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A visit to local Math Museum: Using tablets creatively in classroom

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Tablets with their simple interface, portability, speed, affordability and their variety of apps are quickly moving into schools across Europe and a growing number of teachers are experimenting with tablets or are interested in doing so. In the context of monitoring the MOOC “Creative use of Tablets in Schools” provided by the European Schoolnet Academy, the final activity was to create a lesson or a project plan. To design the lesson plan we used a very nice tool called the “Learning
Designer” which was developed by the London Institute of Education. According the Scenario student will visit the local Math Museum during Mathematical Week and create Augmented Reality posters for the school. From the implementation of this scenario students will come in contact with the beauty of mathematics, its history and get to know great mathematicians and their works.

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A visit to local Math Museum: Using tablets creatively in classroom

  1. 1. Πρακτικά Εργασιών 1ου Διεθνούς Βιωματικού Συνεδρίου Εφαρμοσμένης Διδακτικής, Δράμα, 27-29 Νοεμβρίου 2015 1o Διεθνές Βιωματικό Συνέδριο Εφαρμοσμένης Διδακτικής A visit to local Math Museum: Using tablets creatively in classroom Νικόλαος Μανάρας 1 nikomanara@sch.gr 1 Μαθηματικός 2 ου ΓΕΛ ΑΓ. ΑΘΑΝΑΣΙΟΥ Abstract Tablets with their simple interface, portability, speed, affordability and their variety of apps are quickly moving into schools across Europe and a growing number of teachers are experimenting with tablets or are interested in doing so. In the context of monitoring the MOOC “Creative use of Tablets in Schools” provided by the European Schoolnet Academy, the final activity was to create a lesson or a project plan. To design the lesson plan we used a very nice tool called the “Learning Designer” which was developed by the London Institute of Education. According the Scenario student will visit the local Math Museum during Mathematical Week and create Augmented Reality posters for the school. From the implementation of this scenario students will come in contact with the beauty of mathematics, its history and get to know great mathematicians and their works. Key words: Tablets, Augmented Reality, Aurasma, History of Math. Α. Teaching plan Α1 General features characteristics The general idea is to get students involved with mathematics but not by solving routine exercises. Students will get to know historical moments of mathematics, great mathematicians as well as important theories. The scenario doesn’t begin and finish in the Math museum, the most important thing is the preparation before the visit and after it. Students come into contact with knowledge not with frontal teaching or lecture, but conquer knowledge working in groups and using their creativity to create augmented posters as a guide and analysis to share with the rest of the school. The ICT are present in every phase of the scenario. Choosing the right technology tool each time helps cooperation among students to achieve the final product through their creativity. The project is aimed at 24 high school students (6 groups of 4 students each). The length of time required for implementation of the project in real conditions is 1230 minutes, or about 28 hours of 40 or 45’, that is 14 weeks with two hours a week, so the project will last 3.5 months. Times came so precise with the use of the Leaning Designer. Β. Presentation Β1 Aims From the implementation of this project students will be able to give biography of great mathematician. -Students will be able to identify important theorems. -Students will be able to explain historical context of math works. - Students will have a group discussion discussing a particular math work and will be able to categorize into their correct genres such as definition, request, finding, theorem, proof, conjecture, unsolved problems, etc. -Students will be able to describe particular similarities and differences in math works during centuries and in different civilization. Students will create Posters to be part of an augmented reality exposition at school. The exposition will be called: A visit to local Math Museum. 6 posters will be created. These posters are going to be the physical support to multimedia artifacts created or uploaded by students (videos, PowerPoint presentations, etc.). Aurasma application will be used to link the physical objects in the posters (stamps, photos, drawings, etc.) to the multimedia presentations. Β2 Outcomes Expectations from the implementation of teaching: Knowledge: Learners will discover significant periods of mathematics, will “meet” great mathematicians, their main mathematics results and its applications. Knowledge: Describes math artifacts of great mathematicians.
