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Polish - Lesson 1

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First lesson in Polish.

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Polish - Lesson 1

  1. 1. Lesson 1 1 – July – 2019 Subject: Verbs Ancillaries: Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs and Sample Sentences
  2. 2. Variety of Verbs Slide 2 of 19 ● Polish verbs consist of a number of different morphological structures that can be grouped basedf on their prefixes and stem endings. ● Common groups are shown in further slides.
  3. 3. Common Groups Slide 3 of 19 ● do- ● Used with verbs suggesting the final leg of the process ● To be supplementary to something ● To adjust so two objects spoken about are equalised ● do-...-się ● Suggests obstacles on the final leg just before reaching the end of a process ● od- ● Signalize that an action is performed with precision to achieve optimal results and the action is repeated until the optimal results are obtained ● Suggests a reconstructive, reproductive character of motions with positive results. ● However, for verbs that are considered colloquial with this prefix they signify that the action was performed in an unsatisfactory manner ● To signalise return actions ● To signify actions that involve subtraction or removal, also movement away and separation ● prze- ● For actions that are performed from one end to the other (inside or outside, start to finish, top to bottom), with the results that could be complete and last for a while when the action was long enough, or incomplete when the action was quick and only on the surface
  4. 4. Common Groups Slide 4 of 19 ● przez- ● For actions that bring unwanted results ● … się ● Indicates a reflexive action, but NOT in all cases ● roz- ● Signifies enlargement or augmentation of an object. ● Often used to show movement from the center outwards into many directions or parts, which can result in disintegration ● Indicates the beginning of a sudden change in action ● Signifying distribution from the same source ● u- ● For actions with sudden results ● Actions that continue for a while before being finalised ● To indicate that something has become better ● To signalise a reduction of the object, or getting a piece of the object ● u-… się ● To show that the subject has been satiated in some way
  5. 5. Common Groups Slide 5 of 19 ● na- ● Characterises methodical actions whose results will last ● Action onto a surface (usually with the preposition na <+ACC>) ● na-… się ● For satiation and saturation ● nad- ● To act with extra and excessive power, to abuse ● To weaken ● pod- ● Placing an object under another object, usually followed by the preposition pod <+ACC> ● To describe a shady action, one that could be below the level of legality ● For upwards motion ● To approach ● To improve partially someone’s condition over time ● przy- ● Signalises arrival by different froms of transportation ● To unite
  6. 6. Common Groups Slide 6 of 19 ● w(e)- ● Movement inside an object ● To include something into an object, to integrate ● wy ● Outwards movement ● To act on the surface and perform entirely successfully ● wy-… się ● Can signify satiation ● z-/s- ● To put something together ● An action that brings instant results ● Downwards movement ● To wear out, destroy ● To remove from the surface ● To make something smaller ● za- ● To cover totally a surface ● To reach a destination ● The beginning of a process, to initiate a process, or diametrically as a final action
  7. 7. Common Groups Slide 7 of 19 ● o-/ob- ● To act around (does not always imply circular motion) ● To deceive, act around the truth ● Indirect actions
  8. 8. Frequency Quality Slide 8 of 19 ● Adverbs of frequency such as często can be used in preceding or succeeding positions to verbs to indicate the frequency of an action: e.g. often, sometimes, from time to time ● However, it should be noted that there exists a class of verbs known as “frequentative verbs” which signify that an action is being carried out habitually ● Therefore, with such verbs there is no need to use the aforementioned adverbs (they can be utilised, but speech and writing may become less elegant) ● They usually appear as extended forms of their non-frequentative counterparts with the infinitive ending -ać ● However, not every verb has a frequentative counterpart
  9. 9. Perfective Quality Slide 9 of 19 ● Verbs in Polish usually come paired with a perfective aspect (however there are verbs that only exist in the imperfective and ones that only exist in the perfective) ● Imperfective verbs are used to signify actions that are ongoing, have not come to completion or will still be ongoing in the future for an unknown amount of time. ● Perfective verbs are used to signify that an action has come to its complete ending or will come to an end soon with no possibility that it will continue on for an infinite amount of time. ● Because of these differences, imperfective verbs have three tenses (past, present and future) while perfective verbs only have two tenses (past and complex future). ● Perfective verbs are often constructed from imperfective verbs by adding prefixes or by changing the structure of the infinitive ending.
