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  1. 1. A Presentation On “Problems of DEVELOPING INDIA”
  2. 2. Problems of Developing India <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>How do the environmental impacts of a growing population of a developed country, the United States, compares to the undeveloped country of India? </li></ul>Taken from: Population Growth
  4. 4. [INTRO]duction <ul><li>We predict that a growing population will cause: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher rate of deforestation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater loss of freshwater resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased global warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strains of natural resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. [M]ethods <ul><li>We first searched to find what causes a growing population. </li></ul><ul><li>We then looked to see the effects of the growing population on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Stella and Excel were used to display the impacts of the population growth on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forest Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh Water Availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We also compared the two different growing populations. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What are we [model]ing? <ul><li>India Population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>United States Growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on Environmental Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh Water Availability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forest Areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects of varying levels of these subcategories. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why a [grow]ing population? <ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Immigration Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better health care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher living standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion Laws </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unintended Pregnancies ~ 40% births </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teenage Pregnancies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire for Male children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility rate declining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Younger women having children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Taken from: Taken from:
  8. 8. [Water] and [Forest] Factor <ul><li>Freshwater Availability </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Misconception of Oceans as freshwater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human Bodies – 60% water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage deposited in water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Per Capita Water Use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Forests Area </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization – more paved areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less parks and nature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Oxygen production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Quantity of Carbon Dioxide (Greenhouse Gases) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul></ul></ul>Taken from: Taken from:
  9. 9. [Environ]mental Impacts <ul><li>Pollution – increase in cars and emission of greenhouse gases into atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation – increase in paved areas to house increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater Availability – increase in waste production and contamination of water </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources – increase burning of fossil fuels, excessive use of coal </li></ul><ul><li>Global Warming – overall increase in temperature and chances of natural disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Loss – change in ecosystems affecting trophic levels </li></ul>
  10. 10. [Excel] Model <ul><li>Comparing the Population of India and US with no external pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Both increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>India growth rate per year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.51% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US growth rate per year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.92% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India starts at a greater population. </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHY DO THEY DIFFER? <ul><li>EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>GNP </li></ul><ul><li>IMMIGRATION/MIGRATION </li></ul>
  12. 12. [Sol]utions <ul><li>Increase education programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Later marriages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contraceptive use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less of a need for urbanization (jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be energy efficient (wind/ solar) </li></ul><ul><li>Organic farming </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development (build vertically) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant more trees! </li></ul><ul><li>Have better governmental regulations for an improved economy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Poverty <ul><li>Redefining Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>India Case Study </li></ul>
  14. 14. Redefining Poverty A New Poverty Line for a New India
  15. 15. The Government of India says that 24% of India’s population is below the poverty line.* * Planning Commission of India, 1999-2000, Government of India
  16. 16. Despite such abysmal figures on India’s development, how can the government claim that only 24% of India is poor? Clearly something is amiss…
  17. 17. The answer lies in how poverty is defined in India <ul><li>The present poverty line is a conveniently low threshold based largely on only caloric norms. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it should be called the starvation line . </li></ul><ul><li>It does not factor in norms for nutrition, health, clothing, housing, education etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Even worse is that the Planning Commission recognizes this shortcoming and yet doesn’t do anything about it. </li></ul>
  18. 18. “ I have learnt to seek my happiness by limiting my desires rather than attempting to satisfy them.” John Stuart Mill
  19. 19. Table 1: Percentage and Number of Poor in India since 1973 * Year Percentage of Poor Number of Poor (crores) Annual Real Rate of Decline in the Number of Poor ^ 1973-74 54.9 % 32.13 - 1977-78 51.3 % 32.89 ( 0.59 %) 1983 44.5 % 32.29 0.31 % 1987-88 38.9 % 30.71 1.25 % 1993-94 36.0 % 32.03 ( 0.70 %) 1999-00 26.1 % 26.02 3.40 % 2004** 23.6 % 24.97 0.82 % * As per the Expert Group Methodology ^ A negative rate of decline means the number of poor increased ** Based on the estimated population of 2004 and poverty ratio calculated using the latest National Sample Survey in 2004. Source: National Institute of Rural Development (2004): Rural Development Statistics, 2002-03 .
