LING SIEW CHUAN 631D
PO TING LIM 631D
SITI NADIAH BINTI ABDULHASSANI 631D
SITI NOOR SUHANA BINTI BORHAN 631D
NOOR HAYATI BINTI MANSOR 631D
RUMIN SIM 631C
ANNAPURANI RAJU 631C
PHON KY 631C
SAFIYA SHERMAN 631D
IMRAAN SHERMAN 631B
LUKMAAN SHERMAN 631D
ORgANIzATION Of THE HEALTH
SERvICE SySTEm IN CANADA
Summary of Health Care System Delivery of Canada:
- fEDERAL gOvERNmENT:
Setting and administering national principles for the health care system
through the Canada Health Act
Assisting in the financing of provincial/territorial health care services through
Funding and/or delivery of primary and supplementary services to certain
groups of people. These groups include:
1.First Nations people living on reserves; Inuit;
2.serving members of the Canadian Forces;
4.inmates in federal penitentiaries;
5.and some groups of refugee claimants
Providing other health-related functions such as public health and health
Programs and health research
mAIN SOuRCES Of HEALTH ExpENDITuRE
• Out-of-pocket(OOP) payment
OOP payments make up more than 50% of expenditure on privately financed
health services and products. In particular, OOP payments form the chief source
of funding for vision care, over-the-counter pharmaceuticals and complementery and alternatives medicines(CAM).
• Private health insurance
PHI is relegated to non-medicare sectors such as dental care, prescription drugs,
long-term care and support, as well as a few non-medically necessary physician
and hospital services.
• Other Financing
Voluntary and charitable donations provide other sources of finance for health
research as well as supportive health services for patients and their families.
Numerous nongovernmental organizations – from hospitals to disease-based
foundations – regularly collect donations from the public. These funds are
then used to purchase capital or equipment, to provide services and to direct
health research. Volunteers also donate their time and skills to public and
nongovernmental health service organizations and causes. According to one
decade-old estimate, the voluntary sector raises C$300 million a year for health
research (Health Charities Council of Canada, 2001).
ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL CARE
TO RURAL POPULATION
MAIN PRINCIPLES OF EMERGENCY
• Early detection – members of the public, or another agency, find the
incident and understand the problem
• Early reporting – the first persons on scene make a call to the emergency
medical services and provide details to enable a response to be mounted
• Early response – the first professional (EMS) rescuers arrive on scene as
quickly as possible, enabling care to begin
• Good on-scene care – the emergency medical service provides
appropriate and timely interventions to treat the patient at the scene of
• Care in transit – the emergency medical service load the patient in to
suitable transport and continue to provide appropriate medical care
throughout the journey
• Transfer to definitive care – the patient is handed over to an appropriate
care setting, such as the emergency department at a hospital, in to the
care of physicians
ThE SYSTEM OF PROTECTION OF
MOThERhOOD AND ChILDhOOD
• In Canada, a child's right to physical and mental health is protected under CHILD, FAMILY AND
COMMUNITY SERVICE ACT (Part 3, division 1&3)
• Maternity Rights and Parental Leave
• Maternity leave varies from province to province and qualification for maternity leave depends on
how long the woman has been employed by her current employer.
• Federal law states that if employed by the same employer for at least 6 months, the maternity
leave entitlement is 17 weeks. This can be taken any time in the 11 weeks before the baby is due,
but must end 17 weeks after the baby is born.
• Legally a pregnant woman's job must be kept open until she returns from maternity leave. It is
illegal to fire an employee while she is pregnant.
• Maternity and paternity benefits
• Parental leave is also offered to anyone who becomes a parent.
• It is offered across provinces and the entitlement is normally up to a year.
• Parental leave is normally unpaid, with job seniority, benefits and pay protected.
• It is possible to receive up to 50 weeks of maternity and paternity benefits in Canada, which can be
split between parents.
ThE bASIC TYPE OF PEDIATRIC
• The Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP), a joint project of the Public Health Agency of
Canada and the Canadian Paediatric Society, contributes to the improvement of the health of
children and youth in Canada by national surveillance and research into childhood disorders that
are high in disability, morbidity and economic costs to society, despite their low frequency.
• Program objectives of CPSP includes:
• To maintain and enhance an active national and collaborative population-based surveillance
system to monitor low-frequency and high-impact conditions and diseases in Canadian children
• To involve paediatricians, paediatric subspecialists and other applicable medical professionals in
related disciplines in the surveillance of low-frequency, high-impact childhood conditions that are
of public health and medical importance.
