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Spondylitis
Spondylitis
Spondylitis
Spondylitis is one of the most common
causes of chronic back ache and pain in
the neck, making it very difficult for a
patient to live a normal, pain-free life.
• Spondylitis is a condition caused by an inflammation of the
vertebrae of the spinal cord.
• When the vertebral joints become inflamed, the vertebrae may
grow or fuse together, leading to a rigid spine. It’s a form of
osteoarthritis that affects the spine.
• The pain may not be felt initially, but gradually becomes
worse as the condition progresses.
• Usually, spondylitis starts in the lower back, proceeding
upwards towards the spine and leading to chronic back ache.
What is Spondylitis?
How spondylitis changes your
spine’scurve
What causes Spondylitis?
Genetics appear to be the most common cause of this condition.
Research shows that over 90 percent of people with this condition
carry a particular gene called the human leukocyte antigen B27
(HLA-B27). That explains why somebody with a family history of
spondylitis is more likely to develop this condition
than someonewhodoesn’t.
symptoms of spondylitis
• Loss of coordination or normal reflexes
• Decrease ROM
• Stiff neck or back
• Tingling or numbness in the affected area
• Difficulty walking and moving around
• Severe chronic pain and discomfort.
• obvious symptoms of Spondylitis.
diagnosed?
• Identification of the patient’s symptoms while taking history is the first
step towards diagnosis. The doctor will also do a physical
examination and request image tests –X-ray, MRI, CT scans –to find
out the underlying cause of pain and see which part of the spine is
most affected.
• Cervical spondylitis Cervical spondylitis is a common
degenerative condition of the cervical (neck) spine that most
likely is caused by age-related changes (wear and tear) in the
intervertebral disks and vertebrae of the neck.
Causes
• This is basically a mechanical disorder.
• Very stiff muscles in the cervical region can, over the
years, cause a kinking of the cervical spine to the front.
• Bad posture and lack of exercise to the cervical region are the
• key factors which are responsible in a majority of the patients.
• Lying in bed with several pillows propping up the neck into an
unnatural position can affect the alignment of the cervical
column, causing a forward inclination.
• Reclining on sofas with the spine hunched and the neck pushed
forward is bad for cervical alignment.
• Hunching over the computer for many hours, occupational
hazards such as those of a writer, an illustrator or a painter, all
cause the spine to be bent forward all the time.
• Positioning the body to the same side during sleep, with the
shoulder muscles and the neck compressed, also develops
faulty alignment in the cervical spine. In due course the
spine is bent, the front surface of the bones and disc are
excessively pressurized and damage occurs.
• The so-called executive chairs are ill-designed and push the
neck out of alignment. No chair should reach over the head.
The level should be up to the shoulder blades so that the
chest can stretch over the edge keeping the body upright.
• Heavy loads.
• Neck pain and stiffness is one of the earliest presentations of
cervical spondylitis. Some of the characteristic features of this
condition are:
• Chronic or episodic pain and stiffness in the neck and shoulder region
• The pain tends to get worse over a period of time
• There may be periods initially when the pain disappears completely;
later as the disease advances the pain may remain persistent
• Pain may radiate (travel) from neck to shoulders, arms, forearms, hands,
lower part of the head, upper back
• Coughing, sneezing, other movements of the neck may worsen
symptoms
• Along with pain, there may be abnormal sensations (tingling
numbness), loss of sensation, weakness in any of the above regions
• Imaging tests
A variety of imaging tests can provide
details to guide diagnosis and
treatment. Examples include:
• Neck X-ray. An X-ray may show
abnormalities, such as bone
spurs, that indicate cervical
spondylosis. It is ordered primarily as
a screening test to look for
rare, serious causes for neck pain and
stiffness — such as tumors, infections
or fractures.
• Computerized tomography (CT scan).
This test takes X-rays from many
different directions and then
combines them into a cross-sectional
view of the structures in your neck. It
can provide much finer details than a
plain X-ray, particularly of the bones.
• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses a magnetic field and
radio waves and can produce detailed, cross- sectional images of both
bone and soft tissues. This can help pinpoint areas where nerves may be
getting pinched.
• Myelogram. This test involves generating images using X-rays or CT
scans after dye is injected into the spinal canal. The dye makes areas of
your spine more visible.
• Nerve function tests-
• In some cases, it may be helpful to determine if nerve signals are
traveling properly to your muscles. Nerve function tests include:
• Electromyogram (EMG). This test measures the electrical activity in
your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles
are contracting and when they're at rest. The purpose of an EMG is to
assess the health of your muscles and the nerves that control them.
• Nerve conduction study. For this test, electrodes are attached to your skin
above the nerve to be studied. A small shock is passed through the nerve
to measure the strength and speed of nerve signals.
Spurling’s Test
• Progressive forms of multiple sclerosis
• Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou
Gehrig's disease)
• Hereditary spastic paraplegia
• Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal
cord associated with vitamin B12 deficiency
• Certain spinal cord tumors
• Combined system disease
• Rheumatoid Arthritis
• Cervical Sprain and Strain
• Osteoporosis and Spinal Cord Injury

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CS.pptx

  • 2. Spondylitis Spondylitis is one of the most common causes of chronic back ache and pain in the neck, making it very difficult for a patient to live a normal, pain-free life.