  20. 20. The redefined poverty line <ul><li>Summing up minimum costs for nutrition (Rs. 573), health (Rs. 30), clothing (Rs. 17), energy consumption (Rs. 55) and miscellaneous expenditure (Rs. 164); the poverty line in India should be about Rs. 840 per capita per month*. </li></ul><ul><li>* The actual sum is Rs. 839; we round it off for convenience. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>A person is poor in India if he or she has a monthly per capita expenditure lesser than Rs. 840 OR does not have access to either drinking water; proper shelter; sanitation; quality secondary education; or an all-weather road with public transport. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Incidence of Poverty Interventions - Program, Technology Natural Resources Institutional/ Social Factor Labour & Capital Flow/Mobility Spatial Integration of Economic activities New Lively hood opportunities ECOLOGICAL AND INCOME POVERTY - DYNAMICS Databases on relationship to examine the direction of policies/interventions? Powerlessness of poor to gain access or use available natural resources Role of economic policies and interventions in altering the relationship Inequitable access land, Information, market and credit
  23. 23. He and She are poor; Not because they are borne so; In fact, it is the failure of the institutions, polices and programme that they continue to be poor and marginalized. - A Perception
  25. 25. Employment and Unemployment Scenario in the World <ul><li>Almost all countries in the world have employment and unemployment problem. </li></ul><ul><li>A total number of 191.8 million persons were unemployed in the year 2005 in the world.The unemployment rate was around 6.3% of the labour force </li></ul><ul><li>1.37 billion people though employed were earning less than US$2 a day. </li></ul><ul><li>520.1 million people though employed were earning less than US$ 1 a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem therefore is of the order of 711.9 million if at least one dollar a day is considered. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>S.No. Item 2004-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Population as on Jan. 2005 1092.96Million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Labour Force 469.94 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Employment 459.10 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of open 10.84 Million Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment rate as percentage Around </li></ul><ul><li> of total labour force 2. 3 % </li></ul><ul><li>Employment in Organised Sector(2004) 26.4 Million </li></ul>S EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT SCENARIO IN INDIA Cont...
  27. 27. STRUCTURE OF WORKFORCE <ul><li>Sector World India </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture 40.1% 58.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Industry 21.0% 18.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Services 38.9% 23.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Vast majority of workers in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>A significant proportion of them are below poverty line </li></ul>
  28. 28. Approach by various Countries <ul><li>Various countries are trying to address the problem of unemployment through various means. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed countries are trying to have separate employment policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries are relying on economic growth as well as special employment generation programme. </li></ul><ul><li>Export of labour force to other countries will not be easy unless labour force in developing countries can claim better skills. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Approach to Employment in Economic Planning-India <ul><li>Planning in India focused on economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Generation of employment was viewed as part of the process of development and not as a goal in conflict with, or to be pursued independently of economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Thus there is no employment policy as such and additional employment generation is attempted through growth process and through special employment generation programme </li></ul>
  30. 30. PROBLEMS <ul><li>Population growth and consequential increase in the labour force. 10 to 12 million persons are entering the labour force every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity and income generation from employment are low. </li></ul><ul><li>Th ough, open unemployment is only2.3%(11 million) </li></ul><ul><li>the percentage of the population below the poverty line is high. The fact of being employed is obviously </li></ul><ul><li>no guarantee of escaping from poverty,which in our situation refers to a very basic level of subsistence. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of around 470 million work force as many as 130million are working poor. Therefore the problem is of the order of 130+11=141 million. </li></ul>
  31. 31. MAIN ISSUES There are primarily two main issues namely:- Issue no-1 How to provide employment to the new entrant to the labour force and to the unemployed. That is how to create additional employment opportunities needed. Issue no-2 How to improve quality of employment so that productivity and income level of the workforce increases.
  32. 32. Action taken to tackle Issue No-1 <ul><li>Planned Initiative. Tenth Plan envisages creation of around 10 million jobs each year, around 6 million from normal growth process and around 4 million through special employment generation programme proposed for sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth and employment growth being correlated attempts are made to achieve 8% growth rate of the economy so that anticipated employment generation takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>As against a target of 10 million per year around12 million persons per year were provided employment during 2000-2005 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Action taken to tackle Issue No-2 <ul><li>Provide skill training to the new entrants to the </li></ul><ul><li>labour force </li></ul><ul><li>Improving skill level of the work force. </li></ul><ul><li>Organize Skill training as per the market demand. That is, it should cater to the needs of both organized and unorganized sector. </li></ul>