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Anveshan-Case Study Page 1
NSS WINTER INTERNSHIP
CHILD LABOUR
LITERATURE SURVEY
NISHANT AGARWAL
DEEPAK BANSAL
SHREYANSH GATTANI
Anveshan-Case Study Page 2
Definitions of Child Labour
Child Labour is basically exploiting the underage children in any form, forcing them to work
illegally which harms or abuses them. This abuse may be physical, mental or sexual;
depriving the children (child labourers) of their right of basic education. Be it Asia, Africa,
U.S.A or Europe, child abuse is prevalent everywhere. [1]
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), "child labour is where children
are deprived of their childhood and futures because they are forced to work long hours
for little or no money, deprived of education and in conditions harmful to their mental
and physical development."
As per ILO the term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of
their childhood, their potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental
development.
“No to child labour is our stance. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of
survival. A world without child labour is possible with the right priorities and policies:
quality education, opportunities for young people, decent work for parents, and a
basic social protection floor for all. Driven by conscience, let’s muster the courage
and conviction to act in solidarity and ensure every child’s right to his or her
childhood. It brings rewards for all. ”Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General
Instances of child labour
Here are some instances of child labour:
The first reference given below shows instances of child labour in India and inflicts the
feelings of children affected by it. These children aim high but there is no one who can help
them full fill their dreams.
“Children are the future of the society and the nation and it is really disheartening that
they are being exploited by the society itself.”
-anonymous
Anveshan-Case Study Page 3
[2] documentary on child labour in India
[3] This video gives us an international perspective of child labour which share many
common but some very different instances of child labour.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 4
Forms of Child Labour
• In factories like carpet-making; lock-making; brassware; export-oriented garment
units; gem polishing export industry; leather units; diamond industry etc.
• In Shops and small scale vendors
• In Household
• In farms
• In mines (Labour)
• Near furnaces, welding, hazardous materials
• Children engaged in illegal activities smuggling, prostitution, child
pornography etc.
• In countries including some parts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan
children are engaged in terrorist activities.
• Begging(more common in India)
Anveshan-Case Study Page 5
Causes of child Labour
• Poverty and over population have been identified as the two main causes of child
labour. Parents are forced to send little children into hazardous jobs for reasons of
survival, even when they know
it is wrong. Monetary
constraints and the need for
food, shelter and clothing drives
their children in the trap of
premature labour.
• Over population in some
regions creates paucity of
resources. When there are
limited means and more
mouths to feed children are
driven to commercial activities
and not provided for their
development needs.
• Illiteracy among parents:
Illiterate and ignorant parents
do not understand the need for wholesome proper physical, cognitive
and emotional development of their child. They are themselves uneducated and
unexposed, so they don't realize the importance of education for their children.
• Adult unemployment and urbanization also causes child labour. Adults often find it
difficult to find jobs because factory owners find it more beneficial to employ children
at cheap rates. This exploitation is particularly visible in garment factories of urban
areas. Adult exploitation of children is also seen in many places. Elders relax at home
and live on the labour of poor helpless children.
• The industrial revolution has also had a negative effect by giving rise to
circumstances which encourages child labour. Sometimes multinationals prefer to
employ child workers in the developing countries. This is so because they can be
recruited for less pay, more work can be extracted from them and there is no union
problem with them. This attitude also makes it difficult for adults to find jobs in factories,
forcing them to drive their little ones to work to keep the fire burning their homes.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 6
Different reports to same reality
According to the 2013 edition of the UNICEF’s THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN,
12% of children aged 5 to 14 in INDIA are child workers i.e. 28 million children.
According to the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, 8.15 million children are
currently out of school in INDIA.
Magnitude of child labour and out of school children
As per Census 2011 11.7 million children are employed in INDIA.
Non-Government Organizations working in this field estimate that there are 60 million child
labourers in INDIA.
The NGO Childline India Foundation claims that 11% of India’s workforce consists of children
below 18 years of age.
Ref:
*Census of India 2001
** 2006 population estimate by National Commission on Population
# Labour Department Government of India
## www.ncpcr.gov.in
Distribution of
Children
2001
Population
Census *
2006 Population
projection and
estimate**
% of children to
population
Population
Male 132367710 125485000
Female 120795938 116274000
Total 253153648 241759000
Child Labour (10-14) 2001 2006
Male 6804336 4276744 8.8 6.7
Female 5862041 3894131 8.5 6.3
Total 12666377 8170875 8.7 6.6
Children out of school
Male 36428634 19199205 27.5 15.3
Female 45878836 24184992 38.0 20.8
Total 82307470 43384197 34.4 17.9
Anveshan-Case Study Page 7
Shocking Statistics - 43 million children in government report are not
attending schools, and are neither at ’work’ as per government data.
