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  1. 1. Intercultural Training for Expatriates United States - Uzbekistan
  2. 2. Key Cultural Concepts In this session you will: • Define “culture” and identify some of its key characteristics. • Understand how knowledge of culture relates to effective performance in the destination country.
  3. 3. Sources of Variation Within a Culture • Regional • Urban vs. rural • Ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities • Educational level and class distinctions • Generational differences • Gender differences • Individual differences Forces that Shape Culture
  4. 4. • SYMBOLS: words (languages), gestures, images, objects (cloths, hairstyle, flags) • HEROES: persons who can be considered as models for behavior • RITUALS: How to greet, social and religious ceremonies, politics, business
  5. 5. Model of intercultural sensitiveness • Step 1: Getting to know other culture (explore) • Step 2: Understand other culture ( ask) • Step 3 : Tolerance of differences (understand) • Step 4 : Acceptance of differences (emotions...) • Step 5 : Appreciation of diversity ( see positive ) • Step 6 : Adaptation (personal change of attitude) • Result : Ability to function in/with the other culture
  6. 6. Intercultural Awareness Model Cultural Dimentions
  7. 7. HIERARCHICAL VS. EGALITARIAN STRUCTURES • How society is structured • How power is allocated or earned • Tolerance for social mobility • How organizations are structured and run • The amount of responsibility and control employees are given
  8. 8. Uzbekistan is moderately hierarchical, so when interacting with Uzbeks, you should remember the following tips: • You will need to give clear, explicit directions regarding duties, deadlines, and decisions. • As a manager, you will be expected to demonstrate an authoritative leadership style. • Do not expect employees to display individual initiative; they expect to take direction from the leader. • Be aware that people expect to be treated differently based on their socio-economic backgrounds or levels in the organization. • Show the appropriate level of deference and respect, through language and behavior, to the more senior members of society. • Expect to encounter more bureaucracy in organizations and government agencies.
  9. 9. FORMAL VS. INFORMAL STYLE • The importance of appearance as an indicator of status • The importance of protocol and etiquette • The appropriate use of titles, surnames and honorifics • The appropriateness of discussing personal matters at work • Appropriate ways of meeting people, building relationships and entertaining
  10. 10. Uzbekistan is a formal society. When you interact with Uzbeks: • Address people by their appropriate title and name. Do not move to firstname basis until invited. • In general, it is best to use the formal tense when using the local language. • Status is important and you may be judged on the image you present, the clothes you wear and where you live and what car you drive. These external cues matter to locals. • Do not ask personal questions in a social setting unless you have developed a close relationship with someone. Check to be certain it is proper to use social functions to network. • Check with a colleague or local national about rules of protocol and etiquette about specific circumstances since being correct with etiquette is important.
  11. 11. GROUP VS. INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS • The relative importance of individual rights vs. the greater good of the group or society • The source of an individual's identity and loyalties • The value of individual contributions vs. teamwork in accomplishing and rewarding business goals • The roles and responsibilities of individuals to other family members • Appropriate levels of assertion and self-promotion within a society Ex: Wheel (USA) vs. Nail (China)
  12. 12. Uzbekistan is group-oriented culture. The following will help you when you interact with Uzbeks : • People value their role as a team member and identify themselves first as part of a group, then as an individual. • They may be uncomfortable if too much focus is placed on them individually. • In general, people will consult with others before stating their opinion. • Individuals are not generally comfortable taking credit for their accomplishments, preferring the praise to be given to the entire group. • Promotions tend to be based on seniority and relationships rather than performance. • Individuals feel a strong sense of responsibility for family members. • Decision making may be a slow process since consensus is important. Once a decision is reached, implementation may be quite rapid.
  13. 13. RELATIONSHIPS VS. TRANSACTIONAL • What constitutes a relationship and the expectations placed on a relationship • Whether trust is deemed critical to building social or business relationships • What takes precedence in making a business decision: the people involved or other more objective business criteria? • The pace and degree of ritualized formality involved in building new relationships • The appropriateness of mixing business and pleasure, or professional and personal lives
  14. 14. Uzbekistan is an interpersonal, relationship-oriented culture. When you have business or social interactions with Uzbeks, remember these points: • Relationship building is important and tends to be somewhat formal and ritualized. • In general, relationship building takes time and attention. In return, once developed, relationships are long lived. • Expect to be asked personal questions. This is how locals learn more about you as a person so that they can be learn if the type of person with whom they want a relationship. • In a business situation, personal relationships, trust and familiarity will likely take precedence over price and perhaps even efficiency. • Employing or giving favorable treatment to family members and friends may be good business, and what may be considered to be "nepotism" in your culture may be openly accepted. • There are expectations that people have of relationship-based behavior, which may include going out after work to socialize, entertaining at one’s home or even inviting someone for the weekend and while these may be seen as casual in your culture, they carry an underlying assumption of friendship.
