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  2. 2. What Is Marketing ?<br />Definition of Marketing<br />Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs.<br />Exchange and Transaction<br />Exchange, which is the core concept of marketing, is the process of obtaining a desired products from someone by offering something in return.<br />For exchange potential to exist, five conditions must be satisfied:<br />1.there are at least two parties.<br />2.each party has something that might be of value to other party.<br />3.each party is capable of communication and delivery.<br />4.each party is free to accept or reject the exchange offer.<br />5.each party believes it is appropiate or desirable to deal with <br />the other party.<br /> A transaction is a trade of value between two or more parties.<br />A transaction differs from a transfer.<br />
  3. 3. What Is Marketed ?<br />Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities:<br />Goods Physical goods constitute the bulk of most countries production and marketing effort.<br />Services As economies advance, a growing proportion of their activities is focused on the production of services.<br />Events Marketers promote time-based events, such as major trade shows, artistics performances, and company anniversaries.<br />Experiences By orchestrating several services and goods, a firm can create, stage, and market experience.<br />PersonsCelebrity marketing is a major business.<br />Place Cities, states, regions, and whole nations compete actively to attract tourist, factories, company headquarters, and new residents.<br />Properties Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real estate) or financial property (stocks and bonds).<br />OrganizationsOrganizations actively work to build a strong, favourable, and unique image in the minds of their targets publics.<br />Information Information can be produced and marketed as a product.<br />IdeasEvery market offering includes a basic idea.<br />Who Markets ?<br /> A marketers is someone who seeks a response (attention, purchase, a vote, a donation) from another party, called the prospects.if two parties are seeking to sell something to each other, we can call them both marketers.<br />Eight demand states are possible:<br />1.     Negative demand<br />2.     Nonexistentsdemand<br />3.     Latent demand<br />4.     Declining demand<br />5.     Irregular demand<br />6.     Full demand.<br /> 7.    Overfull demand<br />8.     Unwholesome demand Traditionally, a “market” was a physical place where buyers and sellers gathered to buy and sell goods.<br />Economists describe a market as a collection of buyers and sellers who transact over particular product or product class ( the housing market or grain market).<br />
  4. 4. Key Customer Markets<br />1.Consumer Market.<br />2.Business Markets.<br />3.Global Markets.<br />4.Nonprofit and Governmental Markets.<br />Marketplaces, Marketspace, and Metamarkets<br />¨      The marketplace is physical, as when you shop in a store<br />¨      Marketspace is digital, as when you shop on the internet.<br />¨      Mohan Sawney has proposed the concept of a metamarket to describe a cluster of complementary products and services that<br /> are closely related in the minds of consumers but are spread across a diverse set of industries.<br />How Business and Marketing Are Changing<br />·       1.Changing Technology.<br />2.Globalization.<br />3.Deregulation.<br />4.Privatization.<br />5.Customer empowerment.<br />6.Customization. .<br />7.Heightened competition convergence.<br />8.Retailers transformation<br />9.disintermediation<br />
  5. 5. Company Orientations Toward the Marketplace<br />The production concept is one of the oldest concept in bussines. It hold that <br /> consumers will prefer product that are widely available and inexpensive.<br />The product concept holds that consumers will favor those products that offer <br />the most quality, performance, or innovative features.<br />The selling concept holds that consumers and bussines and practiced most<br /> aggressively with unsought goods, goods that buyers normally do not think of buying.<br />The marketing concept holds that key to achieving<br />organizationalgoals and consist of the company being<br /> more effective than competitors in creating, n delivering<br />The Holistic marketing concept is based on the development, <br />design, and implementation of marketing program, process,<br /> and activities that recognizes their breadth and interdependencies,<br />
  6. 6. The Holistic Marketing<br />Relationship marketing has the aim of building<br /> mutually satisfying long-term relationship with<br /> key parties customers, supplier, distributor <br />and other marketing partner.<br />Integrated marketing<br />Internal marketing is the task of hiring, <br />training, and motivating able employees<br /> who want to serve customers well.<br />Social responsibility marketing<br />
  7. 7. Fundamental Marketing Concept, Trends, and Tasks<br />NEEDS, WANTS, DEMAND<br />Needs are the basic humam <br />requirements.<br />These needs become wants when<br /> they are directed to specific objects<br /> that might satisfy the need.<br />Demands are wants for specific <br />product backed by an ability to pay.<br />
