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Ocean energy

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Includes the types of Ocean Energy available, its potential and cost per units

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Ocean energy

  1. 1. OCEAN ENERGY<br />NIRANJWAN CHETTIAR<br />2010213041<br />ME ENERGY ENGINEERING<br />
  2. 2. CONTENTS<br />Introduction<br />Energy Usage History<br />World Energy Usage<br />Offshore Renewable energy<br />Ocean Energy<br />Wave Energy<br />Tidal Energy<br />Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion<br />Working Principle – Video<br />Challenges<br />Conclusion<br />2<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION<br />World is facing enormous environmental issues as human consumption has begun to stress Earth’s Resources<br />Development is need for energy sources which achieves needed Carbon Reductions<br />Ocean contains large amount of untapped clean renewable energy resources<br />3<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  4. 4. ENERGY USAGE HISTORY<br />Throughout History, Human have energised their development of civilisation:<br />1st – wood for heating<br />Then – water and wind for grinding grain and pumping water<br />2 centuries ago – Coal for heating and steam driven machines for doing work and transportation <br />20th Century – Electrification/Automobile/ Nuclear tech<br />21st Century – advanced materials/ technologies/ back to renewable resources<br />4<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  5. 5. WORLD ENERGY USAGE<br />This technological step sparked a rapid increase in industrial development and a technological evolution.<br />The increased use of fossil fuels to fuel our productivity and ability to produce goods and services<br />Unintended consequence of the increased use of Carbon-based fuels is the release of Green House gases.<br />5<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  6. 6. WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)<br />World’s Primary Energy Demand is currently:<br />12,000Mtoe (Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent)<br />85% is met by:<br />Oil, coal, natural gas<br />Remaining 15%:<br />Nuclear and renewable energy<br />6<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  7. 7. WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)<br />The slope of the overall demand curve shows an average growth of about 1.6% per year.<br />Continuous demand for Carbon based fuels, but a slight increase in Renewable Energy usage<br />7<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  8. 8. WORLD ENERGY USAGE (cont’d)<br />The Global Energy Demand is expected to almost double between now and 2050.<br />Therefore, during the next 40years we must transform our entire energy system to reduce carbon emissions to less than half of the 1990 level.<br />8<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  9. 9. OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY<br />Offshore Renewable Energy Sources include:<br />Waves<br />Tidal and river currents<br />Ocean thermal Gradient<br />Offshore wind<br />Worldwide potential to generate energy from offshore renewable sources is vast because many of the populated regions with greatest need of Electricity are adjacent to the Ocean and the major water bodies.<br />9<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  10. 10. OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Eg: In US, thirty States border an ocean or one of the greatest lakes.<br /> These States generate and consume 75% of the nation’s electricity,<br />i.e: 3,108TWh of 4,157TWh<br />With such abundant sources<br /> surrounding US, but still it is<br /> untapped.<br />10<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  11. 11. OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY (cont’d)<br />11<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  12. 12. OCEAN ENERGY<br />More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans.<br />It is rarely used, there are a very few power plants, which are very small.<br />Unlike other RES, Ocean Energy is not captured from a single source, but, instead, is stored in a variety of forms<br />Two types of energy:<br />Mechanical Energy from waves and tides<br />Thermal Energy from solar radiations, making them the world’s largest solar collectors.<br />12<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  13. 13. WAVE ENERGY<br />Waves are concentrated form of Solar Energy. Uneven Heating of the Earth’s surfaces causes wind which in turn causes waves.<br />The Total power of waves breaking the World’s coastlines is estimated at 2-3 million MW.<br />13<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  14. 14. WAVE ENERGY (cont’d)<br />The figure shows that wave power would be most available in Oregon from October through April.<br />14<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  15. 15. WAVE ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Potential: <br />2000TWh/yr, <br />Global consumption: 15, 400TWh/yr <br />Cost: <br />10c€/kWh, <br />average electricity price in EU: 4c€/kWh<br />15<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  16. 16. TIDAL ENERGY<br />Tidal energy is principally<br /> caused by the interaction<br /> of gravitational fields of<br /> the earth, moon and sun.