• To facilitate research into these childhood disorders for the advancement of knowledge and the
improvement of treatment, prevention and health-care planning.
• To encourage awareness and education within the medical profession and the general public of
less common paediatric disorders.
• To respond rapidly to public health emergencies, where these relate to Canadian children and
youth, by adaptation of surveillance activities or initiation of appropriate action/follow up.
• To participate in international paediatric surveillance efforts through the International Network of
Paediatric Surveillance Units (INOPSU).
• To establish and maintain a strong working partnership between the Canadian Paediatric Society
(CPS) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to support and collaborate around
surveillance into child and youth issues in Canada.
DENSITY, NATIONAL LANGUAGES,
RELIGION, TRADITIONS, AGE ,
Morbidity and injuries
• In 2012, an estimated 186,400 new cases of cancer (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) will be
diagnosed in Canada and 75,700 cancer deaths will occur.
• Nearly 40% of all cancer deaths in Canada are due to lung and colorectal cancers.
• Incidence and mortality rates for men surpass those for women at around age 55.
• Overall, 70% of new cases and 61% of deaths occurring among those aged 50 to 79 years.
• The highest proportion of cancer deaths will occur in Canadians 80 years and older (33.5%).
• In particular, death rates from lung, colorectal, prostate, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach, and
larynx cancers have decreased significantly among men.
• In women, death rates have significantly decreased from breast, cervical, non-Hodgkin lymphoma
and stomach cancers.
• Incidence rates in some cancers still rising
• In the last decade the overall standardized cancer incidence rates have been stable, with marginal
increases of nearly 0.1% per year for males and 0.3% per year for females.
• Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 2011
• In 2009-2010, 772,200 (4%) Canadians, aged 35 years and older, reported being diagnosed with chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking is the principal underlying cause of COPD and is
responsible for about 80% of deaths from COPD.
• How does Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) affect Canadians?
• Among Canadians with COPD, 45% reported their overall health as "fair or poor", and 33% reported their
health as "somewhat worse or much worse" than a year ago. By comparison, of the 2009-10 Canadian
Community Health Survey (CCHS) respondents who did not report having COPD, 13% reported "fair or
poor" health and 13% reported that their health was "somewhat worse or much worse" than a year ago.
Table 2-1 Twelve-month Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Substance Dependence Measured in the 2002
Mental Health and Well-being Survey (CCHS 1.2), Canada
Total** Men Women
Number % Number % Number %
*Respondents could have reported symptoms that met the criteria for more than one condition.
**Numbers have been rounded to the nearest 10,000.
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2002, Mental Health and Well-being, Cycle 1.2
2,660,000 11.0 1,220,000 10.2 1,440,000 11.7
Any mood 1,310,000 5.3 510,000 4.2 800,000 6.3
Major depression 1,200,000 4.8 450,000 3.7 740,000 5.9
Bipolar disorder 240,000 1.0 120,000 1.0 120,000 1.0
Any anxiety 1,160,000 4.8 430,000 3.6 730,000 5.9
Panic disorder 380,000 1.5 130,000 1.0 250,000 2.0
Agoraphobia 180,000 0.7 40,000 0.4 140,000 1.1
750,000 3.0 310,000 2.6 430,000 3.4
760,000 3.1 550,000 4.5 210,000 1.7
640,000 2.6 470,000 3.9 170,000 1.3
190,000 0.8 130,000 1.1 60,000 0.5
430,000 1.7 60,000 0.5 360,000 2.9
for / or Problem 490,000 2.0 320,000 2.6 170,000 0.5
In 2008/09, almost 2.4 million Canadians (6.8%) were living with
diabetes. According to data obtained from blood samples, about
20% of diabetes cases remain undiagnosed. While the prevalence
increased with age, more than 50% of Canadians diagnosed with
diabetes (1.2 million) were of working age, between 25 and 64
years of age. The overall prevalence was higher among males
(7.2%) than females (6.4%).
In 2008/09, more than 200,000 Canadians were newly diagnosed
with diabetes (6.3 cases per 1,000 individuals). Just under half of
new cases of diabetes were diagnosed in individuals aged 45 to 64
years old. Survey data indicate that in this age group, 47.5% of
individuals with diabetes were obese compared to 19.1% of
individuals without diabetes, implying that obesity was a major
contributor to diabetes in this age group.
Population with a Disability
• About 4.4 million Canadians (14.3%) reported having a disability in 2006. The
percentage of Canadians with disabilities increased with age, ranging from 3.7%
for children 14 years and under to 56.3% for those 75 years and over.