  10. 10. Conjugations of the Verb Slide 10 of 19 ● Polish has five classes of conjugations: Indicative (Tryb Oznajmujący), Subjunctive (Tryb Łączący), Conditional (Tryb Przypuszczający), Imperative (Tryb Rozkazujący) and Imiesłowy (Participles) ● Oznajmujący from Oznajmować, previously Oznajmiać – to annunciate | Łączący – Combining, fusing, from łacząć – to include, to fuse | Przypuszczający – assuming, from przypuszczać – to assume, to suppose | Rozkazujący – commanding, from rozkazywać – to command | Imiesłów – Literally “name word” ● Each class has its own declension patterns which often have regularity with other verbs concerning the same class ● It should be kept in mind that participles in Polish are declined like adjectives ● Verbs are not affected by declensions that apply to nouns, but many verbs often have case governance in which the nouns and/or adjectives that verbs refer to are declined ● However, the declension of objects following case governance is not always logical. Therefore case governance of verbs has to be memorised
  11. 11. Conjugations of the Verb Slide 11 of 19 ● Polish has five classes of conjugations: Indicative (Tryb Oznajmujący), Subjunctive (Tryb Łączący), Conditional (Tryb Przypuszczający), Imperative (Tryb Rozkazujący) and Imiesłowy (Participles) ● Oznajmujący from Oznajmować, previously Oznajmiać – to annunciate | Łączący – Combining, fusing, from łacząć – to include, to fuse | Przypuszczający – assuming, from przypuszczać – to assume, to suppose | Rozkazujący – commanding, from rozkazywać – to command | Imiesłów – Literally “name word” ● Each class has its own declension patterns which often have regularity with other verbs concerning the same class ● It should be kept in mind that participles in Polish are declined like adjectives ● Verbs are not affected by declensions that apply to nouns, but many verbs often have case governance in which the nouns and/or adjectives that verbs refer to are declined ● However, the declension of objects following case governance is not always logical. Therefore case governance of verbs has to be memorised
  12. 12. Practice Slide 12 of 19 ● Let us conjugate the verb to be, być, and to use to be, bywać (Niech odmieniamy czasownik, być i bywać) ● Niech odmieniamy odmieniać i odmienić ● Odmieńmy wiedzieć i znać ● Odmieńmy iść i chodzić ● Odmieńmy gotować i ugotować ● Odmieńmy mieszkać i zamieszkać ● Odmieńmy żyć i pożyć ● Odmieńmy uczyć i nauczyć, oraz uczyć się i nauczyć się ● Odmieńmy studiować i przestudiować ● Odmieńmy lubić i polubić ● Odmieńmy znaczyć
  13. 13. Irregular Adjective Slide 13 of 19 ● Technically not a verb but works very similar to one. Powinienem and its other declensions literally mean “obligated”, and are equivalent to the English word “should” in usage.
  14. 14. Practice – Page 345 Slide 14 of 19 ● Codziennie chodzę do pracy. ● Jak często chodziłaś do kina, kiedy byłaś na studiach? ● Latem kązdego dnia będę chodzić na basen. ● Codziennie jeźdzę do pracy autobusem. ● Wczoraj trzy razy jeździłam na lotnisko. ● Chodzić pieszo, chodzić piechotą, chodzić na piechotę. ● Nie lubię chodzić pieszo do pracy, wolę jeździć rowerem. ● Nie lubię chodzić do pracy. ● O co chodzi? ● Nieszczęścia chodzą parami (parami – pairwise). ● Chodzić na rzęsach. (Rzęsa – eyelashes, duckweed) ● Ciarki mi chodzą po plecach. (Ciarki – shivers, po – upon) ● Chodzić z kimś. ● Chodzić z głową chmurach. ● Chodzić spać razem z kurami. (Kury – hens) ● Słuchy chodzą, że odchodzisz.
  15. 15. Practice – Page 345 and 348 Slide 15 of 19 ● Ten autobus nie chodzi w niedziele i święta. ● Twój zegarek źle chodzi. ● Co ci chodzi po głowie. ● Biegać po sklepach, urzędach. ● Od tygodnia biegam za przentem dla żony. ● Często chodzę w dżinsach. ● Dokąd pani idzie. ● Jak leci? ● Wszystko leci mi z rąk. (rąk from ręka for hand, in this context hands) ● Zofia czyta/kupuje wszystko jak leci. ● Lecieć na łeb na szyję. (łeb – head, szyja – neck) ● Biec na złamanie karku (złamanie – fracture, karku – of the back of the neck)
  16. 16. Suggestions, Commands and Suppositions Slide 16 of 19 ● When expressing sentences of the form “Someone wanted someone to do this” or “Would you like me to do this”, Polish construction of such phrases is different and fixed. ● In Polish, such phrases would be expressed as “Someone wanted that in order for someone to do this”. A more real world example would be “Would you want that in order for me to call the Police” while the same sentence in correct English grammar would be rendered “Would you want me to call the police? ● E.g. Czy chciałbyś żebym dzwonił po policji. ● In such cases, the key word is żeby which is a declinable connective.
  17. 17. Suggestions, Commands and Suppositions Slide 17 of 19 ● Declines the same way as the subjunctive except that it includes the prefix że- ● The same is with gdyby and jakby
  18. 18. Suggestions, Commands and Suppositions Slide 18 of 19 ● Lubię pochodzić po ogrodzie, kiedy jestem zmęczona. (pochodzić – to come out) ● Rano pobiegałam po parku, a potem wzięłam przysznic. (pobiegać – to run around, perfective) ● Popływamy w basenie przed obiadem? (popływać – to swim, perfective) ● Skąd pani pochodzi? ● Pochodzę z Francji. ● Po zajęciach pójdę do biblioteki. ● Zanim pojedziemy do Polski, chcemy wziąć jakies rzeczy. ● Dokąd zamierzasz pojechać latem? ● Jak ci poszło? ● Wszystko poszło dobrze. ● Ceny posły w górę/w dół. ● Pójść na współpracę. ● Pójść na wojska. ● Pojechać za granicę. ● Pobiec po lekarza.
  19. 19. Homework Slide 19 of 19 ● Memorise all conjugations of verbs provided on the learning platform. ● Memorise the given texts. ● Write five simple sentences in Polish, can be using what was taught during the lecture or what was found in other resources.

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