In most cases children, who are categorised as ‘nowhere’ must be helping their parents in
self-employment activities. Nature of self-employment range from selling eatables at road
side to doing petty business etc. Thus the real magnitude of child labour is much more than
what is reported in the census and NSS data. Some of the empirical studies conducted in
different parts of India show the inadequacy in the way the child labour figures are derived in
the official sources of data.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 8
According to a report in India Tribune, Government statistics say that there are 2 crore (20
million) child labourers in India, a country that has ambitions of becoming a global superpower
in a few years. Non-governmental agencies assert that the figure is more than 6 crore (60
million) including agricultural workers; some claim that the number could be 100 million, if one
were to define all children out of school as child labourers.
*Source for primary completion rate: Data from
2008, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics,
2014.
**Source for all other data: Understanding
Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics
from NSS Survey, 2009-2010.
# United States department of labor’s bureau of
international labor affairs 2013 findings on the
worst forms of child labor.
The International Labour Organization estimates that 218 million children ages 5-17 are
engaged in child labour the world over. A recent report, produced by theInternational
Confederation of Free Trade Unions, says there are as many as 60 million children
working in India's agricultural, industrial and commercial sectors. The report argues that
India's booming economy takes advantage of children workers to aid its growth and to
bring wealth to a minority.
Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and
Education
Children Age Percent
Working (% and
Population)
5-14 Yrs. , 371,604)2.0 (4
Attending
School (%)
88.8Yrs.5-14
Combining
Work and
School (%)
Yrs. 0.87-14
Primary Completion Rate
(%)
96.5
Anveshan-Case Study Page 9
UNICEF’S TAKE ON STATUS OF CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA
According to UNICEF reports India has the largest number of child labourers under the age
of 14 in the world. In addition, nearly 85 per cent of child labourers in India are hard-to-reach,
invisible and excluded, as they work largely in the unorganised sector, both rural and urban,
within the family or in household-based units, which are generally out of the purview of labour
laws.
The largest and most structured intervention in the area of child labour in India is the National Child
Labour Projects (NCLP). The programme, addressing children rescued from hazardous labour
and centrally managed by the Ministry of Labour (MoL) includes the establishment of special schools
to provide children with the skills they need to be mainstreamed into the formal system, vocational
training, supplementary nutrition, health services etc.
In January 2005, the National Child labour Projects scheme has been expanded to 250 districts in
21 different Indian states, covering 42 per cent of all districts of the country (2001 Census).
In line with this framework, UNICEF India, in partnership with central and state governments,
as well as with NGOs and other key groups, is implementing initiatives aimed to build a
protective environment in which children can live and develop according to their fundamental
rights. Translated into action, this approach led to a programme whose main scope is the
progressive elimination of ALL forms of child labour to comply with Article 32 of the CRC
ratified by India in December, 1992.
UNICEF hopes the World Day against Child Labour (WDACL), which is observed
worldwide on or around 12 June each year, serves as a catalyst for the growing worldwide
movement against child labour.
Various Laws against Child Labour
The Constitution of India, 1949, as amended in 2002 states that India shall provide free
and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years (article
21a). Article 41 directs India, within its economic capacity and development, to endeavour to
secure the right to education. Article 23 forbids trafficking in persons and forced labour
(including the system of bonded labour). Article 24 forbids the employment of children below
14 years of age in factories or hazardous employment. Any failure on the part of India to
identify, release and rehabilitate bonded workers suitably would be considered a violation of
Article 21, protection of life and personal liberty.
The Child Labour Prohibition Act and Regulation Act, 1986 expressly forbids the
employment of children (persons who have not completed their fourteenth year of age) in
certain listed occupations and processes, such as carpet weaving, which are deemed
hazardous.
In 1992, India was the first country to join The International Programme on the Elimination of
Child Labour, a global programme launched by the International Labour Organization a year
before. India has also signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 10
 LIMITATIONS OF CHILD LABOUR ACT
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 is a legislation to address
hazardous industrial child labour in a limited way as the purview of the Act covers only
the organized sectors of production. This Act has excluded a vast section of toiling
children in the unorganized sectors, as over 90
percent of the labour force in India is accounted for
by the unorganized sectors of production.
