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# The principles of flight of an aeroplane

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This was my 1st year's Paper Presentation. At that time I was so Amateur.

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### The principles of flight of an aeroplane

1. 1. WELCOME!!WELCOME!!
2. 2. THE PRINCIPALS OFTHE PRINCIPALS OFFLIGHT OFFLIGHT OFAN AEROPLANEAN AEROPLANEPRESENTATION BYPRESENTATION BYMR. NIKHIL D. PISEMR. NIKHIL D. PISE
3. 3. • Aeroplanes fly because of a physicalAeroplanes fly because of a physicalprincipal discovered by a Dutch scientistprincipal discovered by a Dutch scientistnamed Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782).named Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782).• BERNOULLI’s PRINCIPALBERNOULLI’s PRINCIPAL::This principal says that as the speedThis principal says that as the speed(velocity V) of a fluid increases, its(velocity V) of a fluid increases, itspressure (P) decreases. Since the flow ofpressure (P) decreases. Since the flow ofair over an airplane wing acts like a fluid,air over an airplane wing acts like a fluid,the principal applies.  the principal applies.
4. 4. • The Shape of Airplane Wings:The Shape of Airplane Wings:   Airplane wings, like birds wings, areAirplane wings, like birds wings, arecurved on top and flat on the bottom.Therecurved on top and flat on the bottom.Thereis an old saying that you might haveis an old saying that you might haveheard: "The shortest distance betweenheard: "The shortest distance betweentwo point is a straight line." If the bottom oftwo point is a straight line." If the bottom ofthe wing is flat (straight) while the top ofthe wing is flat (straight) while the top ofthe wing curves up and then back down,the wing curves up and then back down,then the length of the line on the top of thethen the length of the line on the top of thewing is longer than the line on the bottom.wing is longer than the line on the bottom.
5. 5. A Tale of Two MoleculesA Tale of Two Molecules  • Let us take a look at two air molecules, one traveling onLet us take a look at two air molecules, one traveling onthe top side of the wing (Mtop), and the other travelingthe top side of the wing (Mtop), and the other travelingon the bottom side of the wing (Mbottom). There areon the bottom side of the wing (Mbottom). There areother air molecules all around our two molecules, so theyother air molecules all around our two molecules, so theymust move along the wing.must move along the wing.  • They will start at the tip of the wing, and meet at the backThey will start at the tip of the wing, and meet at the back(or trailing edge) of the wing. They must both get to the(or trailing edge) of the wing. They must both get to theback of the wing at the same time. Since the top surfaceback of the wing at the same time. Since the top surfaceof the wing is longer than the bottom surface because ofof the wing is longer than the bottom surface because ofthe curve, the molecule on the top must travel faster thanthe curve, the molecule on the top must travel faster thanthe molecule on the bottom.the molecule on the bottom.
6. 6. • According to Bernoullis Principal, as theAccording to Bernoullis Principal, as themolecule on top goes faster (velocity increases)molecule on top goes faster (velocity increases)then its pressure decreases. Therefore, thethen its pressure decreases. Therefore, thepressure on the bottom of the wing is greaterpressure on the bottom of the wing is greaterthan the pressure on the top of the wing. Thisthan the pressure on the top of the wing. Thisdifference in pressure causes the wing to movedifference in pressure causes the wing to moveup. This is called the Bernoulli Effect. Withup. This is called the Bernoulli Effect. Withairplanes, this upward movement is called Lift.airplanes, this upward movement is called Lift.The faster the airplane goes through the air,The faster the airplane goes through the air,the greater is the lift generated by the air flowingthe greater is the lift generated by the air flowingover the wings.over the wings.
7. 7. What Makes the Airplane MoveWhat Makes the Airplane MoveForward?Forward?There are two basic types of airplanes –There are two basic types of airplanes –1.Propeller driven planes and 2.Jet planes.1.Propeller driven planes and 2.Jet planes.