  2. 2. 2 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη Comprehension: Deeper comprehension about different periods of math history, about mathematical thinking through the way great mathematician worked and created. Analysis: Compare (and contrast): Tells the difference between math periods. Psychomotor skills: Makes videos. Evaluation: Reflecting on what to do, telling problems and what is done. Synthesis: Design posters. Analysis: Critique others work. Application: Demonstrates successful use of web tools. Synthesis: Organize information. Analysis: Analyze information about mathematical content and about ICT tools to produce the augmented reality exposition. Β3 Theoretical framework During planning of this project we took into account theories of tutoring mathematics and effective use of ICT in classroom. The theory of Constructivism (with main representatives Piaget, Dienes, Singlair) includes three basic ideas for the learning of mathematics: Students devise personal methods of solving mathematical problems. The learning of mathematics takes place through solving problems. The role of the social group for learning is crucial. With regard to the first idea of construction theory, it has been observed that the students prefer to invent and construct their own ways of solving mathematical problems, in spite of following the instructions of teachers. On the second idea of constructivism, it is a fact that the situations which the trainees find problematic attract much interest. The theory of constructivism gives finally much emphasis on the role and contribution of the social group in the construction of knowledge. The difference of ideas and opinions of team members causing instability, resulting in possible reorganization of prior knowledge and conquest of new within an environment of communication and cooperation. The Socio-cultural approach or theory of personality (Vygotsky). Humans by nature are curious and constantly learning so that knowledge and learning not only acquired within the school environment. The reasons for someone to learn are notable for everyone and are powerful factor learning, so it is necessary to have goals and objectives and learning methodology. The motivation to learn on the one hand related to filling the deepest needs, and on the other to achieve some objectives on the values of a society, we learn in interaction with other people. Important role in this played by the language in which inherent cultural characteristics of the individual. Learning is best achieved when the student becomes responsible for his own personal mental development. Learning that with intellect and emotions involves not only lasts long, but also penetrates virtually everyone by changing him. Effective learning of the mathematical object is a more the most complex processes also to achieve certain preconditions must be met. The main principles which should govern the teaching of Mathematics for effective learning are: The child, in order to learn, first of all has the will and showing interest in learning the subject. The primary role of the teacher is to adjust the object to the needs, interests, aptitudes and abilities of student, in order to motivate to pay attention. Learning is a process of reorganization of prior knowledge and construction of the new. To learn the student is very important that the process to amend the old knowledge be made through experiences related to learning object. Essential component of effective learning is also active student participation. For this reason there must be freedom of thought and expression, good relationship between the child and the teacher, etc. An authority that contributes to effective learning and that every teacher should have in mind is the personal way of learning of every one. The teacher must not impose a model of learning style, but to encourage and strengthen that of each trainee. Also, the individual rate of learning, each student has to be taken into account by the teacher, who in turn must modify and adapt his lesson at the speeds learning of children. About the question of what distinguishes Tablets from devices previously used in schools can partly be answered by looking at what distinguishes mobile technology from other technologies. A UNESCO report (Shuler, Winters et al. 2013) defines mobile learning as learning using mobile technologies such as mobile phones, smartphones, e- readers and Tablets, and argues that these devices offer ‘unparalleled access to communication and information’. The report further argues that the increased affordability and functionality of mobile technology compared to technologies previously used in schools means they can support learning in new ways. Ubiquitous access to technology is recognized by UNESCO as facilitating more personalized learning, benefiting especially children with learning difficulties. Increased affordability of the devices and the option to reduce printing were associated with potential cost savings. In addition to affordability and functionality, an important element in the popularity of mobile devices is their portable nature. This means that the technology can be used outside the classroom, potentially facilitating what has been termed ‘anytime, anywhere learning’ or seamless learning (Sha, Looi et al. 2011; Wong 2012; van 't Hooft 2013). It has been argued that access to a personal device and the portable nature of mobile technology
