Chapter 5 Information Systemsin Business: Software
Learning Objectives• When you finish this chapter, you will:  – Understand why managers must keep abreast    of software d...
Learning Objectives– Know the strengths and weaknesses of  tailored software vs. off-the-shelf software.– Be able to cite ...
Software: Instructions         to the Computer• A computer program is a series of instructions  to a computer to execute a...
Programming Languages• Programming languages – Abbreviated forms of instructions that   translate into machine language – ...
Programming Languages                    Figure 5.1                    The evolution of                    programming    ...
Programming Languages• Machine Languages (ML) – Only languages computers can directly   interpret to carry out instruction...
Programming Languages• Assembly Languages – More English-like; codes shorter than   machine languages – Assembler translat...
Programming LanguagesFigure 5.2 The instruction “ADD 2 and 5 and assign the result to variabley” written in different prog...
Programming Languages• Procedural Languages  – Third-generation (procedural) languages are    more English-like than assem...
Programming Languages• Fourth Generation Languages (4GL)  – 4GLs are more English-like than procedural    languages.  – Pr...
Programming Languages• Visual Programming  – Languages that let programmers create field    windows, scroll-down menus, cl...
Programming Languages• Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)  – Emphasis on the objects involved in the task,    not on the pr...
Programming LanguagesFigure 5.3 Advantages of object-oriented programming (OOP) over procedurallanguages                  ...
Programming Languages                                        15       Figure 5.4 The object EMPLOYEE
Programming LanguagesFigure 5.5 Advantages and disadvantages of higher-levelprogramming languages                         ...
Programming LanguagesApplication Software vs. System Software  • Application: a program developed to    address a specific...
Application Software• Application-specific programs  – Programs designed to perform specific jobs• General-purpose program...
Application Software• Custom-Designed Applications  – Advantages:    • Meeting the organization’s needs exactly    • In-ho...
Application SoftwareFigure 5.6 Advantages and disadvantages of custom applications                                        ...
Application Software• Packaged Software  – Advantages:    • Low cost    • High quality    • Vendor support    • Immediate ...
Application SoftwareFigure 5.7 Advantages and disadvantages of packaged software   22
Applications Software• Packaged General Purpose Software  – Word processors  – Electronic spreadsheets  – Database managem...
Packaged Software             Figure 5.8 Electronic             spreadsheets are powerful             tools for (a) tabula...
Packaged Software• Multimedia  – Can handle many different types of data    such as text, voice, and image.  – Powerful me...
Packaged Software• Virtual Reality (VR)  – Mimics sensory reality.  – Some sophisticated VR software includes use    of go...
System Software• Manages computer resources and  performs routine tasks not specific to  any application  – Copying and pa...
System Software• Operating Systems (O/S)  – Most important system software    • Developed for a certain microprocessor or ...
System SoftwareFigure 5.9 The operating system mediates between applications and thecomputer, and controls peripheral devi...
System SoftwareFigure 5.10 Computers operate on a number of layers, starting fromthe user interface and moving inward to t...
System Software                                        31Figure 5.11 Popular operating systems
System Software– Operating System Functions  • Systems Management  • User Interface  • Memory Allocation  • Multitasking, ...
System Software• Compilers and Interpreters  – Compiler    • Scans source code and translates into object code    • Genera...
System SoftwareFigure 5.12 A compiler converts higher-level language code (sourcecode) into machine language (object code)...
System Software• Data Communication Programs – Controls and supports data   communication activities in a network   • Sett...
System Software• Proprietary vs. Open Source  – Proprietary O/S: limited to using applications    compatible with it  – Op...
Considerations in Purchasing         Software                   Figure 5.13 Sample software                   evaluation f...
Considerations in Purchasing         SoftwareFigure 5.14 Sample results of software evaluation (5 is the highest score.)  ...
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Software

  1. 1. Chapter 5 Information Systemsin Business: Software
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• When you finish this chapter, you will: – Understand why managers must keep abreast of software developments. – Recognize the different generations of programming languages and how they differ. – Understand the difference between application software and system software. 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives– Know the strengths and weaknesses of tailored software vs. off-the-shelf software.– Be able to cite the latest major developments in application and system software.– Recognize characteristics that are important in evaluating packaged software application for business use. 3
  4. 4. Software: Instructions to the Computer• A computer program is a series of instructions to a computer to execute any and all processes.• Computers only “understand” instructions consisting of electrical signals alternating between two states. 4
  5. 5. Programming Languages• Programming languages – Abbreviated forms of instructions that translate into machine language – New programming languages make programming easier for people who are not necessarily hardware experts 5
  6. 6. Programming Languages Figure 5.1 The evolution of programming languages 6
  7. 7. Programming Languages• Machine Languages (ML) – Only languages computers can directly interpret to carry out instructions – String of ‘0s’ and ‘1s’ for a machine language instruction – ML coding: time-consuming and error-prone – ML programmers: concerned with hardware details – Every computer or family of computers has its 7 own ML; each is machine-dependent.
