CS4098 – SEMINAR
• CHARACTERISTICS OF FOG COMPUTING
• CLOUD vs. FOG
• ARCHITECTURE OF FOG TECHNOLOGY
• APPLICATIONS OF FOG
• Extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the
• Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and
application services to end-users.
• Motivations for Fog Computing - Smart Grid, smart traffic lights in
vehicular networks and software defined networks.
What is fog computing?
• Fog computing (aka, Edge computing) is a model in which data, processi
ng and applications are concentrated in devices at the network edge rath
er than existing almost entirely in the cloud.
• The term "Fog Computing" was introduced by the Cisco Systems as new
model to ease wireless data transfer to distributed devices in the Internet
of Things (IoT) network paradigm.
• In Fog Computing, devices communicate peer-to-peer to efficiently share
/store data and take local decisions.
What is the need for fog computing ?
• Fog computing was developed to address applications and services that
do not fit the paradigm of the cloud.
• Fog Computing keeps data right where the Internet of Things needs it.
• Existing data protection mechanisms in Cloud Computing such as encrypt
ion failed in securing the data from the attackers.
• Limitations of cloud (high latency, security shortcomings, bandwidth, etc.)
Cloud architecture before the advent of fog technology
Cloud architecture with the advent of fog technology
CHARACTERISTICS OF FOG COMPUTING
• Edge location, location awareness, and low latency : Fog computing su
pport endpoints with finest services at the edge of the network
• Geographical distribution : The services and application objective of the
fog is widely distributed.
• Support for mobility : Using LISP protocol fog devices provide mobility t
echniques like decouple host identity to location identity.
• Real time interactions : fog computing requires real time interactions for
• Heterogeneity : Fog nodes can be deployed in a wide variety of environ
• Interoperability : Fog components must be able to interoperate in order
to give wide range of services like streaming.
CLOUD vs. FOG
Fog – Solution to Cloud’s Limitations
• Reduction in data movement across the network resulting in
• Elimination of bottlenecks resulting from centralized comput
• Improved security of encrypted data as it stays closer to the
ARCHITECTURE OF FOG TECHNOLOGY
The design of fog architecture or the key components of fog architecture ar
e discussed below:
• Heterogeneous Physical Resources
• Fog Abstraction Layer
• Fog Service Orchestration Layer
• Foglet Software Agent
• Distributed Database
• Policy-Based Service Orchestration
Heterogeneous Physical Resources:
Heterogeneous in nature, ranging from high-speed links connecting enterpri
se data centers and the core to multiple wireless access technologies towar
ds the edge.
3G/4G, LTE, WiFi etc.
Fog Abstraction Layer:
A uniform and programmable interface for seamless resource management
The layer provides generic APIs for monitoring, provisioning and controlling
physical resources such as CPU, memory, network and energy.
Fog Service Orchestration Layer:
Provides dynamic, policy-based life-cycle management of Fog services.
Managing services on a large volume of Fog nodes with a wide range of ca
pabilities is achieved with the following technology and components:
• Foglet Software Agent,
• Distributed Database, persistent storage to store policies and resource m
• Policy-Based Service Orchestration, provides policy-based service routing,
i.e., routes an incoming service request to the appropriate service instanc
e that confirms to the relevant business policies.
Policy based orchestration framework of fog technology
APPLICATIONS OF FOG
• Tech giants Cisco and IBM are the driving forces behind fog computing, a
nd link their concept to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT).
• Fog has a direct correlation with IoT.
• According to CISCO, the important areas where fog would play a vital rol
e are the following :
Fog computing is ideal for Connected Vehicles (CV) because real-time intera
ctions will make communications between cars, access points and traffic ligh
ts as safe and efficient as possible.
At some point in time, the connected car will start saving lives by reducing
Fog computing will be the best option for all internet connected vehicles be
cause fog computing gives real time interaction.
Fog computing allows fast, machine-to-machine (M2M) handshakes and hu
man to machine interactions (HMI), which would work in cooperation with
Based on demand for energy, its obtainability and low cost, these smart dev
ices can switch to other energies like solar and winds. The edge process the
data collected by fog collectors and generate control command to the actu
ators. The filtered data are consumed locally and the balance to the higher t
iers for visualization, real-time reports and transactional analytics. Fog supp
orts semi-permanent storage at the highest tier and momentary storage at
the lowest tier.
Decentralized Smart Building Control
Wireless sensors are installed to measure temperature, humidity, or levels of
various gaseous components in the building atmosphere.
Information can be exchanged among all sensors in the floor and the readin
g can be combined to form reliable measurements.
Using distributed decision making the fog devices react to data.
The system gears up to work together to lower the temperature, input fresh
air and output moisture from the air or increase humidity.
Fog computing would be able to obtain sensor data on all levels, and integr
ate all the mutually independent network entities within.
The cloud computing market for healthcare is expected to reach $5.4 billion
by 2017, according to a Markets and Markets report, and fog computing
would allow this on a more localized level.
• We have analyzed Fog Computing and its real time applications.
• Fog computing has the ability to handle the data tsunami created by Inte
rnet of Things.
• The characteristics of fog computing like mobility, proximity to end-users,
low latency, location awareness, heterogeneity and due to its real-time ap
plications fog computing platform is considered as the appropriate platfo
rm for Internet of Things.
• By using the concepts of fog computing, if the same device can be used
for these kind of processing, data generated can be put to immediate us
e and deliver a much better user experience.
1. CISCO Technology Radar Trends Report:
2. Feds Look to Fight Leaks With ‘Fog of Disinformation’:
3. What Comes After the Cloud? How About the Fog? :
4. IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN:
2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308: FOG COMPUTING: A NEW CONCEPT TO
MINIMIZE THE ATTACKS AND TO PROVIDE SECURITY IN CLOUD COMPUTING
ENVIRONMENT BY Sonali Khairnar and Dhanashree Borkar