in larger groups – anywhere from 40 people up to 500 people </li></ul><ul><li>Event involves 3-5 sessions for each participant </li></ul><ul><li>Allow enough time for discussion </li></ul>
    20. 20. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>Materials Needed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long sheets of paper – criss-crossed on table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing implements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Bag of “Toys” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple copies of questions in large type to be posted on walls (with “blue” tape) OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Flip Charts with each question on a different sheet of the chart </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>Cross-Section of Participants Drawn from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All divisions, BU, locations, cities, chapters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All levels from senior leadership through entry-level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across all job descriptions or interests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each table should have 6-8 people </li></ul>
    22. 22. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>One person at each table acts as Scribe/Reporter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts current question on wall/flip chart for viewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writes session number and question at top of paper on table. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able to capture comments, ideas, questions and write them down on long paper on table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able to summarize work of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be able to act as “assistant facilitator” if discussion starts to falter or stall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains at same table for ALL sessions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects all “Toys” on the table at end of event and puts in plastic bag. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives all paper sections with session number, question and comments AND the plastic bag of toys to designated person after the event ends. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>Each group has the responsibility to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider all possibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge respectfully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve </li></ul></ul>NORMS
    24. 24. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>Prior to Session: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on problem, facilitator should prepare 3-5 questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consult with managers/team in preparing questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aim for consensus on questions to be used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important – questions must be presented in progressive disclosure format </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>Possible Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How is problem manifested in the organization? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did we get in this situation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is at the heart/root cause of the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this affect the organization in the short-run? …. In the long-run? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will the organization look like when problem is resolved? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will it take to resolve the problem? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Welcomes participants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains how today’s efforts fit into big picture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Briefly describes the problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains Norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explains role of Scribes/Reporters (if not pre-selected) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator Explains Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We have X number of questions to explore today in X number of sessions. Each session will last X minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each session will explore one question. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will have a X minute break between the sessions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator Continues Explaining Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For EACH session, you should take a seat at a different table than where you have been for earlier sessions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each of you should try NOT to sit with people that were in earlier sessions with you. You should see NEW FACES at the table for each session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At each table, make use of the “toys” to stimulate your thinking – Feel free to draw, write, doodle on the paper </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator Continues Explaining Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At the start of the second session, and for each session after that, your table’s Scribe will report and summarize the discussion of previous groups on the previous questions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use this information as you talk about the question for the current session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, the current question is posted around the room. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of 1 st Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator says: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will start Session 1 now. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This session will last X minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Halfway through 1 st Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator announces remaining time in session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near end of 1 st Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator gives a 5 minute warning to wrap up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At 5 minute warning for end of session, Scribe should summarize notes from the session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At End of 1 st Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator says: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the end of Session 1. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will take a X-minute break </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Session 2 will start promptly in X-minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to move to a different table with new faces for Session 2. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At Start of 2nd Session (and subsequent sessions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator says: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will start Session X now. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This session will last X minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Halfway through X Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator announces remaining time in session </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near end of X Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator gives a 5 minute warning to wrap up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At End of X Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator says: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the end of Session X. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will take a X-minute break </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The next session will start promptly in X-minutes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to move to a different table with new faces for the next session </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. TOOL: “ZURICH” MODEL <ul><li>At End of Last Session </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitator says: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is the end of final session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you everyone for giving us your best thinking today. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A special thank you to those who served as a Scribe/Reporter. You played a critical role in capturing everything that happened today. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We know that these have been intensive sessions. The team leading the problem really appreciates your work. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scribes – please remember to collect the toys in your plastic bag and give the bag and the sheets from your table to (NAME OF PERSON). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This concludes today’s event. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS <ul><li>Why Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting Tool: Dots </li></ul>
    34. 34. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>This model is a participative method of arriving at consensus when there are multiple options that would be effective </li></ul><ul><li>Dots Model can be used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning people to committees or tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighted election results </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Materials Needed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip Chart Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marking Pens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Blue” tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Dots” (Avery) from office supply stores </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Two Approaches on Flip Chart Sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Dots on Original Flip Chart sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Dots on “Bucket” Flip Chart sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break out ideas into “Buckets” of similar comments/ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each bucket with comments goes on separate sheet </li></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 37. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Flip Chart Sheets – continued </li></ul><ul><li>Dots on Original Flip Chart sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for brainstorming by smaller groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dots on Bucket Flip Chart sheets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for Oral Brainstorming by Larger Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for Pass the Sheet/Written Brainstorming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use to order comments from Zurich model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use for large number of comments/ideas/possible priorities </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Facilitator: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check with participants to determine if any clarification is needed for working on the Flip Chart Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If so, allow explanation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the Dots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute strip of 10 dots to each participant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All dots should be the same color </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Rules for Using the Dots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant may elect to use all 10 dots or refrain from using any dots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant may use a MAXIMUM of 5 dots on any one item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each participant may distribute dots across multiple items by using combinations of 1, 2, 3 or 4 dots as long as a participant uses no more than 5 dots are on any one item </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example A: 4 dots to Item 2; 1 dot to Item 6; 3 dots to Item 11; and 2 dots to Item 15 = 10 Dots used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example B: 3 dots to Item 4; 5 dots to Item 10; 1 dot to Item 12; and 1 dot to Item 15 = 10 Dots used </li></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 40. ARRIVING at CONSENSUS: DOTS <ul><li>Facilitator: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count the Dots by each Item – Write number of Dots next to Item </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For smaller groups, one round may be enough </li></ul><ul><li>For larger groups or to successively reduce options by consensus, continue with more rounds using different color of Dots </li></ul>
    41. 41. RESOURCES: Hallmark Norms <ul><li>Trust others to act in your best interest </li></ul><ul><li>Give others the benefit of the doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Trust the pros </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal your concerns directly </li></ul><ul><li>Respect others – listen, acknowledge ideas, act like everyone has something to offer, don’t interrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Accept collective accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Share opinions openly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t defer to someone else – be an active participant </li></ul><ul><li>Support decisions inside and outside of meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t fall into parent/child interactions </li></ul><ul><li>When we meet, it’s a priority </li></ul><ul><li>Be a player – silence is not an option </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t withhold information </li></ul><ul><li>Go as far as you can with the information you have </li></ul><ul><li>Throw hard, not sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Start and end meetings on time – don’t take it personally </li></ul><ul><li>Respond promptly to requests from colleagues </li></ul>
    42. 42. RESOURCES: IABC Norms <ul><li>If something is well said, other members do not need to repeat it </li></ul><ul><li>Silence on a point under discussion implies agreement (chair will check) </li></ul><ul><li>Ring the strategy bell! Focus on strategy and stay on topic – on the ends, not the means </li></ul><ul><li>Bring full creativity to the table </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage and respect cultural differences </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and respect each others’ comfort level with risk </li></ul><ul><li>Seek consensus but do not be constrained by full agreement </li></ul>