  • 3. • Spondylitis is a condition caused by an inflammation of the vertebrae of the spinal cord. • When the vertebral joints become inflamed, the vertebrae may grow or fuse together, leading to a rigid spine. It’s a form of osteoarthritis that affects the spine. • The pain may not be felt initially, but gradually becomes worse as the condition progresses. • Usually, spondylitis starts in the lower back, proceeding upwards towards the spine and leading to chronic back ache. What is Spondylitis?
  • 4. How spondylitis changes your spine’scurve
  • 5. What causes Spondylitis? Genetics appear to be the most common cause of this condition. Research shows that over 90 percent of people with this condition carry a particular gene called the human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27). That explains why somebody with a family history of spondylitis is more likely to develop this condition than someonewhodoesn’t.
  • 6. symptoms of spondylitis • Loss of coordination or normal reflexes • Decrease ROM • Stiff neck or back • Tingling or numbness in the affected area • Difficulty walking and moving around • Severe chronic pain and discomfort. • obvious symptoms of Spondylitis.
  • 7. diagnosed? • Identification of the patient’s symptoms while taking history is the first step towards diagnosis. The doctor will also do a physical examination and request image tests –X-ray, MRI, CT scans –to find out the underlying cause of pain and see which part of the spine is most affected.
  • 8. • Cervical spondylitis Cervical spondylitis is a common degenerative condition of the cervical (neck) spine that most likely is caused by age-related changes (wear and tear) in the intervertebral disks and vertebrae of the neck.
  • 9. Causes • This is basically a mechanical disorder. • Very stiff muscles in the cervical region can, over the years, cause a kinking of the cervical spine to the front. • Bad posture and lack of exercise to the cervical region are the • key factors which are responsible in a majority of the patients. • Lying in bed with several pillows propping up the neck into an unnatural position can affect the alignment of the cervical column, causing a forward inclination. • Reclining on sofas with the spine hunched and the neck pushed forward is bad for cervical alignment. • Hunching over the computer for many hours, occupational hazards such as those of a writer, an illustrator or a painter, all cause the spine to be bent forward all the time.
  • 10. • Positioning the body to the same side during sleep, with the shoulder muscles and the neck compressed, also develops faulty alignment in the cervical spine. In due course the spine is bent, the front surface of the bones and disc are excessively pressurized and damage occurs. • The so-called executive chairs are ill-designed and push the neck out of alignment. No chair should reach over the head. The level should be up to the shoulder blades so that the chest can stretch over the edge keeping the body upright. • Heavy loads.
  • 11.
  • 12. • Neck pain and stiffness is one of the earliest presentations of cervical spondylitis. Some of the characteristic features of this condition are: • Chronic or episodic pain and stiffness in the neck and shoulder region • The pain tends to get worse over a period of time • There may be periods initially when the pain disappears completely; later as the disease advances the pain may remain persistent • Pain may radiate (travel) from neck to shoulders, arms, forearms, hands, lower part of the head, upper back • Coughing, sneezing, other movements of the neck may worsen symptoms • Along with pain, there may be abnormal sensations (tingling numbness), loss of sensation, weakness in any of the above regions
  • 13. • Imaging tests A variety of imaging tests can provide details to guide diagnosis and treatment. Examples include: • Neck X-ray. An X-ray may show abnormalities, such as bone spurs, that indicate cervical spondylosis. It is ordered primarily as a screening test to look for rare, serious causes for neck pain and stiffness — such as tumors, infections or fractures. • Computerized tomography (CT scan). This test takes X-rays from many different directions and then combines them into a cross-sectional view of the structures in your neck. It can provide much finer details than a plain X-ray, particularly of the bones.
  • 14. • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI uses a magnetic field and radio waves and can produce detailed, cross- sectional images of both bone and soft tissues. This can help pinpoint areas where nerves may be getting pinched. • Myelogram. This test involves generating images using X-rays or CT scans after dye is injected into the spinal canal. The dye makes areas of your spine more visible. • Nerve function tests- • In some cases, it may be helpful to determine if nerve signals are traveling properly to your muscles. Nerve function tests include: • Electromyogram (EMG). This test measures the electrical activity in your nerves as they transmit messages to your muscles when the muscles are contracting and when they're at rest. The purpose of an EMG is to assess the health of your muscles and the nerves that control them. • Nerve conduction study. For this test, electrodes are attached to your skin above the nerve to be studied. A small shock is passed through the nerve to measure the strength and speed of nerve signals.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. • Progressive forms of multiple sclerosis • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease) • Hereditary spastic paraplegia • Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord associated with vitamin B12 deficiency • Certain spinal cord tumors • Combined system disease • Rheumatoid Arthritis • Cervical Sprain and Strain • Osteoporosis and Spinal Cord Injury