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Combustible Dust: More than just Industrial Housekeeping


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This presentation explains industrial explosions caused by combustible dust. It answers the questions:

What is Combustible Dust?
Who’s at Risk?

It offers instruction for proper maintenance and industrial housekeeping practices. It provides combustible dust resources. It also provides an explanation of industrial vacuums and explosion-proof vacuums for improved worker safety.

Choosing the Right Industrial Vacuum

Published in: Technology, Business
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Combustible Dust: More than just Industrial Housekeeping

  1. 1. Combustible Dust Preventative Maintenance:More than just Industrial Housekeeping<br />Presenters: Corry Luckenbach, Product Manager, Nilfisk Industrial VacuumsScott Boersma, District Manager, Nilfisk Industrial Vacuums2011<br /><br />
  2. 2. Overview<br /><ul><li>History of Industrial Explosions
  3. 3. What is Combustible Dust?
  4. 4. Who’s at Risk?
  5. 5. Proper Maintenance and Housekeeping Practices
  6. 6. Choosing the Right Industrial Vacuum
  7. 7. Resources</li></ul><br />
  8. 8. History ofIndustrial Explosions<br /><br />
  9. 9. Early Timeline of Events<br />First recorded mill<br />explosion, flour dust,<br />Italy<br />National Fire <br />Protection Assoc. formed (NFPA)<br />1785<br /> late<br />1800s<br />1896<br />Studies of flour<br /> mill explosions<br />begin in US<br /><br />
  10. 10. Early Timeline of Events<br />Coal dust mine<br />explosion, UT<br />NFPA creates <br />Explosive Dust<br />Committee<br />246 dead<br />1900<br />1922<br />early<br />1900s<br />1970<br />Occupational Safety<br />& Health Adm.<br />formed (OSHA)<br />Studies of coal<br />dust explosions<br />begin in US<br /><br />
  11. 11. Recent OSHA investigations<br />February 25, 1999<br />Jahn Foundry<br />Springfield, MA<br />3 dead<br />9 Injured<br />Cause:<br />Explosion of phenolic resin dust accumulated in ventilation ducts<br /><br />
  12. 12. Recent OSHA investigations<br />February 20, 2003<br />CTA Acoustics<br />Corbin, KY<br />7 dead <br />Cause:<br />Explosion of phenolic resin dust accumulated in production area<br /><br />
  13. 13. Recent OSHA investigations<br />February 7, 2008 Imperial Sugar <br />Savannah, GA<br />14 dead, Hundreds injured; $8MM in OSHA fines<br />Cause:<br />Sugar dust accumulated in production areas <br />This explosion led to new standards and policies that would forever change the public’s awareness of the dangers of combustible dust.<br /><br />
  14. 14. Recent ComDust News & Events<br /><ul><li>3/11/ 2008: OSHA issues their National Emphasis Program on Combustible Dust
  15. 15. 10/2009: NEP Status Update
  16. 16. More than 1,000 inspections conducted
  17. 17. More than 4,900 violations pursuant to combustible dust
  18. 18. 20% of violations pertain to housekeeping
  19. 19. 10/21/2009: OSHA publishes advanced notice of proposed rulemaking
  20. 20. 12/2009-4/2010: Combustible dust stakeholder meetings
  21. 21. 4/2011: Initiate SBREFA  (small business impact)
  22. 22. ???: Final Rule</li></ul><br />
  23. 23. What is Combustible Dust?<br /><br />
  24. 24. What is Combustible Dust?<br /><ul><li>At present there is no universal definition for combustible dust.
  25. 25. The OSHA NEP defines it as “particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard when suspended in air or some other oxidizing medium over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shape.”</li></ul><br />
  26. 26. What is Combustible Dust?<br /><ul><li>The NFPA defines it as “any finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or smaller in diameter that presents a fire or explosion hazard when dispersed and ignited in air.”