  3. 3. 3 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη allow learners to build links between school and everyday life, bridge formal and informal learning contexts, and transcend the limitations of their immediate environment (Seipold and Pachler 2011; Wong 2012; Shuler, Winters et al. 2013) Mobile technology is believed to facilitate access to personalized learning content (Sha, Looi et al. 2011; Shuler, Winters et al. 2013). Along with the ability to learn outside traditional classroom settings, this is argued to support independent learning and the development of metacognitive skills or ‘learning to learn’ skills in young learners (Sha, Looi et al. 2011; Kearney, Schuck et al. 2012; Wong 2012). Wong argues that access to mobile technology allows students to design their own learning contexts in terms of when, where and how they feel they learn best, and learning thereby becomes increasingly self-directed. Kearney, Schuck et al. (2012) reviewed over 30 case studies of mobile technology use in education and found personalization to be one of three main benefits, alongside collaboration and authenticity. Although the authors do not highlight one-to-one access, it appears that this is important to achieve the degree of independence described by this pedagogical framework. Personalization is, according to Kearney, Schuck et al. (2012), a result both of being able to adapt learning content and activities to suit the individual learner’s needs, and of the sense of agency and independence the student feels from being able to customize his or her own learning. Authenticity in this context means that the learning can be contextualized in ways that make the lessons relevant to the student, and it is therefore linked with this personalized approach to learning. Thanks to the ease of accessing emails and messaging applications using mobile devices, researchers have noted improved communication between teachers and students as well as increased opportunities for feedback and continual assessment (Shuler, Winters et al. 2013). According to Snell and Snell-Siddle (2013), enhanced mobile communication and feedback can lead to greater student motivation and greater understanding of the learning process. West (2013) similarly argues that ongoing digital assessment can give students opportunities to reflect on their learning progress and therefore support greater student autonomy. Collaboration is highlighted by Kearney, Schuck et al. (2012) as the third main benefit of mobile learning in addition to personalization and authenticity. Collaboration is defined as the ability to engage in discussions about learning which are supported by technology, as well as the ability to transfer and collaborate on content. This degree of collaboration is facilitated by a personalized approach to learning where all students have access to mobile technology. According to van’t Hooft (2013), mobile devices support collaborative learning thanks to their high mobility (i.e. they are small enough to be carried in one hand) and their small form factor (in other words, they are unobtrusive and do not interfere with face-to-face interaction). Van’t Hooft further points to the accessibility of mobile devices (ease of use and ability to turn on instantly), the ability to create, access and display information in multiple modalities (text, video, audio, graphics) and the ability to communicate and share information; these are cited as other facilities of mobile technology that support collaboration between students and between students and teachers. One of the arguments for adopting mobile learning is that young people have access to and use mobile technology seamlessly in their individual lives, and that they will increasingly expect to have access to instant communication and personalized content in school (West 2013). Others, however, have warned against introducing mobile technology ‘just’ because students will expect it (Kinash, Brand et al. 2012). It has also been argued that students’ perceptions of using mobile technology will differ greatly and that teachers must incorporate mobile technology alongside other methods of teaching in order to reach all students (Snell and Snell-Siddle 2013). Van’t Hooft (2013) argues that pressures on educational institutions to allow the same kind of access to technology will continue to increase, and sees it as logical that teachers and students take advantage of mobile devices. He also argues, however, that integrating mobile technology requires making changes to education in order for mobile learning to be ‘meaningful, effective and safe’ (van't Hooft 2013). Digital tools have the ability to enhance these educational technologies of the self. But we need to make sure that these tools are also aligned with learning outcomes which prioritize human dignity rather than haste, consumption, and algorithmic metrics (Jordan Shapiro 2014). Β4-5 Teaching Techniques – Evaluation, Teaching-Learning activities Introduction Produce 45 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Teacher creates Project wiki. Teacher’s instructions, videos, photos, rubrics, tools and all media files presented on the project wiki. The project wiki link is shared in school website. Students use these wikis for their collaboration, sharing and communication. Edmodo account is created and used for project management, communication and sharing the work done on project wiki with other communities. After the teams are formed, project groups are created. Also, parent accounts are created to share anything about the project. Teacher collaborates with ICT teacher to design the scenario. Read Watch Listen 30 minutes 24 students Tutor is available
