Climate Monitoring • Understand varia7ons in other park resources being monitored. • Compare current and historical data to understand long term trends. air temp precipita7on (including snow) snow depth wind speed wind direc7on soil moisture soil temperature rela7ve humidity
Remnants of an avalanche that occurred at Owyhigh Lakes, Mount Rainier Na7onal Park. Avalanche debris covered most of the northern por7on of the lake and introduced substan7al amounts of large woody debris into the lake. Photo was taken on July 19th, 2011.
Monitoring Mountain Lake Ecology Lakes are like petri dishes – exposed to atmospheric and terrestrial processes. and subject to climate change, wind-‐blown contaminants, acid rain, and increased recrea7onal impacts
Long Term Lakes Monitoring Amphibians Fish Macroinvertebrates Zooplankton
Mount Rainier Atmospheric Issues Climate change could have the following impacts • on air quality levels (EPA 2009): Deposi7on sulfur and nitrogen compounds (acid deposi7on) • Produce 2-‐8 ppb increases in summer?me Visibility • average ground-‐level ozone concentra?ons in Ozone many regions of the country. Research exacerbate ozone concentra?ons on • Further • days when weather is ailready conducive to high Mercury/contaminants n ﬁsh and sediments ozone concentra?ons • Lengthen the ozone season • Produce both increases and decreases in par?cle pollu?on over diﬀerent regions of the U.S.
Mercury Cycling and Ecological Risk Across Habitats in Mount Rainier Na7onal Park Climate change alters biochemistry enhances conversion to methyl mercury through temp changes and changes in weing and drying pajerns alters distribu7on of species Quan7fy Hg bioaccumula7on and risk in aqua7c habitats throughout the park and determine spa7al varia7on among diﬀerent aqua7c habitat types Provide a tool to predict risk at sites throughout the park
Chytridiomycosis Objec?ves (Batrachochytrium 1. Rank the pond dendroba1dis (Bd)), is a breeding amphibians major driver of based on a calculated amphibian declines and index of resistance to ex7nc7ons worldwide Bd. 2. Contrast this index for select species between popula7ons. 3. Contrast the occurrence, prevalence, and intensity of Bd infec7on between popula7ons.
Modeling climate change eﬀects on the hydrology of Paciﬁc Northwest wetland ecosystems develop hydrologic projec7ons for wetland habitats (forest wetlands, wet meadows, small ponds, riparian wetlands) to support ecological and landscape-‐based vulnerability assessments and climate adapta7on planning Monitor Temperature and water level in wetland habitats Conduct visual surveys of wetlands to map/measure changes in pond depth & areal extent, and monitor amphibian occupancy
Cascades Bu[erﬂy Project Bujerﬂies are sensi7ve indicators of climate change because temperature inﬂuences the 7ming of an individual’s life cycle and the geographic distribu7on of species. As individuals develop from egg to larvae to pupae and ﬁnally to mature bujerﬂy, temperature thresholds may trigger these changes. Mountain Parnassian (Parnassius smintheus) Inventories are being conducted of bujerﬂies across our landscape Permanent transects have been established to monitor changes in bujerﬂy abundance and species diversity. Volunteers record bujerﬂy abundances and plants in ﬂower along each transect.
Pollinators of alpine and subalpine plant communi7es on Mount Rainier Elinore J. Theobald Co-‐PI: Dr. Janneke HilleRisLambers Biology Department University of Washington document pollinator diversity and abundance and quan7fy how plant reproduc7ve success depends on pollinators Pollinator visits will ensure that plants set seed and meadows con7nue to ﬂower
TESTING THE LIMITS: EFFECTS OF CLIMATE & COMPETITION ON CONIFER DISTRIBUTIONS AT MT. RAINIER Ailene Kane Einger, PhD Candidate Dr. Janneke HilleRisLabmers, Advisor Biology Department University of Washington how will tree seedlings, such as this western hemlock, will be aﬀected by climate change
Phenology and Climate Change Dr. Janneke Hille Ris Lambers, Biology Department University of Washington Examine the links between plant phenology (ﬂowering) to microclimate variability (e.g. snow dura7on, temperature Predicted climate changes (temp, snowmelt, precip) will aﬀect the phenology (i.e. 7ming of biological life events) of subalpine wildﬂower species, which could have implica7ons for the pollina7ng insects that rely on them
Predic?ng the eﬀects of future climate change on the subalpine and alpine meadows of Paciﬁc Northwest Mountains • meadows support seven of the 12 imperiled or rare plants in the park (including the two plant species endemic to Mount Rainier and the local area). • meadows provide important habitat for wildlife such as mountain goats, white-‐tailed ptarmigans, hoary marmots and the American pika. • the meadows are a popular Snow disappears earlier from ridges des7na7on in the Park, with (which are more likely to support about 65% of visitors patches of trees) than topographic travelling to the meadows to depressions (which are more likely view the wildﬂower displays. to support patches of meadow).
RESPONSE OF RIVER RUNOFF TO BLACK CARBON IN SNOW AND ICE IN WASHINGTON STATE 1. assess the spa7al and temporal variability of BC deposited in Washington snow and glacier ice, 2. begin to assess the poten7al role of BC in accelera7ng snow and glacier melt