  8. 8. …..<br />Target Market, Positioning and Segmentation<br />Offering,the Intangible value proportion. Brand is offering from A known source.<br />Value, reflect the Percieved tangible & intangible benefit & Cost toCustomers. Satisfaction, reflect a person’s comparative judgements resulting from product percieved performance in relation to experience.<br />
  9. 9. …….<br />Marketing Channels’ Communication channels<br /> Distribution channels<br /> Service channel<br />Supply Chain<br />Competition<br />Marketing Environment<br /> Task environment<br /> Broad environment<br />Marketing planning<br />
  10. 10. CHAPTER IIDEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS<br /><ul><li> Marketing and Consumer Value</li></li></ul><li>Sell the product<br />Make the product<br />Design<br />product<br />Advertise/<br />promote<br />Procure<br />Make<br />Price<br />Sell<br />Distribute<br />Service<br />The Value Delivery Process<br />(a) Traditional physical process sequence<br />The traditional view of marketing is that the firm makes something and then sells it.<br />
  11. 11. Choose the Value<br />Cust. Segmentation / Market selection or focus / Value potsitioning<br />Provide the Value<br />Product dev. / service dev. / pricing / sourcing&making / distributing&servicing<br />Communicate the Value<br />Sales force / sales promotion / advertising<br />Tactical marketing<br />STRATEGIC MARKETING<br />ILLUSTRATION<br />(b) Value creation & delivery sequence<br />The value delivery process begins before there is a product and continues while it is being developed and after it becomes available.<br />
  12. 12. Japanese Have 5 Zero Concepts<br />Zero<br /> customer<br /> feedback<br />time<br />Zero<br />Purchasing<br />time<br />Zero<br />defects<br />Zero<br />Product<br />Improvement<br />time<br />Zero<br />Setup<br />time<br />
  13. 13. Firm Infrastructure<br />Human Resource Management<br />Technology Development<br />Procurement<br />The Generic Value ChainMichael Porter of Harvard has purpose the VALUE CHAIN As a tool for identifiying ways to create more customer value <br />A<br />C<br />T<br />I<br />V<br />I<br />T<br />I<br />E<br />S<br />S<br />U<br />P<br />P<br />O<br />R<br />T<br />Outbound<br />Logistics<br />Marketing<br />and<br />Sales<br />Margin<br />Operations<br />Service<br />Inbound<br />Logistics<br />Primary Activities<br />
  14. 14. CORE COMPETENCIES<br />Distinctive capabilities tend to refer to areas of special tehnical and production expertise.<br />CORE<br />COMPETENC<br />I<br />ES<br />Illustration<br />DISTINCTIVE CAPABILITIES<br />Netflix rent as many DVDs as you want and watch movies instantly on your PC for one low price <br />C<br />HA<br />RACTERI<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />C<br />OF<br />Netflix has distinctive capabilities that promise to keep the company on top even as competitors like Blockbuster and Walware company masquerading as DVD rental service<br />COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE<br />Distinctive capabilities tend to describe excellence in broader bussiness process.<br />
  15. 15. Existing<br />products<br />New<br />products<br />1. Market<br />penetration<br />strategy<br />3. Product<br />development<br />strategy<br />Existing<br />markets<br />2. Market<br />development<br />strategy<br />New<br />markets<br />Ansoff’s Product-Market Expansion Grid<br />Diversification<br />strategy<br />
  16. 16. Business Unit Strategic Planning<br />The Business mission, each business unit needs to define its specific mission within the broader company mission.<br />External & internal environment<br />Marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need and interest in which there is a high probability that a company can profitably satisfy that need.<br /> . <br />It involves monitoring the external and internal marketing environment.<br />
  17. 17. Strategic formulation<br />Overall cost leadership<br />Differentiation<br />Focus<br />Firms pursuing the same strategy directed to the same target market constitute a strategic group.<br />Strategic Alliances, companies are also discovering that they need strategic partners if they hope to be effective.Four major categories:<br />Product or service alliances<br />Promotional alliances<br />Logistics alliances<br />Pricing collaborations<br />
  18. 18. Market Opportunity analysis, to determine the attractiveness and probability of success<br />Environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead, in the absence of defensive marketing action, to lower sales or profit.<br />Goal formulation, process to develop specific goals for the planning period.<br />The business unit sets manages by objectives (MBO) system to work, must meet four criteria:<br />They must be arranged hierarchically<br />Objectives should be stated quantitatively<br />Goal should be realistic<br />Objectives must be consistent<br />
  19. 19. Feedback and control<br />As it implements its strategy, a firm needs to track the results and monitor new developments.<br />Product planning<br />a marketing plan is a writen document that summarizes what the marketer has learned about the marketplace and indicates how the firm plans to reach its marketing objectives.<br />Contents of the Marketing Plan<br />Δ Executives summary and table of contents<br />Δ Situation analysis<br />Δ Marketing strategy<br />Δ Financial projections<br />Δ Implementation controls<br />