Since at least the 5th century B.C., the early Greeks created the science of rhetoric as a way of influencing people. By infusing pieces of mind-persuading data into sentences people can be manipulated by the language they use. If they see or hear certain bits of information (i.e. words, fragments, or sentences) placed strategically, a person can be persuaded one way or another (without perhaps knowing). Based on experimental findings in social psychology and the way in which we process information, the effectiveness of subliminal perception has been continually examined throughout history. Subliminal messaging and mind control persists to be under scrutiny, as to whether it is capable of doing what it intends to do on the targeted person
Public concern about subliminal manipulation can be seen in 1957 when a marketing researcher looked into statistical data. James Vicary claimed to find dramatic increases in the sales of Coca-Cola and popcorn when he flashed the phrases "Drink Coca-Cola" and "Eat popcorn" for 1/2000 of a second during a movie. The statistics showed an increase in popcorn sales by 58%, with an increase in Coca-Cola sales by 18%. (Cane) This is perhaps the shocking information that led to an enormous response from the public. Individuals as well as legislators imagined possible effects of subliminal perception on the future- a world where everyone was subliminally manipulated to do what perhaps the government wanted them to do. (Elliston) In reality though, research on subliminal effects has shown little overall effects in controlled conditions. There is no evidence based in real-world settings done by top researchers on influencing behavior. Also, in 1962, Vicary stated that the study was a fabrication and the evidence now suggests it was. He never released a detailed description of his study and there was never any independent evidence to support what he claimed
Imc assignment 3
Overview• History• Introduction• Concepts• Methods• Effectiveness (with help of examples)• Summary
History E.W. Scripture‟s New Radio Psychology (1898) 1920‟s- people dislikedGreeks-5th Century BC summarized subliminal the radio advertising BBC-backward masking On June 22, 1956, the The use of subliminal British Broadcasting James Vicarytechniques introduced Corporation Increased popcorn andin US started since the experimented with coca-cola sales World War I period projecting subliminal Manipulation images on television
Introduction• Subliminal is a two part word consisting of the prefix sub- and the root word limen (Latin origins)• Sub- means below and limen means threshold• Thus, subliminal comes to mean below threshold
Subliminal perception occurs wheneverstimuli presented below the threshold It influence thoughts, feelings, or actions The term subliminal perception was originally used to describe situations in which weak stimuli were perceived without awareness In recent years, term has been applied more generally to describe any situation in which unnoticed stimuli are perceived
Concepts• Subliminal message• Below (sub) the threshold (limen) of human perception – Example: a message flashed so quickly that it can‟t be recognized – Example: a sound played so faintly that it can‟t be heard• Embedding is a form of subliminal persuasion• Supraliminal message• A message that is consciously recognized and processed – Example: an image so faint that it is difficult to see – Example: a sound that is played quietly, yet is still audible• Product placement is a form of supraliminal persuasion
Concepts– “Priming” occurs when a subliminal stimulus precedes, or is paired with, a supraliminal message (Strahan, Spencer, & Zanna, 2000).– The prime is flashed at about 16 milliseconds, below the threshold of conscious perception.– The results reveal that such priming improves subjects’ performance (Debner & Jacoby, 1994; Klinger & Greenwald, 1995).
Concepts • Is engaged when consumers devote attention to anVoluntary advertisement or other marcom message that is perceived asAttention relevant to their current purchase-related goals • Occurs when attention is captured by the use ofInvoluntary attention-gaining techniques rather than by the consumer‟s Attention inherent interest in the topic at hand
Three methods in common useThey are–• Product Endorsement,• Product Placement, and• Hidden (Subliminal) Imagery.
Why do advertisers use these methods?•As consumers buying decisions based on emotion rather than logic•Sometimes decisions based purely on the way the product is presented•Advertisers know this•Market their products in ways that appeal to our emotions andsubconscious mind
How do these methods work?Product Endorsement -The most up-front and honest methodProduct Placement - Slightly sneakier derivative of product endorsement - Product placement is a particularly potent form of subliminaladvertising -It catches us off guard -Visibly featuring branded products or brand names in a movieor television program.
