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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

  1. 1. 1 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAMSHEDPUR TRAININGREPORT STEEL MELTING SHOP TRAINING ORGANISATION -MECON LIMITED, RANCHI (DURATION-MAY 25th TO JUNE 24th 2015) NISHANT SINGH 2013UGME076 SEMESTER-V DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  2. 2. 2 ABSTRACT THIS REPORT IS BASED ON THE LEARNINGS ACHIEVED IN 2 WEEKS OF THE ONEMONTH TRAINING SESSION IN MECON LTD. UNDER THE STEEL MELTING SECTION AND ROLLING MILLS SECTION. THIS REPORT PARTICULARLY FOCUSES ON THE STEEL MELTING SECTION’S TWO MOST IMPORTANT ASPECTS- BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE AND CONTINUOUS CASTING SHOP. THE INFORMATION PROVIDED IN THIS REPORT IN BASED ON THE CUMULATIVEACCUMULATION OF ALL THE INFORMATION GAINED FROM THE RESPECTIVE OFFICIALS AND READING THE PROVIDED DOCUMENTS.
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I WOULD LIKE TO SINCERELY THANK ALL THE OFFICIALS OF THE STEEL MELTING SECTION OF MECON LIMITED (A GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ENTERPRISE) FOR THEIR GENEROUS AND AVID CONTRIBUTION TOWARDS MY KNOWLEDGE IN THE SUBJECT WHICH WAS COMPLETELY NEW TO ME. BECAUSE OF THEIR CONTRIBUTION, AT THE END OF THE TRAINING I HAVE BEEN ABLE TO GAIN ATLEAST THE BASICS OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE AND CONTINUOUS CASTING SHOP, AND ALSO SOME KNOWLEDGE OF THE NATURE AND TYPE OF WORK ACCOMPLISHED HERE IN MECON LIMITED. OVERALL THIS LEARNING EXPERIENCE IN MECON LIMITED PROVIDED ME WITH AN IDEA OF THE CHALLENGES FACED BY THE ENGINEERS IN PROFESSIONAL LIFE AND AS A MATTER OF FACT TAUGHT ME THAT EVEN AN IOTA OF NEGLIGENCE BY THE ENGINEERS CAN CAUSE GREAT HAZARDS DURING UPCOMING PROCESSES AND SO THE JOB OF AN ENGINEER IS THAT OF GREAT RESPONSIBILITIES. REMARKS:
  4. 4. 4 CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE NO. 1) THE TRAINING ORGANISATION 5 2) THE PROCESS 6 3)STEELMELTING SECTION 7 4)BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE 8-10 5)OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM 11 6) BOTTOM STIRRING SYSTEM 12 7) CONVERTER TAPPING, ALLOYING AND DESLAGGING 13 8)CONTINUOUS CASTING 14-15 9)CASTING MECHANISM 16-23 10)CONCLUSION 24
  5. 5. 5 THE TRAINING ORGANISATION MECON LIMITED, FORMERLY KNOWN AS (METALLURGICAL & ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS (INDIA) LIMITED) IS A PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKING UNDER THE MINISTRYOF STEEL OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.ITBEGANIN 1959 AS THE CENTRAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGNING BUREAU (CEDB) OF THE HINDUSTANSTEEL LIMITED (HSL), THE FIRST PUBLIC SECTOR STEEL COMPANY. SUBSEQUENTLY, CEDB GREW AS METALLURGICAL AND ENGINEERING CONSULTANT (MECON), A SUBSIDIARY OF THE STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED (SAIL) IN 1973. IT LATER BECAME AN AUTONOMOUS COMPANY REPORTING TO THE MINISTRY OF STEEL IN 1978. 1 APRIL IS OBSERVED AS FOUNDATION DAY IN MECON. MECON LTD. IS A GOVERNMENTOF INDIA ENTERPRISEWHICH BASICALLYACTS AS A HOUSEOF ENGINEERS WHO ASSIST VARIOUS STEEL MAKING COMPANIES IN SETTING UP THEIR RESPECTIVE PLANTS AT PARTICULAR LOCATIONS FOR A GIVEN REQUIRED PRODUCTION OF STEEL. IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ENGINEERS OF MECON LTD. TO ENSURE THAT ALL THE EQUIPMENTS, LAYOUTS AND OTHER DESIGN RELATED INFORMATION SENT BY THE CONTRACTOR WHO HAS TAKEN UP THE WORK, ARE COMPLETELY UP TO THE MARK AND ARE FIT ENOUGH TO BE INSTALLED IN THE STEEL PLANT. THE WORK ENVIRONMENT IS EXTREMELY SUITABLE WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART FACILITIES FOR ALL THE EMPLOYEES AND THROUGHOUT THE TRAINING PERIOD ALL THE ASSIGNED ENGINEERS WERE VERY CO-OPERATIVE AND PROVIDED ALL THE REQUIRED INFORMATION IN APPROPRIATE MANNER.
