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Canada p.h.project favorites


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Canada p.h.project favorites

  2. 2. ORgANIzATION Of THE HEALTH SERvICE SySTEm IN CANADA Summary of Health Care System Delivery of Canada: - fEDERAL gOvERNmENT: Setting and administering national principles for the health care system through the Canada Health Act Assisting in the financing of provincial/territorial health care services through fiscal transfers; Funding and/or delivery of primary and supplementary services to certain groups of people. These groups include: 1.First Nations people living on reserves; Inuit; 2.serving members of the Canadian Forces; 3.eligible veterans; 4.inmates in federal penitentiaries; 5.and some groups of refugee claimants Providing other health-related functions such as public health and health protections Programs and health research
  3. 3. mAIN SOuRCES Of HEALTH ExpENDITuRE • Out-of-pocket(OOP) payment OOP payments make up more than 50% of expenditure on privately financed health services and products. In particular, OOP payments form the chief source of funding for vision care, over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and complementery and alternatives medicines(CAM). • Private health insurance PHI is relegated to non-medicare sectors such as dental care, prescription drugs, long-term care and support, as well as a few non-medically necessary physician and hospital services. • Other Financing Voluntary and charitable donations provide other sources of finance for health research as well as supportive health services for patients and their families. Numerous nongovernmental organizations – from hospitals to disease-based foundations – regularly collect donations from the public. These funds are then used to purchase capital or equipment, to provide services and to direct health research. Volunteers also donate their time and skills to public and nongovernmental health service organizations and causes. According to one decade-old estimate, the voluntary sector raises C$300 million a year for health research (Health Charities Council of Canada, 2001).
  5. 5. MAIN PRINCIPLES OF EMERGENCY CARE ORGANISATION • Early detection – members of the public, or another agency, find the incident and understand the problem • Early reporting – the first persons on scene make a call to the emergency medical services and provide details to enable a response to be mounted • Early response – the first professional (EMS) rescuers arrive on scene as quickly as possible, enabling care to begin • Good on-scene care – the emergency medical service provides appropriate and timely interventions to treat the patient at the scene of the incident • Care in transit – the emergency medical service load the patient in to suitable transport and continue to provide appropriate medical care throughout the journey • Transfer to definitive care – the patient is handed over to an appropriate care setting, such as the emergency department at a hospital, in to the care of physicians •  
  6. 6. ThE SYSTEM OF PROTECTION OF MOThERhOOD AND ChILDhOOD • In Canada, a child's right to physical and mental health is protected under CHILD, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ACT (Part 3, division 1&3) • Maternity Rights and Parental Leave • Maternity leave varies from province to province and qualification for maternity leave depends on how long the woman has been employed by her current employer. • Federal law states that if employed by the same employer for at least 6 months, the maternity leave entitlement is 17 weeks. This can be taken any time in the 11 weeks before the baby is due, but must end 17 weeks after the baby is born. • Legally a pregnant woman's job must be kept open until she returns from maternity leave. It is illegal to fire an employee while she is pregnant.  •   • Maternity and paternity benefits • Parental leave is also offered to anyone who becomes a parent. • It is offered across provinces and the entitlement is normally up to a year. • Parental leave is normally unpaid, with job seniority, benefits and pay protected. • It is possible to receive up to 50 weeks of maternity and paternity benefits in Canada, which can be split between parents.
  7. 7.  ThE bASIC TYPE OF PEDIATRIC MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS • The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP), a joint project of the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Paediatric Society, contributes to the improvement of the health of children and youth in Canada by national surveillance and research into childhood disorders that are high in disability, morbidity and economic costs to society, despite their low frequency. • Program objectives of CPSP includes: • To maintain and enhance an active national and collaborative population-based surveillance system to monitor low-frequency and high-impact conditions and diseases in Canadian children and youth. • To involve paediatricians, paediatric subspecialists and other applicable medical professionals in related disciplines in the surveillance of low-frequency, high-impact childhood conditions that are of public health and medical importance. • To facilitate research into these childhood disorders for the advancement of knowledge and the improvement of treatment, prevention and health-care planning. • To encourage awareness and education within the medical profession and the general public of less common paediatric disorders. • To respond rapidly to public health emergencies, where these relate to Canadian children and youth, by adaptation of surveillance activities or initiation of appropriate action/follow up. • To participate in international paediatric surveillance efforts through the International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INOPSU). • To establish and maintain a strong working partnership between the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to support and collaborate around surveillance into child and youth issues in Canada.