How do these methods work?• Product Placement: -Paid verbal or visual brand exposure in entertainment programming - For example, you settle down to watch an episode of Fraser, your all time hero, and happen to notice that he drinks a certain brand of coffee (“brand X").• In-Game Advertising: – refers to the use of computer and video games as a medium in which to deliver advertising.
Quotes on product placement…• “We never want to hit the movie goers over the head with product exposure, the best placements are natural and seamless” – Steve Ross; 20th Century Fox• “When a Star uses a recognizable product, people in the audience will pat themselves on the back and say „look how smart I am, I‟m using the same thing as the hero in the movie‟. It‟s the most inexpensive way to get visibility and sales power.” – Gisela Dawson; The Catalyst Group
Urban Myth ….• Subliminal perception means "perception without realization.“• 1950‟s with James Vicarys classic experiment in a New Jersey movie theatre• Coke Experiment: “Drink Coca-Cola” and “Eat popcorn”
The early years: An urban myth is born• James Vicary claimed to have flashed the words “eat popcorn” and “Drink Coca-Cola” on a movie screen for 1/200th of a second, every 5 seconds during the movie Picnic• He claimed popcorn sales increased 58% and Coke sales increased 18%• He later acknowledged the study was a fraud (Advertising Age ,1962)
Trend of subliminal marketing• In the 1970s, Wilson Bryan Key wrote such books as Subliminal Seduction and Media Sexploitation• He claimed subliminal sexual symbols or objects are often used to entice consumers to buy and use various products and services• One of Keys most famous claims is that the word was often embedded in products and advertisements
Examples….• http://i463.photobucket.com/albums/q q358/30PP0/th_01.gif?t=1287183914Screenshot from Clone High
Examples….The most common subliminal message is S E X.
Examples….• Screenshot from Househttp://2.bp.blogspot.com/_ao8tv8nSTbo/S7CNO0IEifI/AAAAAAAAAiw/Sn KvuObscDs/s1600/House+S06E05_copy.jpg
Examples…. Silence of the Lambs would be the last place in the world to throw in something sexy!!! but if you zoom in on the movie poster pictured here, you‟ll…….. http://www.slightlywarped.co m/crapfactory/subliminal/sile nceofthelambs.htm
Subliminal message in children entertainment Spot the message from the film „The Lion King‟http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAIdluHUZs8
Subliminal message in children entertainment http://i463.photobucke t.com/albums/qq358/3 0PP0/tangled-1.gif
Example of Subliminal Advertising Today• In Spring of 2006, KFC ran an ad that included this frame of a bucket of KFC as a promotion for a coupon to get a free chicken sandwich.• KFC claimed that there was a 40% increase in visitors at their website, and that 100,000 coupons were given out.• ABC soon banned the commercial because they classified it as subliminal advertising
Forms of Subliminal Stimulation Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope Accelerated speech in auditory messages Embedding of hidden symbols
Example of Tachistoscope• http://collection.eliterature.org/1/works/ poundstone__project_for_tachistoscop e_bottomless_pit/Tachistoscope.html
Example of auditory messages• Accelerated speech in auditory messages• Queen: Another One Bites the Dust• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ca6k7i8p9Oo• The Beatles: Revolution #9• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JDhLTY0bUy0
• . Democrats accused Republicans of using subliminal advertising as a campaigning technique in 2000. In an ad attacking Al Gore during the 2000 campaign for president, the word “RATS” flashed continually in 1/20th of a second intervals in the last 20% of the advertisement.
Embedded images and text aresubliminal messagesThis ad for Tanqueray allegedlycontains a phallic symbol
Subliminal marketing agenda…- A way of targeting someone you wouldnt normally advertise to- A way of surpassing obvious immoral associations whilst your are actually making those associations with the brand
Summary• Research has failed to demonstrate any reliable effects of subliminal advertising or of other techniques of subliminal persuasion• Despite this, other research evidence suggests that people can indeed process information without being aware of it• Conscious processing play only a small role in our daily thinking, feeling and doing with most activities being essentially automatic and below awareness• Considered ethically unacceptable