 INITIATIVE BY GOVERNMENT
The flag ship programme of the Government of
India is the National Child Labour Project (NCLP).
The NCLP Scheme started in 1988, has so far
covered 400,200 working children. About 3.08 lakh children have been mainstreamed
into formal education system so far. The Scheme is running in 250 districts in 14 states.
Even after discounting for the inherent problems in the NCLP scheme the coverage is
very low compared to the magnitude of the problem.
Children enrolled in schools but working - New forms of Child Labour
Children working in cotton seed farms are one such case in point. They are enrolled in
schools but they hardly attend schools as they migrate out for more than four months every
year to work in cotton seed farms
1. School or work? – Case of beedi children in Tamil Nadu:
Most of the children enrolled in schools in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu are pledged by their
parents to beedi contractors for a cash advance. These children are forced to work for three
hours in the morning and at least another three hours in the evening after school hours.
2. Full time workers treated as ‘Trainees’ - girls working in Spinning
Mills
In Tamil Nadu, Spinning Mills in Coimbatore have introduced a new scheme of labour
recruitment. This is called “Sumangali” Scheme (meaning marriage assistance scheme),
under which young girls from 14 years of age are recruited to work in the spinning mills. They
are considered as trainees but they work full time. When they are treated as trainees they
won’t be considered as workers by official sources.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 11
Initiatives against child labour
In 1979, the Indian government formed the
Gurupadswamy Committee to find about child labour
and means to tackle it. The Child Labour Prohibition
and Regulation Act was enacted based on the
recommendations of the committee in 1986. A National
Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987 to focus
on rehabilitating children working in hazardous
occupations. The Ministry of Labour and Employment
had implemented around 100 industry-specific
National Child Labour Projects to rehabilitate the child
workers since 1988.
Social Programs to Address Child Labour
National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme,
Convergence Model Project, Bonded Labour Scheme,
Midday Meal Program, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural
Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), Sarva Shiksha
Abhiyan, Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care.
Non-governmental organisations:
Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Talaash Association Child Rights and
You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India
etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India.
Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organisation with the mission 'every child in school
and learning well.' Founded in 1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer
schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has grown
by introducing low cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible.
Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 12
INFERENCE
 Children have the right to a joyful childhood. Every child has the right to grow up in
a safe and nurturing environment with protection and guidance from their guardians.
Whether in the cities or in villages, at home or in schools, a child is always a child
and deserves a childhood free from exploitation and abuse.
 By analysis of all the data and programmes related to child labour we conclude
that there are discrepancies in government data which is quite less than as
estimated in UN and media reports, thus indicating that the problems are not
clear completely.
 There still exist some portions of society which are not counted in the data we
receive. This means that the problem is much graver than what we perceive.
 When the magnitude of ‘child labour’ is derived not on the children counted as
children actually working, but on the basis of children not attending schools, it
provides an essential link between the two issues of child labour and education, it
also makes a presumption that reasons for children working are the same as the
reasons for children not attending schools.
 The various actions taken by government and private organizations, although have
proved useful but to a small extent. A major part of the problem still persists and
needs more attention.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 13
SUGGESTIONS
• Parents should be provided financial help. This will make them more sensitive towards
their children.
• It is important to impart basic
educational skills to such children. All
schools should admit them for free.
• Society homes should be opened for
abandoned child labourers. This will
enable them to focus on their education.
• Law enforcement agencies should be
made active. This would deter
employees from employing them
underage.
• Social Revolution is the biggest key. Once media mobilizes the society, the practice
shall stop.
• To overcome the menace of child labour, several NGOs and the administration should
launch special campaigns to rehabilitate child labourers and beggars.
• The challenge is to convince the parents that they should not force their children to
work or beg on the streets.
• Thus, it is essential that the economic conditions should be improved for the child
labour to stop. When parents would have money, they would think of sending their
children to schools as compared to mines and factories. But a social revolution at basic
level is needed where every one of us should refuse to employ an underage domestic
help.
Anveshan-Case Study Page 14
REFERENCES
[1] http://indianmatters.in/index.php?page=eyeopner/eomaster&inter=EO110110001_1
[2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOCbxqXjwj8
[3] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfKJ8Mof6lU
 United States department of labor’s bureau of international labor affairs 2013 findings on the
worst forms of child labor. Indian Matters!