  27. 27. Most solid organic materials, as well as many metals and some nonmetallic inorganic materials, will burn or explode if finely divided and dispersed in sufficient concentrations.</li></ul><br />
  28. 28. OXYGEN<br />HEAT<br />CONFINEMENT<br />DISPERSION<br />FUEL<br />Dust Explosion Pentagon<br />5 basic elements needed for an explosion:<br />1. Fuel to burn<br /> (combustible dust)<br />2. Oxygen to sustain the<br />fire (air)<br />3. Heat from an ignition<br />source (spark)<br />4. A high concentration of<br /> dust dispersed into the<br /> air (deflagration)<br />5. The dust must be confined<br /> within an enclosure or<br />structure.<br /><br />
  29. 29. Secondary Explosions<br />Enclosed conveyor belt with dust build up on inside<br />Primary explosion from motor sparking creates a dust cloud inside enclosure<br />Dust cloud ignites causing much larger secondary explosion<br /><br />
  30. 30. Is My Dust Combustible?<br /><ul><li>It is up to the manufacturer to know material(s)composition and all applicable laws
  31. 31. MSDS sheets are a starting point, but most do not address combustability.
  32. 32. NFPA standards 664, 654, 499, 484 and 61</li></ul> are helpful resources<br /><ul><li>Ideally, have your dust TESTED
  33. 33. Many states offer consultation through their Department of Labor’s Division of Occupational Safety
  34. 34. Private testing labs (Chilworth, Fike, Gexcon)
  35. 35. OSHA can also provide dust testing</li></ul><br />
  36. 36. Is My Dust Combustible?<br /><ul><li>Ideally, have your dust tested
  37. 37. Many states offer consultation through their Department of Labor’s Division of Occupational Safety eg.
  38. 38. Private testing labs (Chilworth, Fike, Gexcon)
  39. 39. OSHA also provides dust testing</li></ul><br />
  40. 40. Who’s at Risk?<br /><br />
  41. 41. Who’s at Risk?Industries having high incidence of combustible dust issues<br />Food 24%<br />Wood 15%<br />Chemical 12%<br />Metal 8%<br />source OSHA NEP, 2008<br /><br />
  42. 42. Findings from OSHA NEP<br />Fatalities<br />Injuries<br />Incidents<br />Incidents<br />Injuries / Fatalities<br />source OSHA NEP, 2008<br /><br />
  43. 43. OSHA Poster<br /><br />
  44. 44. Proper Maintenance and Housekeeping Practices<br /><br />
  45. 45. Maintenance and Housekeeping<br /><ul><li>Develop and maintain a housekeeping program (OSHA inspectors are checking for this).
  46. 46. Mops, brooms and blow guns push dust around without removing it and can create dangerous dust clouds. Replace them with more effective cleaning tools/practices.
  47. 47. Limit/reduce the amount of </li></ul>overhead horizontal surfaces <br />(racks, piping, ductwork, drop <br />ceilings), which trap dust and<br />are hard to clean.<br /><ul><li>Make sure equipment is </li></ul>grounded to avoid electrical and <br />static sparking.<br /><br />
  48. 48. Maintenance and Housekeeping<br /><ul><li>Utilize vacuums for source capture and as portable suction devices to prevent fugitive dust from accumulating.
  49. 49. Make housekeeping as easy and ergonomic as possible by using lightweight, adjustable tools, </li></ul>flexible hoses and overhead cleaning <br />accessories.<br /><ul><li>Keep dust below 1/32” on horizontal </li></ul>surfaces as directed in OSHA’s NEP.<br /><ul><li>Inspect all equipment (especially </li></ul>older) for possible ignition sources <br />and for needed deflagration venting <br />upgrades.<br /><br />
  50. 50. Choosing the Right Industrial Vacuum<br /><br />
  51. 51. Choosing the Right Industrial Vacuum<br /><ul><li>OSHA NEP raises the issue of using “properly-equipped” industrial vacuums as defined by NFPA 654.
  52. 52. Classed materials may require an “explosion-proof/dust ignition proof” vacuum, as determined by Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
  53. 53. Shop-style vacuums can add to the risk!</li></ul><br />