  6. 6. 6 THE PROCESS HOT METAL HANDLING: HOTMETAL DELIVERED BY TORPEDO CARS IS RECEIVED INTHE RELADLING PIT. THEN THE HOT METAL IS TRANSFERRED TO THE CHARGING LADLES PLACED ON ONE OF THE HOT METAL TRANSFER CARS RUNNING IN A RELADLING PIT. THE HOT METAL TRANSFER CAR HAS A WEIGHING FACILITY. HOT METAL DE SULPHURISATION UNIT: NEXT THE HOT METAL INTHE CHARGING LADLE IS TRANSFERRED BY CRANE TO THE HOT METAL DESULPHURISATION UNIT OR DIRECTLY TO THE CONVERTER FOR CHARGING. THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THE DESULPHURISATION UNIT IS TO REDUCE THE PERCENTAGE OF SULPHUR IN THE HOT METAL SCRAP HANDLING: A BAY ADJACENT TO THE CONVERTER CHARGING BAY IS NECESSARILY PROVIDED FOR THE PURPOSE OF SCRAP PREPARATION AND LOADING PURPOSES. THE SCRAP IS USUALLY TRANSFERRED BY RAILWAY WAGONS/ OR BY THE TRUCKS AND THEN BY CRANES INTO THE SCRTAP PITS IN THE YARD.THE CRANES ARE EQUIPPED WITH A WEIGHING FACILITY AND THEY ADJUST THE AMOUNT OF SCRAP. ADDITIVE HANDLING SYSTEM: EACH CONVERTER IS EQUIPPED WITH ITS OWN ADDITIVE HANDLING SYSTEM. THE ADDITIVES ARE DELIVERED THROUGH CONVEYOR SYSTEM. FERRO ALLOYS ARE TRANSPORTED FROM STORAGE YARD TO A BUNKER THROUGH THE CONVEYOR GROUP SYSTEM INSIDE THE CONVERTER BAY BY MEANS OF BOTTOM DISCHARGER.
  7. 7. 7 STEEL MELTING SECTION AS DESCRIBED IN THE FLOW CHART, STEEL MELTING SHOP IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF STEEL MAKING PLANT.THEHOTMETAL COMING FROMTHE BLAST FURNACE NEEDS PROPER TREATMENT AND REFINING AS PER THE QUALITY OF STEEL REQUIRED. THE TWO MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE ARE OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM AND THE BOTTOM STIRRING SYSTEM. A DESCRIPRION OF THE VARIOUS PROCESSES TAKIN PLACE INSIDE A BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE IS FURTHER PROVIDED IN THE REPORT. FINAL PRODUCT ROLLING CASTING SECONDARY TREATMENT STEEL MELTING SHOP HOT METAL BLAST FURNACE ORE+COKE+LIME+SLAG
  8. 8. 8 BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE (BRIEF OVERVIEW) A BOF BASICALLY COMPRISES OF A REFRACTORY LINED CONVERTER WITH A VERTICAL OXYGEN BLOWING LANCE ENTERING THE CONVERTER FROM ABOVE WITH INERT GAS INJECTED THROUGH THE CONVERTER BOTTOM FOR PROPER CHURNING OF THE MATERIAL INSIDE. THE CONVERTER IS FURTHER EQUIPPED WITH A PNEUMATIC SLAG STOPPER WITH SLAG DETECTIONSYSTEMTO MINIMIZESLAG CARRYOVER FROM THE LD CONVERTER INTO THE CASTING LADLE TAPPING. THE TILTING OF THE CONVERTER IS CARRIED OUT AT AUXILIARY CONTROL STANDS LOCATED AT THE CHARGING AND TAPPING SIDEOF EACH CONVERTER. THE CONVERTER IS TILTABLE FOR CHARGING, TAPPING AND DESLAGGING. THE CHARGE IS NORMALLY MADE UP OF HOT METAL, DRI, SCRAP AND ADDITIVES. D.R.I (DIRECTREDUCEDIRON) IN THIS, IRON ORE IN THE SOLID FORM IS COMPLETELY COATED WITH COAL AND THEN HEATED BY MEANS OF A TUNNEL FURNACE AT ABOUT 500 DEEGRES CENTIGRADE. DUE TO THIS THE COAL REDUCES THE OXYGEN PRESSURE IN THE IRON ORE AND THE OXYGEN MOLECULES CREATE VERIOUS PORE LININGS ON THEIR WAY OUT. DUE TO THIS DRI HAS A LARGE SURFACE AREA AND HENCE IS VERY REACTIVE.