 Wikipedia
 Indian Tribune
 Times of India
 Hindustan Times
 Zee News
 Labour Department Government of India
 UN Reports
 www.ncpcr.gov.in
 UNICEF
 ILO
……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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Child Labour in India Literature Survey

  • 1. Anveshan-Case Study Page 1 NSS WINTER INTERNSHIP CHILD LABOUR LITERATURE SURVEY NISHANT AGARWAL DEEPAK BANSAL SHREYANSH GATTANI
  • 2. Anveshan-Case Study Page 2 Definitions of Child Labour Child Labour is basically exploiting the underage children in any form, forcing them to work illegally which harms or abuses them. This abuse may be physical, mental or sexual; depriving the children (child labourers) of their right of basic education. Be it Asia, Africa, U.S.A or Europe, child abuse is prevalent everywhere. [1] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), "child labour is where children are deprived of their childhood and futures because they are forced to work long hours for little or no money, deprived of education and in conditions harmful to their mental and physical development." As per ILO the term “child labour” is often defined as work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development. “No to child labour is our stance. Yet 215 million are in child labour as a matter of survival. A world without child labour is possible with the right priorities and policies: quality education, opportunities for young people, decent work for parents, and a basic social protection floor for all. Driven by conscience, let’s muster the courage and conviction to act in solidarity and ensure every child’s right to his or her childhood. It brings rewards for all. ”Juan Somavia, ILO Director-General Instances of child labour Here are some instances of child labour: The first reference given below shows instances of child labour in India and inflicts the feelings of children affected by it. These children aim high but there is no one who can help them full fill their dreams. “Children are the future of the society and the nation and it is really disheartening that they are being exploited by the society itself.” -anonymous
  • 3. Anveshan-Case Study Page 3 [2] documentary on child labour in India [3] This video gives us an international perspective of child labour which share many common but some very different instances of child labour.
  • 4. Anveshan-Case Study Page 4 Forms of Child Labour • In factories like carpet-making; lock-making; brassware; export-oriented garment units; gem polishing export industry; leather units; diamond industry etc. • In Shops and small scale vendors • In Household • In farms • In mines (Labour) • Near furnaces, welding, hazardous materials • Children engaged in illegal activities smuggling, prostitution, child pornography etc. • In countries including some parts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan children are engaged in terrorist activities. • Begging(more common in India)
  • 5. Anveshan-Case Study Page 5 Causes of child Labour • Poverty and over population have been identified as the two main causes of child labour. Parents are forced to send little children into hazardous jobs for reasons of survival, even when they know it is wrong. Monetary constraints and the need for food, shelter and clothing drives their children in the trap of premature labour. • Over population in some regions creates paucity of resources. When there are limited means and more mouths to feed children are driven to commercial activities and not provided for their development needs. • Illiteracy among parents: Illiterate and ignorant parents do not understand the need for wholesome proper physical, cognitive and emotional development of their child. They are themselves uneducated and unexposed, so they don't realize the importance of education for their children. • Adult unemployment and urbanization also causes child labour. Adults often find it difficult to find jobs because factory owners find it more beneficial to employ children at cheap rates. This exploitation is particularly visible in garment factories of urban areas. Adult exploitation of children is also seen in many places. Elders relax at home and live on the labour of poor helpless children. • The industrial revolution has also had a negative effect by giving rise to circumstances which encourages child labour. Sometimes multinationals prefer to employ child workers in the developing countries. This is so because they can be recruited for less pay, more work can be extracted from them and there is no union problem with them. This attitude also makes it difficult for adults to find jobs in factories, forcing them to drive their little ones to work to keep the fire burning their homes.
  • 6. Anveshan-Case Study Page 6 Different reports to same reality According to the 2013 edition of the UNICEF’s THE STATE OF THE WORLD’S CHILDREN, 12% of children aged 5 to 14 in INDIA are child workers i.e. 28 million children. According to the Ministry of Human Resource and Development, 8.15 million children are currently out of school in INDIA. Magnitude of child labour and out of school children As per Census 2011 11.7 million children are employed in INDIA. Non-Government Organizations working in this field estimate that there are 60 million child labourers in INDIA. The NGO Childline India Foundation claims that 11% of India’s workforce consists of children below 18 years of age. Ref: *Census of India 2001 ** 2006 population estimate by National Commission on Population # Labour Department Government of India ## www.ncpcr.gov.in Distribution of Children 2001 Population Census * 2006 Population projection and estimate** % of children to population Population Male 132367710 125485000 Female 120795938 116274000 Total 253153648 241759000 Child Labour (10-14) 2001 2006 Male 6804336 4276744 8.8 6.7 Female 5862041 3894131 8.5 6.3 Total 12666377 8170875 8.7 6.6 Children out of school Male 36428634 19199205 27.5 15.3 Female 45878836 24184992 38.0 20.8 Total 82307470 43384197 34.4 17.9
  • 7. Anveshan-Case Study Page 7 Shocking Statistics - 43 million children in government report are not attending schools, and are neither at ’work’ as per government data. In most cases children, who are categorised as ‘nowhere’ must be helping their parents in self-employment activities. Nature of self-employment range from selling eatables at road side to doing petty business etc. Thus the real magnitude of child labour is much more than what is reported in the census and NSS data. Some of the empirical studies conducted in different parts of India show the inadequacy in the way the child labour figures are derived in the official sources of data.