  54. 54. Industrial Strength Vacuums<br />Filtration<br /><ul><li>Multiple stages/types of filtration
  55. 55. HEPA/ULPA efficiency
  56. 56. Automatic filter cleaning options
  57. 57. Large surface area (Low ATC)</li></ul>Accessories<br /><ul><li>Overhead Cleaning
  58. 58. Confined, hard-to-reach spaces
  59. 59. High-temperature hose and tool options
  60. 60. Conductive tools</li></ul>Features/Benefits<br /><ul><li>Cleanable/shakable filters
  61. 61. Rugged, durable construction
  62. 62. Collection/containment options
  63. 63. Stainless steel, wet/dry models
  64. 64. Ergonomic design for easy</li></ul> transport and disposal<br /><br />
  65. 65. Electric Hazardous Location Vacuums<br />Electric vacuums certified as Explosion Proof/Dust-<br />Ignition Proof by a Nationally Recognized Testing Lab<br /><ul><li>CSA, UL, ETL
  66. 66. EXP rated TEFC motors
  67. 67. EXP rated sealed switches/connections
  68. 68. Internally/externally grounded (filters, body, </li></ul> tank, wheels, etc.)<br /><ul><li>Conductive hose and accessories</li></ul>Beware of posers!<br /><ul><li>Some companies offer “dressed up”</li></ul> models with antistatic accessories<br />Remember, investing in the proper equipment is only one part of<br />the equation. Inspect your facility to ensure you have proper<br />safety measures in place, including Explosion Prevention <br />(NFPA 69) and Deflagration Venting devices (NFPA 68).<br /><br />
  69. 69. Pneumatic Hazardous Location Vacuums<br /><ul><li>Powered by compressed air (Venturi principle)
  70. 70. No electrical components
  71. 71. No moving parts
  72. 72. Used when electricity is prohibited or unavailable</li></ul>Air-operated Explosion Proof<br /><ul><li> Meet the requirements for use in Class II areas
  73. 73. Made of non-sparking materials
  74. 74. Outfitted with conductive hose/accessories
  75. 75. Grounded (bonded)</li></ul><br />
  76. 76. Common HazLoc Applications<br />Industry: Aircraft Manuf., Maintenance and Refurb.<br />Location: Aircraft Hanger<br /> (Military Base)<br />Application: Dust recovery from sanding aluminum aircraft bodies. Combination of Class II, Group E (aluminum dust) being collected in a Class I, Group D rated area<br />(presence of jet fuel)<br /><br />
  77. 77. Common HazLoc Applications<br />Industry: Paper<br />Location: Ceiling rafters and HVAC piping system.<br />Application: Vacuuming dust from overhead piping. Class II, Group G area.<br /><br />
  78. 78. Common HazLoc Applications<br />Industry: Aircraft Manuf., Maintenance and Refurb.<br />Location: Aircraft Hanger<br /> (Military Base)<br />Application: Vacuuming up flammable fuel spill in Class I, Group D area using a combination “wet/dry”<br />hazardous location vacuum<br /><br />
  79. 79. Overhead Cleaning<br /><ul><li> Conductive hose and accessories
  80. 80. Lightweight flexible hose
  81. 81. Lightweight extension wands
  82. 82. Colored pipe nozzles
  83. 83. Wall nozzles </li></ul><br />
  84. 84. Resources<br />OSHA resources:<br />Combustible Dust NEP: <br /><br />Fact Sheet: <br /><br />Poster: <br /><br />NFPA resources:<br /> NFPA 654Standard for the Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions from the Manufacturing, Processing, and Handling of Combustible Particulate Solids <br /><br />FREE NFPA Codes:<br /><ul><li>Click on “codes and standards,” then on the left hand side click “List of NFPA codes and standards.” Choose the standard you want to view.
  85. 85. Choose “view the standard online.”
  86. 86. You will be prompted to log-in or create an account. Follow the prompts to create an account. Once you validate your email address, you’ll be able to view electronic versions of the codes for free.</li></ul><br />
  87. 87. Resources<br />Other resources:<br />Authorities Having Jurisdiction: <br /><br />Combustible Dust Policy Institute:<br /><br />Nilfisk Industrial Vacuums EXP microsite:<br /><br /><br />