  9. 9. 9 BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE THE BASIC ADVANTAGES OF BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE ARE: • OXYGEN BLOWN AT SUPERSONIC SPEED • FOR REFINING OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM • INERT GASES LIKE ARGON OR NITROGEN BLOWN • FOR PROPER CHURNING AND HOMOGENIZING BOTTOM STIRRING SYSTEM HIGH SPEED OF REFINING HIGH PRODUCTIVITY ECONOMY OF LABOUR LOW REFRACTORY CONSUMPTION HIGH QUALITY OF PRODUCTS
  10. 10. 10 CONVERTER RELINING: CONVERTER RELINING IS NECESSARY BEACUSE THE INNER WALL GETS CARRODED WITH TIME. OUT OF THE 3 FUNCTIONAL CONVERTERS AT A TIME ONE IS RELINED WHILE THE OTHER 2 REMAIN FUNCTIONAL IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN CONTINUITY IN PRODUCTIVITY. CONVERTER RELINING IS DONE FROM TOP.FOR THIS PURPOSE THE MOVABLE HOODE IS MOVED OUT BY THE HOOD TRANSFER CART AND A RELINING MACHINE AND RELINING PLATFORM ASSIST IN THE RELINING. TAKE OVER POINTS: THESE ARE WELL DEFINED LOCATIONS WHERE THE SCOPE OF ENGINEERING ENDS FOR ONE ENGINEERING PACKAGEAND THESCOPEOF ENGINEERING FOR THE OTHER PACKAGE STARTS.
  11. 11. 11 OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM IN EACH CONVERTER AN OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM IN PROVIDED.EACH OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM CONSISTS OF TWO OXYGEN LANCES WHICH BOTH ARE PERMANENTLY CONNECTED TO OXYGEN AND COOLING WATER HOSES, READY FOR OPERATION. THE OXYGEN LANCES ARE AUTOMATICALLY EXCHANGED IN POSITION BY HORIZONTAL MOVEABLE LANCE CARRIERS.EACH OXYGEN LANCE IS EQUIPPED WITH A SEPARATE HOISTING DRIVE. FOR THE REFINING PROCESS THE OXYGEN LANCE IS LOWERED THROUGH A SOCKET INTO CONVERTER UNTIL THE LANCE TIP HAS REACHED THE PREDETERMINED HEIGHT ABOVE THE BATH LEVEL. THE OXYGEN LANCE SYSTEM IN MEANT TO MEET THE FOLLOWING REQUIREMENTS: 1) HIGH OXYGEN BLOWING RATE. 2) FLOW AND PRESSURE CONTROL OF OXYGEN AND COOLING WATER. 3) EXACT POSITIONING OF OXYGEN LANCE. THR LANCE DESIGN IS PROVIDED WITH AN INTERNAL TRIPPLE SAFETY O-RING SEALING ARRANGEMENT AND IS MANUFACTURED FROM HIGH PURITY, HIGH CONDUCTIVITY COPPER WITH THE LATEST NOZZLE DESIGN IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING PARAMETERS. FOR EMERGENCY LIFTING OF THE OXYGEN LANCE AN AIR MOTOR IS PROVIDED. PRECISION MACHINED LAVALL NOZZLES IN THE LANCE TIP ARE SIZED TO PERMIT THE REQUIRED FLOW OF OXYGEN TO EXIT AT A SPECIFIC VELOCITY AND TO PROVIDE THE BEST OXYGEN DISTRIBUTION PATTERN.