  • 8. Anveshan-Case Study Page 8 According to a report in India Tribune, Government statistics say that there are 2 crore (20 million) child labourers in India, a country that has ambitions of becoming a global superpower in a few years. Non-governmental agencies assert that the figure is more than 6 crore (60 million) including agricultural workers; some claim that the number could be 100 million, if one were to define all children out of school as child labourers. *Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2008, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2014. **Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from NSS Survey, 2009-2010. # United States department of labor’s bureau of international labor affairs 2013 findings on the worst forms of child labor. The International Labour Organization estimates that 218 million children ages 5-17 are engaged in child labour the world over. A recent report, produced by theInternational Confederation of Free Trade Unions, says there are as many as 60 million children working in India's agricultural, industrial and commercial sectors. The report argues that India's booming economy takes advantage of children workers to aid its growth and to bring wealth to a minority. Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education Children Age Percent Working (% and Population) 5-14 Yrs. , 371,604)2.0 (4 Attending School (%) 88.8Yrs.5-14 Combining Work and School (%) Yrs. 0.87-14 Primary Completion Rate (%) 96.5
  • 9. Anveshan-Case Study Page 9 UNICEF’S TAKE ON STATUS OF CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA According to UNICEF reports India has the largest number of child labourers under the age of 14 in the world. In addition, nearly 85 per cent of child labourers in India are hard-to-reach, invisible and excluded, as they work largely in the unorganised sector, both rural and urban, within the family or in household-based units, which are generally out of the purview of labour laws. The largest and most structured intervention in the area of child labour in India is the National Child Labour Projects (NCLP). The programme, addressing children rescued from hazardous labour and centrally managed by the Ministry of Labour (MoL) includes the establishment of special schools to provide children with the skills they need to be mainstreamed into the formal system, vocational training, supplementary nutrition, health services etc. In January 2005, the National Child labour Projects scheme has been expanded to 250 districts in 21 different Indian states, covering 42 per cent of all districts of the country (2001 Census). In line with this framework, UNICEF India, in partnership with central and state governments, as well as with NGOs and other key groups, is implementing initiatives aimed to build a protective environment in which children can live and develop according to their fundamental rights. Translated into action, this approach led to a programme whose main scope is the progressive elimination of ALL forms of child labour to comply with Article 32 of the CRC ratified by India in December, 1992. UNICEF hopes the World Day against Child Labour (WDACL), which is observed worldwide on or around 12 June each year, serves as a catalyst for the growing worldwide movement against child labour. Various Laws against Child Labour The Constitution of India, 1949, as amended in 2002 states that India shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years (article 21a). Article 41 directs India, within its economic capacity and development, to endeavour to secure the right to education. Article 23 forbids trafficking in persons and forced labour (including the system of bonded labour). Article 24 forbids the employment of children below 14 years of age in factories or hazardous employment. Any failure on the part of India to identify, release and rehabilitate bonded workers suitably would be considered a violation of Article 21, protection of life and personal liberty. The Child Labour Prohibition Act and Regulation Act, 1986 expressly forbids the employment of children (persons who have not completed their fourteenth year of age) in certain listed occupations and processes, such as carpet weaving, which are deemed hazardous. In 1992, India was the first country to join The International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, a global programme launched by the International Labour Organization a year before. India has also signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • 10. Anveshan-Case Study Page 10  LIMITATIONS OF CHILD LABOUR ACT The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 is a legislation to address hazardous industrial child labour in a limited way as the purview of the Act covers only the organized sectors of production. This Act has excluded a vast section of toiling children in the unorganized sectors, as over 90 percent of the labour force in India is accounted for by the unorganized sectors of production.  INITIATIVE BY GOVERNMENT The flag ship programme of the Government of India is the National Child Labour Project (NCLP). The NCLP Scheme started in 1988, has so far covered 400,200 working children. About 3.08 lakh children have been mainstreamed into formal education system so far. The Scheme is running in 250 districts in 14 states. Even after discounting for the inherent problems in the NCLP scheme the coverage is very low compared to the magnitude of the problem. Children enrolled in schools but working - New forms of Child Labour Children working in cotton seed farms are one such case in point. They are enrolled in schools but they hardly attend schools as they migrate out for more than four months every year to work in cotton seed farms 1. School or work? – Case of beedi children in Tamil Nadu: Most of the children enrolled in schools in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu are pledged by their parents to beedi contractors for a cash advance. These children are forced to work for three hours in the morning and at least another three hours in the evening after school hours. 2. Full time workers treated as ‘Trainees’ - girls working in Spinning Mills In Tamil Nadu, Spinning Mills in Coimbatore have introduced a new scheme of labour recruitment. This is called “Sumangali” Scheme (meaning marriage assistance scheme), under which young girls from 14 years of age are recruited to work in the spinning mills. They are considered as trainees but they work full time. When they are treated as trainees they won’t be considered as workers by official sources.