8. 8. • Propeller Driven PlanesPropeller Driven Planes - Propeller- Propellerdriven airplanes use a propeller that isdriven airplanes use a propeller that isturned by some type of engine. Propellersturned by some type of engine. Propellersalso depend on Bernoullis Principal toalso depend on Bernoullis Principal tofunction. They are shaped just like thefunction. They are shaped just like thewings, and also generate lift, except thatwings, and also generate lift, except thatthe lift is forward instead of up and isthe lift is forward instead of up and iscalled thrust. Each propeller is made up ofcalled thrust. Each propeller is made up oftwo or more blades.two or more blades.
9. 9. • Jet PlanesJet Planes - Jet planes do not have- Jet planes do not havepropellers. Instead, they have jet enginespropellers. Instead, they have jet enginesthat move the airplane forward throughthat move the airplane forward throughanother physical principal discovered by Siranother physical principal discovered by SirIsaac Newton (1642 - 1727). This is NewtonsIsaac Newton (1642 - 1727). This is NewtonsThird Law of Motion - "For every action thereThird Law of Motion - "For every action thereis an equal and opposite reaction."is an equal and opposite reaction."
10. 10. • You can think of a jet engine as a tube inYou can think of a jet engine as a tube inwhich a liquid fuel (like the fuel diesel truckwhich a liquid fuel (like the fuel diesel truckuse) is burned at high pressure with airuse) is burned at high pressure with airfrom a compresser. The resulting heatfrom a compresser. The resulting heatforces the gases out of the back of theforces the gases out of the back of thetube at high speed. In accordance withtube at high speed. In accordance withNewtons Law, an equal force is applied inNewtons Law, an equal force is applied inthe forward direction, moving the enginethe forward direction, moving the engine(and the plane it is attached to) forward .(and the plane it is attached to) forward .
11. 11. •       LANGLEYS LAWLANGLEYS LAW -- The law enunciated-- The law enunciatedby Langley is, that the greater the speedby Langley is, that the greater the speedthe less the power required to propel it.the less the power required to propel it.Water as a propelling medium has overWater as a propelling medium has overseven hundred times more force than air.seven hundred times more force than air.A vessel having, for instance, twentyA vessel having, for instance, twentyhorse power, and a speed of ten miles perhorse power, and a speed of ten miles perhour, would require four times that powerhour, would require four times that powerto drive it through the water at double theto drive it through the water at double thespeed. The power is as the square of thespeed. The power is as the square of thespeed.speed.
12. 12. • THEORIES AND FACTS ABOUT FLYINGTHEORIES AND FACTS ABOUT FLYING•       THE "SCIENCE" OF AVIATIONTHE "SCIENCE" OF AVIATION.. -- It may be-- It may bedoubted whether there is such a thing as adoubted whether there is such a thing as a"science of aviation." Since Langley, on May 6,"science of aviation." Since Langley, on May 6,1896, flew a motor-propelled tandem monoplane1896, flew a motor-propelled tandem monoplanefor a minute and an half, without a pilot, and thefor a minute and an half, without a pilot, and theWright Brothers in 1903 succeeded in flying a bi-Wright Brothers in 1903 succeeded in flying a bi-plane with a pilot aboard, the universal opinionplane with a pilot aboard, the universal opinionhas been, that flying machines, to be successful,has been, that flying machines, to be successful,must follow the structural form of birds, and thatmust follow the structural form of birds, and thatshape has everything to do with flying.shape has everything to do with flying.
13. 13. •       MOMENTUM A FACTORMOMENTUM A FACTOR.. -- Each had-- Each hadtransferred to it a motion. The initial speedtransferred to it a motion. The initial speedwas the same, and the power set up equalwas the same, and the power set up equalin the two. Why this difference, the answerin the two. Why this difference, the answeris, that it is in itself. It was the mass oris, that it is in itself. It was the mass ordensity which accounted for thedensity which accounted for thedifference. It was mass multiplied bydifference. It was mass multiplied byspeed which gave it the power, called, inspeed which gave it the power, called, inthis case, momentum.this case, momentum.