  4. 4. 4 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη Inspiring Teacher gives students the design brief. School director visits the classroom and asks students to design a poster for school students to inform about the math museum. It will address basic elements of math to help in knowledge and analysis the history of math. They are grouped with TeamUP tool. Links of student group wiki's are added to the project wiki by teacher after the session. REFLECT –Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their reflection. Reflections can be done at home. Read Watch Listen 25 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Teacher familiarizes students with the math museum. Students watch videos of math museum with history of math and about great mathematicians. All the media’s and information’s are embedded on the main project wiki. They plan to visit math museum. Read Watch Listen 80 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Augmented Reality app Aurasma, Popplet, Canva, Padlet, Edmodo are introduced to the students in the class. They watch tutorials how to use these tools. They are embedded on project wiki for the students to learn from them in their own pace at home. All the instructions presented on the project wiki. Students can get any help using Edmodo any time. Practice 80 minutes 4 students Tutor is available They make a poster of the group using Canva and printed. They are allowed to make their self-Aura with their photo introducing themselves. They record their video introducing themselves and use as overlay. Their posters are also uploaded on their wiki. Discuss 45 minutes 4 students Tutor is not available Teacher will provide to each group some indications of what are the contents of each poster: Your group will create a Poster to be exposed in the school about History of Math. The poster must have (at least) these five components: 1. who are we? (You may create a video to present your group to the school) 2. The period of investigation (You may create a video or share some digital content that presents the period: 1st Period: Greek Mathematics, 2nd period: Arab’s & India’s Mathematics, 3rd period: Middle Ages & Renaissance, 4th period: 17th- 18th century, 5th period: 19th – 20th century, 6th period: 21st century) 3. Biography of at least three great mathematicians of that period and why did you choose them. (You may create a video or share some digital content) For example: Pythagoras, Fibonacci, Newton, Euler, Gauss, Hilbert, and Perelman 4. Significant Theorem’s or substantial work of them (You can find some information about them in the internet or you can simply consult your library books. You can create a video explaining them. Use GeoGebra software to present a theorem (http://www.geogebra.org/cms/pt_BR/), record your geometric construction using screen recorder software (like ZD Soft screen recorder). Then you can use the Movie Maker to produce your video and to put your explanation in it (using for instance windows sound recorder)). 5. How can we use these theorems to solve real- life problems or pure mathematical problems? (You can search in the internet for possible applications of these theorems but it can be very helpful if you could explain how to solve some problems of your own text book.) Good Luck! In their groups students have to read it and to discuss ideas about their future work. Collaborate 45 minutes 4 students Tutor is not available Each group will use Popplet in this stage to generate ideas and to start planning their posters. It will be important that students discuss task division in the groups, making substantial decisions about the content, the process and the products. Discuss minutes 1 students Tutor is not available REFLECT –Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their reflection. Reflections can be done at home. Math and ICT teacher decide on the design scenario. Reflections throughout the activities are mainly about: What did you do? What will you do? What are the problems? Dream Collaborate 60 minutes 4 students Tutor is available Teacher asks groups “why is mathematically important the period your team is investigating?”, "how to categorize, analyze and describe math artifacts". Then they investigate it with online tools and discuss. They send post it notes of their ideas to Padlet on the Smart Board or Projector. Teacher expectation is: 1. Give short description of the math period. 2. Give short biographies of mathematicians of that period. 3. Explain the context of math in the mathematician's life and work 4. Explain historical and geographical context of math artifacts 5.Categorize into their correct genres such as definition, request, finding, theorem, proof, conjecture, unsolved problems, etc. 6. Describe particular similarities and differences in math works during centuries and in different civilization. Investigate 60 minutes 4 students Tutor is available