  15. 15. DIRECT VS. INDIRECT COMMUNICATION • The relative importance of verbal vs. non-verbal communication modes • The importance of factual information vs. background and context • The preferred mode of communication for relaying information • The preferred degree of directness and subtlety of the language that's used • The relative need to "save face" and maintain harmony through appropriate use of communication modes
  16. 16. Uzbekistan is an indirect communication culture. The following tips will give you clues about how you might handle communication with Uzbeks • Non-verbal gestures are important to enhance the meaning and acceptance of the words being spoken. • Adding some context, background information, and dialog are important to assure understanding. • Eloquence in verbal communication and meticulous preparation of written or visual communication forms are highly valued. • Take care when making introductions to have a respectful, even deferential demeanor. • Show you are considering the subject thoroughly when a topic is presented.
  17. 17. CONTROLLED VS. FLUID TIME • The degree to which people feel that they can control time • The relative importance of relationships vs. schedules • Attitudes towards timekeeping and punctuality • Comfort level with short range vs. longer term planning • The feasibility / appropriateness of assigning set times for social functions or business meetings to start and finish
  18. 18. Uzbekistan is a Fluid Time culture. The following tips will give you clues about how you may best interact with Uzbek colleagues: • Time schedules and deadlines are not necessarily considered final. Tending to relationships may be more important. • Given their exposure to global business standards, people generally know that foreigners value promptness and they may strive to comply. This may be less pronounced when meeting with government officials. • There is generally a large window of accepted lateness for social events in someone’s house. • It may be rude to interrupt a colleague who is taking a long time to deliver a message, and brevity to maintain time schedules is not considered a virtue.
  19. 19. EXTERNAL VS. INTERNAL CONTROL/ Change tolerance • Openness to change and innovation • Willingness to take risks • The degree to which people feel they control their environment and destiny • The preference for rules and structure • The degree to which organizational practices encourage and reward initiative and risk taking, and allow failure
  20. 20. Uzbekistan is an External Control society. When interacting with Uzbeks, you should remember the following tips: • People in these societies believe they have limited control over their destiny or environment. • Although change may be viewed in a positive light, Uzbeks may be reluctant to adopt new products or systems without a great deal of research. • Employees expect managers to be strong leaders who care for their staff and take a personal interest in their lives. • When delegating work to employees, it is a good idea to make periodic checks on progress. • Risk tolerance is often a matter of position, with risk tolerance limited to those in decision making positions.
  21. 21. STATUS VS. BALANCE MOTIVATION • The relative importance and value attached to professional vs. personal lives • The presence or absence of government-sponsored initiatives relating to family welfare benefits • The source of an individual's identity and self-esteem • Tolerance for blurring the lines between professional and personal lives • How status and success are defined by a society
  22. 22. Uzbekistan is a Balance-Motivation culture. • Individuals value their personal and family time. • Personal identity, status and sense of personal accomplishment are derived from family, education and pursuits outside of the workplace. • Employees see a clear distinction between work time and personal time and rarely blur those lines. • Family obligations will take precedence over professional loyalties or advancement. • People are reluctant to permanently relocate and leave family and friends.
  23. 23. Cultural Values. Russia • • • • • Hierarchy Group oriented Relationships Communication can be direct or indirect Moderately time controlled
  24. 24. Key Business Values • Networking and personal relationships vital to business success • Connections lubricate the bureaucracy • Calculated risk tolerance • Work from general principles to details • Negotiations considered win-lose • Enjoy teamwork but want individual recognition • Fatalism
  25. 25. Strategies for Success • Exchange favors to develop necessary connections • Communicate your credentials at start of presentation • Provide clear instructions and firm expectations • When asking questions, use concrete examples • Provide constructive criticism indirectly