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Sept13 2011 college 1

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How to design and evaluate research in education?
SPO students at Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, The Netherlands

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Sept13 2011 college 1

  1. 1. Methoden en Technieken Dr. Ning DING September 13 2011 SPO, Rijksuniversteit Groningen 09/14/11
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Structure of the course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>requirement, book, exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today’s course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables and Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics and Research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Check Exercises </li></ul>09/14/11
  3. 3. Structure of the course <ul><li>Requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read the book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attend the lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Book: How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education 7 th or 8 th Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Skip: 5, 10, 11, 12, 25 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 5: Locating and Reviewing the Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 10: Descriptive Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 11: Inferential Statistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 12: Statistics in Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 25: Preparing Research Proposals and Reports </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  4. 4. EXAM 09/14/11
  5. 5. EXAM <ul><li>Exam: bevat MC-vragen en twee open-vragen 45 </li></ul>Example: 09/14/11
  6. 6. EXAM <ul><li>Exam: bevat MC-vragen en twee open-vragen 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Wat is het verschil tussen criterion- en norm-referenced instrumentatie. Kun je voorbeelden geven voor beide? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between criterion- and norm-reference instruments? Please give an example for each of them. </li></ul>09/14/11
  7. 7. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  8. 8. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  9. 9. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Undependable </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete </li></ul>09/14/11
  10. 10. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agreement with others </li></ul><ul><li>No guarantee of the truth </li></ul>09/14/11
  11. 11. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Never be totally true </li></ul>09/14/11
  12. 12. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Both major and minor premises are true? </li></ul>09/14/11
  13. 13. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific method </li></ul>09/14/11
  14. 14. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul>Describe, Predict, Explain Mixed method = quantitative + qualitative 09/14/11
  15. 15. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>1.1 Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define problems </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify study purpose and problems </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what kinds of information and ways of collection </li></ul><ul><li>Organize obtained information </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret information </li></ul>09/14/11
  16. 16. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  17. 17. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  18. 18. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  19. 19. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  20. 20. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>>= 2 groups </li></ul><ul><li>existing </li></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  21. 21. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2 Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  22. 22. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  23. 23. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  24. 24. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul>09/14/11 Experimental research Correlational research Causal-comparative research Survey Ethnographic research Historical research Action research Compare; Single over time Relationship Cause, consequence Characteristics Everyday experience Past Active involvement
  25. 25. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Overview of the research process </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  26. 26. Chapter 1 The Nature of Research <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Overview of the research process </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>Why do we need a research in education? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several types of research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.3 Overview of the research process </li></ul></ul>Chapter 1 The Nature of Research 09/14/11
  28. 28. Chapter 2 The Research Problem <ul><ul><li>2.1 Defining Terms </li></ul></ul>Constitutive Definition Operational Definition Use what is often referred to as the dictionary approach Specify the actions or operations necessary to measure or identify the term 09/14/11
  29. 29. Chapter 2 The Research Problem <ul><ul><li>2.2 Characteristics of good research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>haalbaar </li></ul><ul><li>Is helder </li></ul><ul><li>Is belangrijk </li></ul><ul><li>Is ethisch verantwoord </li></ul>09/14/11
  30. 30. <ul><ul><li>Characteristics of good research problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feasible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Significant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical </li></ul></ul></ul>Chapter 2 The Research Problem Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondary school students? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondeary school students in physics problem-solving? Is computer-supported learning an effective learning method for secondary school students in physics problem-solving in comparison with face-to-face learning? 09/14/11
  31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Variable </li></ul></ul>Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses Constant A concept standing for variation within a class of objects Characteristics do not vary 09/14/11 3.1 Variables
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.2 Independent vs Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study its effect / presumed to be affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.3 Moderator Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.4 Exaneous Variables </li></ul></ul>Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11 3.1 Variables
  33. 33. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul>09/14/11
  34. 34. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>3.1.2 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul>09/14/11
  35. 35. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent vs Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study its effect / presumed to be affected </li></ul></ul></ul>Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
  36. 36. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent vs Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study its effect / presumed to be affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.3 Moderator Variable </li></ul></ul>Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
  37. 37. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><ul><li>Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent vs Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study its effect / presumed to be affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderator Variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.4 Extraneous Variable </li></ul></ul>Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Influences your Performance in Mathematics, and this is moderated by the parental involvement Maths performance 09/14/11 IQ
  38. 38. <ul><ul><li>3.1.1 Quantitative vs Categorical Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary in degree / do not vary in degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.2 Independent vs Dependent Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study its effect / presumed to be affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.3 Moderator Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1.4 Exaneous Variables </li></ul></ul>Are secondary school students’ physics performances influenced by their gender ? As above, the relationship is moderated by SES Homework , teacher , etc. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11
  39. 39. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses <ul><li>3.2 Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2.1 Advantages vs Disadvantages of stating hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think deeply / bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction / unnecessary for some research types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2.2 Significant Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2.3 Directional vs Nondirectional Hypotheses </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  40. 40. <ul><ul><li>Advantages vs Disadvantages of stating hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think deeply / bias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction / unnecessary for some research types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional vs Nondirectional Hypotheses </li></ul></ul>In secondary school physics problem-solving, the learning performances of students learning via computers are better than that of students learning in face-to-face learning. In secondary school physics problem-solving, the learning performances of students learning via computers are different in comparison with that of students learning in face-to-face learning. Chapter 3 Variables and Hypotheses 09/14/11
  41. 41. Chapter 4 Ethics and Research <ul><ul><li>Protecting participants from harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring confidentiality of research data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should subjects be deceived? </li></ul></ul>09/14/11
  42. 42. Self-Check Exercises <ul><li>Which of the following research studies is most likely to be an experiment? </li></ul><ul><li>A) A study of the leadership characteristics of successful high school principals </li></ul><ul><li>B) A study that compares the cholesterol levels of vegetarians and meat eaters </li></ul><ul><li>C) A study to determine if parents give more sociable teachers higher ratings </li></ul><ul><li>D) A study to find out if using concept maps can increase achievement </li></ul>09/14/11
  43. 43. Self-Check Exercises 2. The difference between correlational and causal-comparative research is that <ul><li>A) one type is a descriptive study and the other is an associational study . </li></ul><ul><li>B) one type is a study with one group and the other type compares two or more groups. </li></ul><ul><li>C) one type can be generalized, while the other type cannot. </li></ul><ul><li>D) one type involves an intervention, while the other type is purely an observational study. </li></ul>09/14/11
  44. 44. Self-Check Exercises 3. Single-subject research is classified under the general research type of <ul><li>A) survey research. </li></ul><ul><li>B) a content analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>C) an ethnographic study. </li></ul><ul><li>D) historical research. </li></ul>09/14/11
  45. 45. Self-Check Exercises 4. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is known as <ul><li>A) descriptive research. </li></ul><ul><li>B) explanatory research. </li></ul><ul><li>C) causal-comparative research. </li></ul><ul><li>D) mixed-methods research </li></ul>09/14/11
  46. 46. Self-Check Exercises 5. Critical researchers are primarily concerned with <ul><li>A)ethical violations in methodology </li></ul><ul><li>B) what researchers take for granted </li></ul><ul><li>C) misuse of statistics </li></ul><ul><li>D) how research is funded </li></ul>09/14/11
  47. 47. Next course <ul><li>Chapter 7 Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8 Validity and Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 9 Internal Reliability </li></ul>09/14/11

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