  5. 5. 5 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη They brainstorm and use mind mapping Popplet to organize all their ideas into categories. Each group picks a period according to their preferences. They come into a conclusion why their period is important, they conclude with whom mathematician’s biography will focus and about how to categorize, analyze and describe their math artifacts. Each group presents their Popplet they have created to the classroom. Popplets are shared on their wikis. Discuss minutes 1 students Tutor is not available REFLECT –Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their first reflection. Groups share their thoughts on it, suggesting additions and alterations. Explore Investigate 145 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Groups visit the math museum accompanying with their teacher. They select material or other math artifacts they have decided before. They take guided notes, videos and photos of stamps with the math artifacts or the mathematicians with their mobile phones, tablets or cameras. Discuss minutes 1 students Tutor is not available REFLECT –Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their reflection. Collaborate 45 minutes 4 students Tutor is not available They upload all media to their wiki. They organize their media with Popplet. The teacher invites some experts from the local math community with math teachers from school that discusses with the students and gives them ideas and feedback on the work. Discuss minutes 1 students Tutor is available REFLECT –Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their reflection. Making the multimedia artifacts Collaborate 100 minutes 4 students Tutor is available Each group evaluates the data they have collected and decides on the text how to analyze and describe each of their work. The images are uploaded to Canva to create their posters and printed. They write the script of the videos they are going to create. They share and present them to class. Teacher invites math teachers in the class for commenting on the first draft. Students share all the work on their wiki and communicate on Edmodo any time. Discuss 18 minutes 4 students Tutor is available Participants comment on the reflection and development of the students work. Produce 120 minutes 4 students Tutor is available RECORDING VIDEOS-Groups make videos of each work using the script. Every student in a group presents part of their period, a great mathematician and significant work of him analyzing it, while it is done one of the student records her/him. They can make it outside of the class. They upload the videos in a playlist in YouTube and embed on their wiki, share in Edmodo and discuss. All students watch the videos uploaded and comment on them, suggesting alterations that could improve the work. Students will be creating those artifacts making their own choices, sharing responsibilities. Teacher will support students wherever they need. Discuss minutes 1 students Tutor is not available REFLECT – Each group of students uses ReFlex to record their reflection. Produce 45 minutes 4 students Tutor is available MAKING AURAS- Groups uploaded videos to Aurasma Studio as overlays and images of great mathematicians and math artifacts printed before as trigger image. When the Aura played, viewers could see and hear his/her explain about the period and why was important, who were the great mathematicians and their works analyzed by the students. Groups make their final posters including all the images designed with Canva. Discuss 60 minutes 1 students Tutor is available In Edmodo students and teacher share, discuss and reflect about the teams' work. Teacher will establish 10minutes meetings in Skype with each one of the teams (in different moments) to support and to give feedback about each teams' work.
  6. 6. 6 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη Creating the posters Investigate 15 minutes 4 students Tutor is available Students in their groups will discuss and choose which physical objects are going to be incorporated in the posters and they will make the connection with the multimedia presentations using Aurasma application. Practice 60 minutes 24 students Tutor is not available Students from different groups will be testing the different posters in order to comment each groups´ work and to make possible suggestions (the multimedia objects produced by the groups will be available in google drive) Discuss 20 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Teacher and students reflect about their work and discuss the criteria based in which the posters will be evaluated. Ask and Collaborate Discuss 45 minutes 5 students Tutor is available Group Posters are presented to the class and commented on them. Math teacher evaluate and comments on the reflection and development of the students. He suggests alterations that could improve the work. Showing their work Produce 42 minutes 24 