<br />The water levels fluctuate twice daily; filling and emptying natural basins along the shoreline.<br />The Currents flowing in and out of these basins can be exploited to turn mechanical devices.<br />16<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  17. 17. TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Which accounts for 10hrs per day.<br />In order to function, at least 16ft between low and high tide is needed.<br />La Rance Station (1960) in France is the largest tidal power station in the world; only one in Europe. <br />Satisfies demand of 240,000homes in France. <br />Is one fifth of a regular nuclear or coal powered plant.<br />Produces 240MW<br />17<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  18. 18. TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Tidal Stream devices are similar to submerged wind turbines. <br />Since water density is 850 times higher than air, therefore the power density is also higher<br />Advantage: Is predictable.<br />18<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  19. 19. TIDAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Potential: <br />200TWh/yr, 1 TW is available in Shallow waters. <br />At present 3 barrages are operating commercially with total installed capacity of 260MW world wide<br />Cost: <br />higher capital investment, long construction periods, longer payback periods, once the barrage is built there is less maintenance and running cost, turbines need replacement once in 30yrs, <br />2c€/kWh<br />19<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  20. 20. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY<br />The temperature difference between the surface water and the deep ocean water provides the exploitation of ocean thermal energy. <br />This process is normally called Ocean Thermal Energy conversion (OTEC). Best works when the temperature difference is about 20 ̊C.<br />The Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority is one of the world's leading test facilities for OTEC technology. <br />20<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  21. 21. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Locations best suited for OTEC<br />21<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  22. 22. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />There are three types of energy conversion systems:<br />Closed-Cycle: uses the ocean’s warm surface water to vaporise a working fluid, which has a low boiling point, eg ammonia.<br />Open-Cycle: boils the seawater by operating at low pressures.<br />Hybrid: is the combination of the two.<br />22<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  23. 23. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Potential: <br />65 million GW, more than 5,000 times the amount of energy used in all forms by humans on the planet. <br />A typical square mile of that collector (surface waters) absorbs an average of about 500 MW, or annually more energy than the equivalent of 2.6 million barrels of oil. <br />The estimated global resource is 10,000TWh/yr. <br />23<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  24. 24. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY (cont’d)<br />Cost: <br />OTEC power plants require substantial capital investment upfront. Approx $40 million for 10MW plant at 100mile dist from shore<br />24<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  25. 25. CHALLENGES<br />Withstand harsh ocean environment<br />Efficiency for extracting energy<br />Key technological challenges: electrical generation and output, mechanical systems, anchoring, survivability, reliability, predictability<br />Impact on the marine environment<br />Social and economic concerns<br />25<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  26. 26. WORKING PRINCIPLE - Video<br />26<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  27. 27. CONCLUSION<br />Indeed, Ocean Energy should become the primary energy source for the resource-rich coastal communities.<br />Cost effectiveness is a main reason it has not found its place among top used renewable energy sources. <br />More research is needed<br />The most important objective is to deploy full size prototypes to prove performance at sea and to bring the technology to a point where it becomes comparable with other renewable energy technologies such as wind energy.<br />27<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  28. 28. COMING SOON <br />Technologies<br />Pelamis, <br />AquaBuOY,<br />Wave Star, <br />Wave Dragon<br />Giant Rubber Snake<br />La Rance<br />Seagen<br />and many more<br />28<br />
  29. 29. THANK YOU<br />Any Queries<br />29<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />
  30. 30. References<br />http://nnmrec.oregonstate.edu/<br />Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Power Technologies by Robert Paasch, AlexandreYokochi<br />http://www.our-energy.com/ocean_energy.html<br />Obama’s ocean task force releases report; Sweeping changes could affect the United States' management of oceans, including offshore energy development.Mark Clayton, September 17, 2009 (Christian Science Monitor)<br />Ocean Renewable Energy’s Potential Role in Supplying Future Electrical Energy Needs, By Robert Thresher and Walter Musial<br />http://www.eu-oea.com/index.asp?bid=425<br />30<br />OCEAN ENERGY Anna University Semester 2<br />

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