  • 11. Anveshan-Case Study Page 11 Initiatives against child labour In 1979, the Indian government formed the Gurupadswamy Committee to find about child labour and means to tackle it. The Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act was enacted based on the recommendations of the committee in 1986. A National Policy on Child Labour was formulated in 1987 to focus on rehabilitating children working in hazardous occupations. The Ministry of Labour and Employment had implemented around 100 industry-specific National Child Labour Projects to rehabilitate the child workers since 1988. Social Programs to Address Child Labour National Child Labour Project (NCLP) Scheme, Convergence Model Project, Bonded Labour Scheme, Midday Meal Program, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care. Non-governmental organisations: Many NGOs like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Talaash Association Child Rights and You, Global march against child labour, RIDE India etc. have been working to eradicate child labour in India. Pratham is India's largest non-governmental organisation with the mission 'every child in school and learning well.' Founded in 1994, Pratham has aimed to reduce child labour and offer schooling to children irrespective of their gender, religion and social background. It has grown by introducing low cost education models that are sustainable and reproducible. Child labour has also been a subject of public interest litigations in Indian courts.
  • 12. Anveshan-Case Study Page 12 INFERENCE  Children have the right to a joyful childhood. Every child has the right to grow up in a safe and nurturing environment with protection and guidance from their guardians. Whether in the cities or in villages, at home or in schools, a child is always a child and deserves a childhood free from exploitation and abuse.  By analysis of all the data and programmes related to child labour we conclude that there are discrepancies in government data which is quite less than as estimated in UN and media reports, thus indicating that the problems are not clear completely.  There still exist some portions of society which are not counted in the data we receive. This means that the problem is much graver than what we perceive.  When the magnitude of ‘child labour’ is derived not on the children counted as children actually working, but on the basis of children not attending schools, it provides an essential link between the two issues of child labour and education, it also makes a presumption that reasons for children working are the same as the reasons for children not attending schools.  The various actions taken by government and private organizations, although have proved useful but to a small extent. A major part of the problem still persists and needs more attention.
  • 13. Anveshan-Case Study Page 13 SUGGESTIONS • Parents should be provided financial help. This will make them more sensitive towards their children. • It is important to impart basic educational skills to such children. All schools should admit them for free. • Society homes should be opened for abandoned child labourers. This will enable them to focus on their education. • Law enforcement agencies should be made active. This would deter employees from employing them underage. • Social Revolution is the biggest key. Once media mobilizes the society, the practice shall stop. • To overcome the menace of child labour, several NGOs and the administration should launch special campaigns to rehabilitate child labourers and beggars. • The challenge is to convince the parents that they should not force their children to work or beg on the streets. • Thus, it is essential that the economic conditions should be improved for the child labour to stop. When parents would have money, they would think of sending their children to schools as compared to mines and factories. But a social revolution at basic level is needed where every one of us should refuse to employ an underage domestic help.
  • 14. Anveshan-Case Study Page 14 REFERENCES [1] http://indianmatters.in/index.php?page=eyeopner/eomaster&inter=EO110110001_1 [2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOCbxqXjwj8 [3] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfKJ8Mof6lU  United States department of labor’s bureau of international labor affairs 2013 findings on the worst forms of child labor. Indian Matters!  Wikipedia  Indian Tribune  Times of India  Hindustan Times  Zee News  Labour Department Government of India  UN Reports  www.ncpcr.gov.in  UNICEF  ILO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..