students Tutor is available Groups upload their video stories to an online video sharing platform YouTube and link to them through Edmodo group. Anyone who is visiting school website could see the videos. Posters are put on the bulletin board in the hallway of the school. Parents and all teachers are invited to the show. Discuss 45 minutes 24 students Tutor is available REFLECT – Students comments, the reflection recordings of the students, their documentation as well as the feedback recorded throughout the Learning Story to assess their work. Β6 Means and teaching materials The Learning Designer is a very nice tool, which was developed by the London Institute of Education, to help teachers plan their teaching. It does this by asking you to think about the learning experiences you are planning for your students so they meet their learning outcomes. http://learningdesigner.org/ Edmodo is a free educational social learning network that enables teachers to share content, distribute quizzes, assignments, and manage communication with students, colleagues, and parents. https://www.edmodo.com/ TeamUP is a very interesting tool for teachers to divide the students into small groups. An intelligent tool that creates teams of students based on tags that can be added to the students name in order to form groups that are well balanced for collaborative learning. http://teamup.aalto.fi/ ReFlex is a Vintage Photo Editor and Video Camera App on AppStore, with Quick and Easy editing tools and Industry Film Coloring Standard to simulate the vintage photos. https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/reflex-vintage- camera-photo/id612498996?mt=8 Aurasma is a tool to use for augmented reality instructional videos to personalize the learning. It’s an app that lets you create and share your own augmented reality experiences and also offers opportunities for education as well. http://www.aurasma.com/#/explore Popplet is a web 2.0 tool that allows users to express, organize ideas and at the same time creating a virtual whiteboard. In the classroom and at home, students use Popplet for collaborative learning. Used as a mind-map, Popplet helps students think and learn visually. Students can capture facts, thoughts, and images and learn to create relationships between them. https://popplet.com/ Canva is a tool that makes design simple for everyone. Canva gives you everything you need to easily turn ideas into stunning designs. Create designs for Web or print: blog graphics, presentations, flyers, posters, invitations and so much more. Canva makes it easy to work with others, letting you share and edit your designs with family, friends and coworkers. https://www.canva.com/ Padlet is an online virtual “bulletin” board, where students and teachers can collaborate, reflect, and share links and pictures, in a secure location. https://el.padlet.com/auth/login GeoGebra is dynamic mathematics software for all levels of education that brings together geometry, algebra, spreadsheets, graphing, statistics and calculus in one easy-to-use package. GeoGebra is a rapidly expanding
  7. 7. 7 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη community of millions of users located in just about every country. GeoGebra has become the leading provider of dynamic mathematics software, supporting science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and innovations in teaching and learning worldwide. http://www.geogebra.org/cms/pt_BR/ The Windows Movie Maker is software that enables the creation movies with titles, effects, transitions, music and narration Β7 Research The above project has not been implemented yet, but there are studies that demonstrate the positive impact the use of tablets has in classroom, which is why we provide research-based literature demonstrating the positive results of the implementation of this teaching method in practice. In his research study Hasan Hüseyin Aksu came out with some significant findings on tablet to be used in mathematics classes as an outcome of the Fatih Project. The advantages of using a tablet in mathematics would be “It could make mathematics course more enjoyable with visuals and animations”, “It could facilitate the perception of abstract concepts in mathematics” and “It could increase the interest of students in mathematics”. On the other hand, there might be some disadvantages: “It could lessen the communication between students and mathematics teachers”, “It could decrease social interaction between students” and “It could encourage students for a ready-made knowledge in mathematics courses”, (Aksu, H. H.2014). Also within the Creative Classroom Lab (CCL) project, CCL teachers in Austria, Italy and Slovenia implemented the CCL Learning Scenario „Collaboration & Assessment“. This case study focuses on collaborative work with students and how to form groups, assess group work and supporting group work and their assessment with tablets. Collaborative work teaches students important 21st century skills. They learn to work together and to meet project deadlines. They also learn to cooperate with different class mates and to deal with difficulties that can arise when working with others. Students generally enjoy group work, as producing their own product together