14. 14. •       We have two balls the same diameter,We have two balls the same diameter,one of iron weighing a half pound, and theone of iron weighing a half pound, and theother of cotton weighing a half ounce. Theother of cotton weighing a half ounce. Theweight of one is, therefore, sixteen timesweight of one is, therefore, sixteen timesgreater than the other.greater than the other.      Suppose these two balls are thrown withSuppose these two balls are thrown withthe expenditure of the same power. Whatthe expenditure of the same power. Whatwill be the result! The iron ball will gowill be the result! The iron ball will gomuch farther, or, if projected against a wallmuch farther, or, if projected against a wallwill strike a harder blow than the cottonwill strike a harder blow than the cottonball.ball.
15. 15. •     RESISTANCERESISTANCE. -- Now, in the movement. -- Now, in the movementof any body through space, it meets withof any body through space, it meets withan enemy at every step, and that is airan enemy at every step, and that is airresistance. This is much more effectiveresistance. This is much more effectiveagainst the cotton than the iron ball: or, itagainst the cotton than the iron ball: or, itmight be expressed in another way: Themight be expressed in another way: Themomentum, or the power, residing in themomentum, or the power, residing in themetal ball, is so much greater than thatmetal ball, is so much greater than thatwithin the cotton ball that it travels farther,within the cotton ball that it travels farther,or strikes a more effective blow on impactor strikes a more effective blow on impactwith the wall.with the wall.
16. 16. •       HOW RESISTANCE AFFECTS THE SHAPE.HOW RESISTANCE AFFECTS THE SHAPE.-- It is because of this counterforce, resistance,-- It is because of this counterforce, resistance,that shape becomes important in a flying object.that shape becomes important in a flying object.The metal ball may be flattened out into a thinThe metal ball may be flattened out into a thindisk, and now, when the same force is applied, todisk, and now, when the same force is applied, toproject it forwardly, it will go as much farther asproject it forwardly, it will go as much farther asthe difference in the air impact against the twothe difference in the air impact against the twoforms.forms.
17. 17. • THE LIFTING SURFACES OFTHE LIFTING SURFACES OFAEROPLANESAEROPLANES      This subject includes the form, shape andThis subject includes the form, shape andangle of planes, used in flight. It is theangle of planes, used in flight. It is thedirection in which most of the energy hasdirection in which most of the energy hasbeen expended in developing machines,been expended in developing machines,and the true form is still involved in doubtand the true form is still involved in doubtand uncertainty.and uncertainty.
18. 18. • LIFT AND DRIFTLIFT AND DRIFT. -- The terms should be. -- The terms should beexplained, in view of the frequent allusion whichexplained, in view of the frequent allusion whichwill be made to the terms hereinafter. Lift is thewill be made to the terms hereinafter. Lift is theword employed to indicate the amount which aword employed to indicate the amount which aplane surface will support while in flight. Drift isplane surface will support while in flight. Drift isthe term used to indicate the resistance which isthe term used to indicate the resistance which isoffered to a plane moving forwardly against theoffered to a plane moving forwardly against theatmosphere. the plane A is assumed to beatmosphere. the plane A is assumed to bemoving forwardly in the direction of the arrow B.moving forwardly in the direction of the arrow B.This indicates the resistance. The vertical arrowThis indicates the resistance. The vertical arrowC shows the direction of lift, which is the weightC shows the direction of lift, which is the weightheld up by the plane.held up by the plane.
19. 19. •   NARROW PLATES MOST EFFECTIVENARROW PLATES MOST EFFECTIVE..-- It was learned, in the early stages of the-- It was learned, in the early stages of thedevelopment by practical experiments,development by practical experiments,that a narrow plane, fore and aft, producesthat a narrow plane, fore and aft, producesa greater lift than a wide one, so that,a greater lift than a wide one, so that,assuming the plane has 100 square feet ofassuming the plane has 100 square feet ofsustaining surface, it is far better to makesustaining surface, it is far better to makethe shape five feet by twenty than ten bythe shape five feet by twenty than ten byten.ten.
20. 20. •       However, it must be observed, that toHowever, it must be observed, that touse the narrow blade effectively, it mustuse the narrow blade effectively, it mustbe projected through the air with the longbe projected through the air with the longmargin forwardlymargin forwardly• Its sustaining power per square foot ofIts sustaining power per square foot ofsurface is much less if forced through thesurface is much less if forced through theair lengthwise.air lengthwise.
21. 21. THANK YOU !!!!THANK YOU !!!!