  12. 12. 12 BOTTOM STIRRING SYSTEM BOTTOM STIRRING WITH INERT GAS IS AN ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT OF THE STEEL MAKING PROCESS. IT OFFERS ADVANTAGES WITH REGARD TO METALLURGICAL AND OPERATIONAL ASPECTS. IN PARTICULAR THE PROCESS KUNETICS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED AND THE DECARBURIZATION REACTION AT LOW CARBON CONTENT IS FAVOURISED. THUS A VERY LOW CARBON CONTENT AT REASONABLE OXYGEN CONTENTS AS WELL AS LOWER CONTENTS OF PHOSPHOROUSD AND SULPHUR ARE ACHIEVED. THE IRON LOSS IN THE SLAG IS SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED. THE BOTTOM STIRRING SYSTEM CONTINUOUSLY CHURNS THE HOT METAL AND SO THE OXYGEN BLOWN BY THE LANCE EFFICIENTLY REACHES EVERY PART OF THE HOT METAL. ALSO DUE TO THIS CHURNING THE PROBABILITY OXYGEN GETTING TRAPPED IN THE METAL DECREASES. THOUGH NOT ALL THE GAS ESCAPES BUT OPTIMISATION IS ACHIEVED BY THIS PROCESS.
  13. 13. 13 CONVERTER TAPPING AND ALLOYING ONCE THE TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS ARE ADJUSTED, THE CASTING LADLE IS BROUGHT INTO POSITION UNDERNEATH THE CONVERTER AND THE CONVERTER IS TURNED DOWN FOR TAPPING (TAPPING SIDE). THE STEEL IS TAPPED VIA THE CONVERTER TAP HOLE. DURING TAPPING FERRO ALLOYS, DEOXIDANTS AND TOP SLAG ARE ADDED INTO THE CASTING LADLE ACCORDING TO REQUIREMENTS. GAS STIRRING AFTER SOME TIME OF TAPPING IS APPLIED IN THE LADLE TO IMPROVE DISSOLUTION OF FERRO ALLOYS AND HOMOGENIZATION OF THE STEEL BATH. CONVERTER DESLAGGING AFTER TAPPING IS COMPLETED, THE CONVERTER IS TILTED TOWARDS THE DESLAGGING POSITION (CHARGING SIDE). THE SLAG IS POURED VIA THE CONVERTER MOUTH INTO A SLAG POT WHICH IS BROUGHT INTO POSITION UNDERNEATH THE CONVERTER BY MEANS OF A TRANSFER CAR. A PNEUMATIC CONTROL IS PROVIDED IN ORDER TO DETECT THE SLAG AND PREVENT THE FLOW OF SLAG ALONG WITH THE METAL.
  14. 14. 14 CONTINUOUS CASTING AFTER THE SECONDARY REFINING UNIT ( OUT OF FURNACE REFINING) THE STEEL OF THE DESIRED GRADEIS FINALLYSENT TO THE CONTINUOUS CASTING SHOP IN ORDER TO CAST IT INTO DESIRED SHAPES AND SIZES. USUALLY THE FOLLOWING CASTERS ARE PROVIDED:  BILLET CASTER  BLOOM CASTER  BILLET CUM BLOOM CASTER( COMBI CASTER)  BEAM BLANK CASTER  SLAB CASTER( CONVENTIONAL SLAB CASTER)  THIN SLAB CASTER  ROUND CASTER NOW THE FINISHED OR THE SEMI FINISHED PRODUCT IS OF THE FOLLOWING TYPES: SEMI FINISHED PRODUCT LONG PRODUCTS BILLETS BLOOMS BEAM BLANKS ROUNDS FLAT PRODUCTS SLABS THIN SLABS
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 CASTING MECHANISM LADLE TURRET: THE BASICUSE OF LADLE TURRET IS TO CHANGE THE POSITION OF THE LADLE. IN RECENT YEARS A BUTTERFLY TYPE LADLE TURRET HAS BEEN EVOLVED IN ORDER TO SUPPORT CONTINUOUS CASTING AND MAINTAIN SIMULTAINEITY SO AS TO REDUCE THE TIME LAG. ARMS CASTING SIDE LADLEPLACEMENT SIDE THE ABOVE FIGURE IS THE BASIC TOP VIEW OF A LADLE TURRET. THE TWO UNITS OF THE LADLE TURRET SIMULTANEOUSLY EXCHANGE THEIR POSITIONS. WHEN MOLTEN STEEL IN THE CASTING SIDE REACHES A CERTAIN MINIMUM LEVELTHE ENTIRE SETUP ROTATES AND THE PLACEMENT SIDE BECOMES THE CASTING SIDE AND VICE VERSA.