can be a very engaging learning experience. The students can be creative and create different products on the same task. One general concern that CCL teachers had with group work and it’s assessment was that both tasks are very time consuming. In particular with a big class, it can be challenging for the teacher to guide each group in their work. Equally, the assessment of the work can be time consuming, as the teacher might have to assess very different outcomes of the group work. Ideally, the teacher should take the time to discuss the grades with the students but that is often not feasible. Teacher decides if the focus of the assessment of the given group task is on the outcome of the group work (e.g. a presentation) or the process (e.g. on how well did the group work together). If all teams produce the same product, the process is more important than the product itself. He also included his students in setting the criteria for the assessment. In the beginning, students found it very difficult to understand the task and to come up with criteria themselves. However, learning to agree on assessment criteria and to give feedback are important new skills for students. Criteria set up were, for example, the subject content covered, the product and design and its timely delivery. CCL teachers found tablets to be useful for students to use during the group work. Tablets can also be useful to accessself-assessment questionnaires online. Such online questionnaires allow for immediate evaluation. Otherwise, evaluating a higher number of questionnaires filled in on paper can be quite time consuming for the teacher. Another possibility is to use the tablet to take photos of the several steps of the group work to document the process. Finally, mobile devices can also support online collaboration between students from different classes. Β8 References Aksu, H. H. (2014). An Evaluation into the Views of Candidate Mathematics Teachers over‘ Tablet Computers’ to be Applied in Secondary Schools. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 13(1), 47–55. Correspondent, S. C. B. N. education. (χ.χ.). Tablet computers in ‘70% of schools’. Ανακτήθηκε 18 Απρίλιος 2015, από http://www.bbc.com/news/education-30216408 ELT, O. U. P. (χ.χ.). White paper on Tablets and Apps in School. Ανακτήθηκε από http://oupeltglobalblog.com/2014/01/22/white-paper-on-tablets-and-apps-in-school/ Clarke, B., & Svanaes, S. (2014). An updated literature review on the use of tablets in education. Retrieved January, 21, 2015. Dundar, H., & Akcayir, M.(2012). Tablet vs. Paper: the effect on learners’ reading performance. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(3), 441–450. You Are Asking The Wrong Questions About Education Technology. (χ.χ.). Ανακτήθηκε 16 Απρίλιος 2015, από http://www.forbes.com/sites/jordanshapiro/2014/09/20/you-are-asking-the-wrong-questions-about-education- technology/
  8. 8. 8 Καινοτόμες Εφαρμογές στη Διδακτική Πράξη Kajeet Falconer External Report Dec2013 Shuler, C., N. Winters, et al. (2013). The Future of Mobile Learning: Implications for Policy Makers and Planners. Paris, UNESCO. Snell, S. and C. Snell -Siddle (2013). 'Mobile Learning: The Effects of Gender and Age on Perceptions of the Use of Mobile Tools'. The Second International Conference on Informatics Engineering & Information Science, Kuala Lumpur, The Society of Digital Information and Wireless Communications. van't Hooft, M. (2013).'The Potential of Mobile Technologies to Connect Teaching and Learning Inside and Outside of the Classroom'. In C. Mouza and N. Lavigne (eds), Emerging Technologies for the Classroom: Exploration in the Learning Sciences, Instructional Systems and Performance Technologies. New York, Springer Science & Business Media. West, D.M. (2013). Mobile Learning: Transforming Education, Engaging Students and Improving Outcomes. Washington, Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings. Wong, L.-H. (2012). ‘A Learner-centric View of Mobile Seamless Learning’. British Journal of Educational Technology 43(1): 5. Augmented Reality App - Augment. (χ.χ.). Ανακτήθηκε 21 Ιούνιος 2015, από http://augmentedev.com/ EUN Academy. (χ.χ.). Ανακτήθηκε 21 Ιούνιος 2015, από http://www.europeanschoolnetacademy.eu/web/guest/home Toumasis Babis (1994). Modern Tutoring of Mathematics Publications GUTENBERG.

Tablets with their simple interface, portability, speed, affordability and their variety of apps are quickly moving into schools across Europe and a growing number of teachers are experimenting with tablets or are interested in doing so. In the context of monitoring the MOOC “Creative use of Tablets in Schools” provided by the European Schoolnet Academy, the final activity was to create a lesson or a project plan. To design the lesson plan we used a very nice tool called the “Learning Designer” which was developed by the London Institute of Education. According the Scenario student will visit the local Math Museum during Mathematical Week and create Augmented Reality posters for the school. From the implementation of this scenario students will come in contact with the beauty of mathematics, its history and get to know great mathematicians and their works.

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