  9. 9. Morbidity and injuries • In 2012, an estimated 186,400 new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) will be diagnosed in Canada and 75,700 cancer deaths will occur. • Nearly 40% of all cancer deaths in Canada are due to lung and colorectal cancers. • Incidence and mortality rates for men surpass those for women at around age 55. • Overall, 70% of new cases and 61% of deaths occurring among those aged 50 to 79 years. • The highest proportion of cancer deaths will occur in Canadians 80 years and older (33.5%). • In particular, death rates from lung, colorectal, prostate, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach, and larynx cancers have decreased significantly among men. • In women, death rates have significantly decreased from breast, cervical, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and stomach cancers. •   • Incidence rates in some cancers still rising • In the last decade the overall standardized cancer incidence rates have been stable, with marginal increases of nearly 0.1% per year for males and 0.3% per year for females. •
  10. 10. • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 2011 • In 2009-2010, 772,200 (4%) Canadians, aged 35 years and older, reported being diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the principal underlying cause of COPD and is responsible for about 80% of deaths from COPD. • • How does Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affect Canadians?  • Among Canadians with COPD, 45% reported their overall health as "fair or poor", and 33% reported their health as "somewhat worse or much worse" than a year ago. By comparison, of the 2009-10 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) respondents who did not report having COPD, 13% reported "fair or poor" health and 13% reported that their health was "somewhat worse or much worse" than a year ago.
  11. 11. Mental disorders Table 2-1 Twelve-month Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Substance Dependence Measured in the 2002  Mental Health and Well-being Survey (CCHS 1.2), Canada  Mental Disorder  or Substance  Dependence  Total** Men Women Number % Number % Number % *Respondents could have reported symptoms that met the criteria for more than one condition. **Numbers have been rounded to the nearest 10,000. Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2002, Mental Health and Well-being, Cycle 1.2 Any measured  mood disorder,  anxiety disorder  or substance  dependence*  2,660,000 11.0 1,220,000 10.2 1,440,000 11.7 Any mood 1,310,000 5.3 510,000 4.2 800,000 6.3 Major depression 1,200,000 4.8 450,000 3.7 740,000 5.9 Bipolar disorder 240,000 1.0 120,000 1.0 120,000 1.0 Any anxiety 1,160,000 4.8 430,000 3.6 730,000 5.9 Panic disorder 380,000 1.5 130,000 1.0 250,000 2.0 Agoraphobia 180,000 0.7 40,000 0.4 140,000 1.1 Social anxiety  disorder (Social  phobia)  750,000 3.0 310,000 2.6 430,000 3.4 Any substance  dependence 760,000 3.1 550,000 4.5 210,000 1.7 Alcohol  dependence 640,000 2.6 470,000 3.9 170,000 1.3 Illicit drug  dependence 190,000 0.8 130,000 1.1 60,000 0.5 Eating Attitude  Problems 430,000 1.7 60,000 0.5 360,000 2.9 Moderate Risk  for / or Problem  490,000 2.0 320,000 2.6 170,000 0.5
  12. 12. diabetes In 2008/09, almost 2.4 million Canadians (6.8%) were living with diabetes. According to data obtained from blood samples, about 20% of diabetes cases remain undiagnosed. While the prevalence increased with age, more than 50% of Canadians diagnosed with diabetes (1.2 million) were of working age, between 25 and 64 years of age. The overall prevalence was higher among males (7.2%) than females (6.4%). In 2008/09, more than 200,000 Canadians were newly diagnosed with diabetes (6.3 cases per 1,000 individuals). Just under half of new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in individuals aged 45 to 64 years old. Survey data indicate that in this age group, 47.5% of individuals with diabetes were obese compared to 19.1% of individuals without diabetes, implying that obesity was a major contributor to diabetes in this age group.
  13. 13. Leading causes of death
  14. 14. Cancer cases 2003-2007
  15. 15. Population with a Disability • About 4.4 million Canadians (14.3%) reported having a disability in 2006. The percentage of Canadians with disabilities increased with age, ranging from 3.7% for children 14 years and under to 56.3% for those 75 years and over.
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