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18 SLIDE GATE MECHANSM/PLATE IN THE LADLE: THE SLIDEGATEPLATE WAS ORIGINALLYINTRODUCED TO CONTROL THEFLOW OF MOLTEN STEEL FROM STEEL LADLES. THE CONCEPT OF SLIDE GATE SYSTEM WAS HOWEVER PATENTED AS EARLY AS 1885 BY MR. DAVID D. LEWIS OF USA BUT IT WAS FIRST SUCCESSFULLY INTRODUCED IN GERMANY IN 1964 ONLY. SOON AFTER THIS SYSTEM WAS ADOPTED IN 9 STEEL PLANTS IN USA BY 1969. THIS SYSTEMWAS FIRSTINTRODUCED INJAPANIN1968 AND BY 1970 ALL THE LADLES IN JAPAN ADOPTED SLIDE GATE SYSTEM.AND OVER THE YEARS THIS HAS BECOME PREVALENT IN INDIA AS WELL. HYDRAULIC MECHANISM SLIDEGATE(PLATE) THE ABOVE FIGURE SHOWS THE SLIDE GATE MECHANISM PICTORIALLY. THE SLIDE GATE IS CONTROLLED BY A HYDRAULIC FUEL-PISTON MECHANISM. AND ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENT PRESSURE CAN BE APPLIED ON THE SLIDING GATE IN ORDER TO OPEN IT OR CLOSE IT OR PARTIALLY CLOSE IT AS THE CASE MAY BE. WHEN THE LADLEIS ON THE PLACEMENT SIDE THE SLIDING GATE IS CLOSED WHILEWHENONTHE CASTING SIDE IT IS CONTROLLED AS TO HOW MUCH IT HAS TO BE OPENED. MANY A TIMES SILICA ETC. GET
  19. 19. 19 DEPOSITED ATTHEBASE OF THE PLATER AND THEN A MANYALLY CONTROLLED OXYGEN LANCING IS DONE IN ORDER TO REMOVE THE DEPOSITS. LADLE SHROUD: WHEN THE MOLTEMETAL FLOWS FROMTHE LADLEINTHE CASTING POSITION THEN IT IS VERY VULNERABLE TO THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR AND NEEDS TO BE PROTECTED FROM IT THEREFORE A SHROUD OF I SIMPLE TERMS BASICALLY A COVER IS PROVIDED AT THE FLOW AREA IN ORDER TO PROTECT THE MOLTEN STEEL FROM ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINATION. TUNDISH: THE MOLTEN STEEL FLOWS FROM THE LADLE INTO THE TUNDISH WHERE IT IS ALLOWED TO SETTLE FOR SOME TIME IN ORDERTO LET THE STEEL SETTLE DOWN DUE TO MGRAVITY AND WHATEVER IMPURITIES,IF PRESENT, TO RISE ABOVE. FROM THE TUNDISH THE MOLTEN METAL IS FINALLY SENT TO THE MOULD IN ORDER TO CAST IT INTO DESIRED SHAPES. IN ORDER TO CONTROL THE FLOW OF MOLTEN METAL FROM THE TUNDISH A STOPPER ROD MECHANISM IS PROIVIDED. STOPPER ROD MECHANISM: AT THE OUTLET OF THE TUNDISH A STOPPER ROD MECHANISM IS PROVIDED WHICH IS CONTROLLED BY A SERVO MOTOR. THE STOPPER ROD HAS A GRADUALLY DECREASING CROSS SECTION AND IT IS INSERTED INTO THE OUTLET AT THE TUNDISH. A GRADUALLY DECREASING CROSS SECTION IS PROVIDED SO THAT THE FLOW CAN BE CONTROLLED MORE EFFICIENTLY. SUBMERGED ENTRY NOZZLE: FROM THE TUNDISH THROUGH A SUBMERGED ENTRY NOZZLE THE MOLTEN STEEL IS POURED INTO THE MOULD FOR CASTING. AFTRE THIS A WORK OF GREAT PRECISION AND CARE STARTS. HERE ALSO THE ENTRY IS SUBMERGED SO AS TO PREVENT ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINATION OF THE MOLTEN STEEL.