  8. 8. Programming Languages• Assembly Languages – More English-like; codes shorter than machine languages – Assembler translates into machine language – Advantages of machine or assembly languages • Programmer in control of hardware • Programs written in low-level languages run more efficiently. 8
  9. 9. Programming LanguagesFigure 5.2 The instruction “ADD 2 and 5 and assign the result to variabley” written in different programming languages 9
  10. 10. Programming Languages• Procedural Languages – Third-generation (procedural) languages are more English-like than assembly languages. – Programmers focus on the procedure of the application problem at hand. – Some languages are standardized or portable. – Relatively easy to learn, write, and debug. – FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC – Requires compiling and linking to test 10
  11. 11. Programming Languages• Fourth Generation Languages (4GL) – 4GLs are more English-like than procedural languages. – Programmer only has to select an action without having to specify the action’s formula or procedure. – Easy to learn and use; shorter application development time. – PowerBuilder, FOCUS, NOMAD, and RAMIS 11
  12. 12. Programming Languages• Visual Programming – Languages that let programmers create field windows, scroll-down menus, click buttons, etc., by choosing from a palette – Appropriate code written automatically – Integrated programming environment – Accelerates work – Microsoft’s Visual Basic 12
  13. 13. Programming Languages• Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) – Emphasis on the objects involved in the task, not on the procedure. – An object encapsulates a data set with the code that is used to operate on it. – Standardized programming modules can be reused. – Applications can be rapidly developed with appropriate objects from an object library. 13
  14. 14. Programming LanguagesFigure 5.3 Advantages of object-oriented programming (OOP) over procedurallanguages 14
  15. 15. Programming Languages 15 Figure 5.4 The object EMPLOYEE
  16. 16. Programming LanguagesFigure 5.5 Advantages and disadvantages of higher-levelprogramming languages 16
  17. 17. Programming LanguagesApplication Software vs. System Software • Application: a program developed to address a specific business need; software for development of such programs. • System: programs designed to carry out general routine operations, such as loading, copying, or deleting a file. 17
  18. 18. Application Software• Application-specific programs – Programs designed to perform specific jobs• General-purpose programs – Usable for different purposes 18
  19. 19. Application Software• Custom-Designed Applications – Advantages: • Meeting the organization’s needs exactly • In-house developers are sensitive to the organizational culture – Disadvantages: • High cost • Production schedule subject to long delays • Incompatible with other organizations’ 19 systems
  20. 20. Application SoftwareFigure 5.6 Advantages and disadvantages of custom applications 20
  21. 21. Application Software• Packaged Software – Advantages: • Low cost • High quality • Vendor support • Immediate availability – Often tested at user sites (alpha sites and beta sites) before the final version is released. 21
  22. 22. Application SoftwareFigure 5.7 Advantages and disadvantages of packaged software 22
  23. 23. Applications Software• Packaged General Purpose Software – Word processors – Electronic spreadsheets – Database management systems 23
  24. 24. Packaged Software Figure 5.8 Electronic spreadsheets are powerful tools for (a) tabulation, (b) manipulation, and (c) data analysis. 24
  25. 25. Packaged Software• Multimedia – Can handle many different types of data such as text, voice, and image. – Powerful means of communicating. – Uses include education, training, research, and business. 25
  26. 26. Packaged Software• Virtual Reality (VR) – Mimics sensory reality. – Some sophisticated VR software includes use of goggles, gloves, earphones, and a moving base. – Business use of VR is expected to grow dramatically for design and testing of new products, and for marketing. 26
  27. 27. System Software• Manages computer resources and performs routine tasks not specific to any application – Copying and pasting sections and files – Printing documents – Controlling hardware functions – Allocating memory• Developed to partner with application software 27
  28. 28. System Software• Operating Systems (O/S) – Most important system software • Developed for a certain microprocessor or microprocessors • Addresses technical details such as registers and RAM addresses. • Plays the role of “traffic cop” or the “boss” of computer resources. 28
  29. 29. System SoftwareFigure 5.9 The operating system mediates between applications and thecomputer, and controls peripheral devices. 29
  30. 30. System SoftwareFigure 5.10 Computers operate on a number of layers, starting fromthe user interface and moving inward to the hardware. 30
  31. 31. System Software 31Figure 5.11 Popular operating systems
  32. 32. System Software– Operating System Functions • Systems Management • User Interface • Memory Allocation • Multitasking, Multiprogramming, and Multiprocessing • Times and Statistics • Increasing Services from O/Ss 32
  33. 33. System Software• Compilers and Interpreters – Compiler • Scans source code and translates into object code • Generates error message and does not compile when an error is found • Allows users to save programs in object code – Interpreter • Checks one statement at a times • Converts into object code and executes 33
  34. 34. System SoftwareFigure 5.12 A compiler converts higher-level language code (sourcecode) into machine language (object code), which the computer canprocess. 34
  35. 35. System Software• Data Communication Programs – Controls and supports data communication activities in a network • Setting up rules that govern transmission and reception of data • Connecting and disconnecting communication links • Assigning priorities among terminals in a network • Detecting and correcting transmission errors 35
  36. 36. System Software• Proprietary vs. Open Source – Proprietary O/S: limited to using applications compatible with it – Open O/S: compatible with virtually all applications. • Completely open O/S does not exist – Some O/Ss (e.g., Unix) are said to be nonproprietary, but it is still impossible to run many applications on different versions of such O/Ss. 36
  37. 37. Considerations in Purchasing Software Figure 5.13 Sample software evaluation form 37
  38. 38. Considerations in Purchasing SoftwareFigure 5.14 Sample results of software evaluation (5 is the highest score.) 38

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