Plan of Presentation
Characteristics of management techniques
Classification of management techniques
Management by Objectives
Total Quality Management
• What is Management?
– To co-ordinate the efforts of people
• to accomplish goals
• using available resources
• efficiently and effectively
• Transforming resources to utility.
Systematic and analytical methods used to
assist in decision-making, the improvement
of efficiency and effectiveness and in
particular, the conduct of the two key
managerial activities of planning and
Characteristics of management
• Systematic :
– Consist of specified and often sequential methods
of tackling a problem, providing information for
decision making or improving operational
– Ensure that each step is carried out in prescribed
– Techniques have been developed by considering what and
possibly quantitative methods are required to deal with
every aspect of a situation and achieve an end result.
– They subject complex situations to close and systematic
examination and resolve them into their key elements.
– Management techniques measure in numerical or financial
terms what is happening and quantify forecasts of future
– Management techniques place monetary values on
performance reports, forecasts, plans.
• Applications of management techniques.
– General management
– Marketing management
– Operations management
– Financial management
– Human resource management
– Information technology
– Management science
– Planning and resource allocation
– Efficiency and effectiveness
• Traditional methods of management are primarily
based on behavioural sciences.
– Personnel selection
– Training and retraining
– Motivational methods
– Development of communication channels and skills
– Leadership development
– Team building and conflict resolution
• The conventional methods of management are no
longer adequate to meet the demand of today’s
• With larger and complicated organisations with their
own unique organisational and structural issues a
need has been felt for better, more effective and
innovative managerial methods