  20. 20. 20 THE ABOVE DIAGRAMATIC REPRESENTATION DEPICTS THE ENTIRE CONTINUOUS CASTING PROCESS IN BRIEF FOR ANY REFERENCE.
  21. 21. 21 FORMATION OF SOLIDIFIED SHELL: THIS IS BY FAR THE MOST CRUCIAL STEP IN CASTING AS A SLIGHT ERROR IN THIS STEP AND THE ENTIRE CAST WILL GET DEFORMED. THE ENTRY TO THE MOULD IS WATERCOOLED ATALL THE FOUR SIDES. SO THE OUTER SURFACE OF THGE MOLTEN STEEL, BY EXCHANGING HEAT FROM THE WALLS OF THE MOULD STARTS GETTING SOLIDIFIED FORMING A SHEEL OF SOLIDIFIED STEEL WHICH HAS TO BE STRONG ENOUGH SO AS TO WITHSTAND THE PRESSURE OF THE MOLTEN STEEL WITHIN, IN ORDER TO PREVENT SPILLING. WATER COOLING WATER COOLING MOULD ENTRY DUMMY BAR SHELL FORMATION
  22. 22. 22 SEGMENTS: SEGMENTS ARE A GROUP OF SUPPORT ROLLETS PROVIDD IN ORDER TO FURTHER ASSISTINTHESOLIDIFICATION OF THE SHELL IN ORDER TO PREVENT THE SPILLING OF MOLTEN STEEL. THE SEGMENTS ARE PROOVIDED WITH WATER SPRAY NOZZLES OR AIR MIST SPRAY NOZZLES. WATER KEEPS CONTINUOUSLY CIRCULATING THROUGH THESE PROVIDING CONSTANT COOLING. THE ABOVE FIGURE IS A REPRESENTATION OF A SEGMENT UNIT. PASSING THROUGH A SERIES OF SUCH WATER COOLED SEGMENTS THE MOLTEN METAL INSIDETHESOLIDIFIED SHELL GETS COMPLETELYSOLIDIFIED AND THENCOMES THE WITHDRAWING AND STRAIGHTENING UNIT.
  23. 23. 23 WITHDRAWAL AND STRAIGHTENING UNIT: WHEN THE SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS IS ON THE VERGE OF COMPLETION, THE SEGMENTS ARE EQUIPPED WITH A HYDRASULIC PINCHING MECHANISM. NOT THE SEGMENTS SERVE FOR THE PURPOSE OF STRAIGHTENING. THE PRESSURE HELPS IN STRAIGHTENING THE STEEL. VERY HIGH PRESSURE NEEDS TO BE APPLIED THROUGH THE HYDRAULIC PINCHING MECHANISM. MEASURING ROLL: A MEASURING ROLL MEASURES THE LENGTH OF THE BEAM OR THE BILLET OR ANY OTHER SHAPE AND WHEN WHE REQUIRED LENGTH HAS BEEN WITHDRAWN THEN SENDS A SIGNAL TO THE TORCH CUTTING MACHINE. TORCH CUTTING MACHINE: THE TORCH CUTTING MACHINE, ON RECEIVING THE SIGNAL FROM THE MEASUTING ROLL, CUTS THE STEEL IN ORDER TO GET THE FINAL PRODUCT. CASTING SPEED: THE CASTING SPEED BASICALLY DEPENDS ON TWO FACTORS NAMELY THE SECTION SIZE AND THE STEEL GRADE.
  24. 24. 24 CONCLUSION THE PROJECT REPORT CONSTITUTES ALL THE BASIC KNOWLEDGE AS RECEIVED DURING THE 2 WEEKS IN STEEL MELTING SECTION OF MECON LIMITED, RANCHI. ALL POSSIBLE EFFORS HAVE BEEN MADE TO PROVIDE LEGITIMATE INFORMATION IN THE REPORT BUT A KIND CONSIDERATION IS EXPECTED FROM THE READERS IN CASE ANY INEVITABLE ERROR MIGHT HAVE CREPT IN. THE SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE OF ALL THE OFFICIALS DESPITE THEIR OWN WORKLOAD THROUGHOUT THE COMPLETION OF THE REPORT IS HIGHLY COMMENDABLE AND APPRECIATED FROM THE STUDENT'S END. THANK YOU.

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