The only business function that
Planning, direction and control of personal
selling including recruiting, selecting,
training, equipping, assigning, supervising,
compensating and motivating as these
tasks apply to the personal sales force.
Management of the personal selling task.
Is there anything like ‘impersonal selling’ or ‘non-
Selling is an exchange transaction. Exchange of
Product or service for money
Money is the revenue or the earnings of an
enterprise often called ‘turnover’ or ‘top line’
Sales therefore is the only revenue generating
function in an enterprise.
Sales management: evolution
Industrial Revolution – 1760
Small home industries – Large scale
manufacturing –marketing – sales and
Concept of hunters and farmers
The modern day sales manager is both
an administrator in-charge of personal
selling activity and a member of the
group that makes marketing decisions of
…..they make more noise and more
mistakes, create more cheer, correct
more errors, adjust more differences,
spread more gossip, hear more
grievances, pacify more belligerence and
waste more time under pressure, all
without loosing their temper, than any
other class of professionals –including
…they live in hotels, cabs and tents on
trains, buses, eat all kinds of food, drink
all kinds of liquids –good and bad- sleep
before, during and after business, with
no sympathy from the office.
They draw and spend more money with
less effort, they come at the most
inopportune time, under the slightest
pretext, ask more personal questions.
Yet they are a power in society…
With all their faults, they keep the wheels
of commerce turning, and the currents of
human emotions running. More cannot
be said any man. Be careful whom you
call a salesman, lest you flatter him.
-Donald Benenson in Ziglar on Selling
“QUALITIES THAT LEAD TO EFFECTIVE SALES MANAGEMENT
ARE OFTEN OPPOSITE THE ATTRIBUTES OF A SUCCESSFUL
With various tasks required to be
performed the enterprise had to create a
structure to ensure that work is done.
(the Sears story)
Principles of structure: authority,
responsibility, performance, support/co-
Concept of organization: Group of
individuals working jointly to achieve a
defined goal and bearing formal and
informal relations with one another. An
organization is oriented towards and a
co-operative endeavor and a structure of
Purpose of organization
Eliminate waste of effort
Permit development of specialists
Ensure that all activities get done
Types of organization
Line organization: line managers
perform sales and sales management
Line and staff organization: Staff
managers have advisory or support
responsibility. e.g.Market research
manager, Training manager.They are
not directly responsible for achieving
Functional organization: focus is on
the principle of specialization. Each
specialist has a functional responsibility
and are permitted to direct and control
the salesperson thru their immediate
Market or customer;
Combination of specialised structures.
Clear authority & Responsibility
Quick response & Decision, Low Cost
Weak on marketing inputs
Sales manager controlled
Line Sales Organization structure
Area Sales Mgr Area Sales Mgr Area Sales Mgr Area Sales Mgr
Sales Force Sales Force Sales Force Sales Force
Access to Specialists
HOD is Pressures to co-ordinate
Functional Sales Organization
Research & Design team
Product / Service design
Research & Design team
Product / Service design
Customer Support team
Customer Support team
Customer Satisfaction teams
Sales & Marketing
Pricing & Promotion
Customer Satisfaction teams
Sales & Marketing
Pricing & Promotion
C O O
C O O
Sales relation with marketing
Sales &Advertising: both stimulate
demand. They need to be blended.
Salespersons can improve advertising
effectiveness. Advertising needs to
support sales where and when they
need it most.
Sales & Marketing information: data is
needed for analysis of sales problems,
for determining sales potential. Raw data
is collected by sales people.
Sales and service: contributes to
Sales and distribution: minimizes stock
out situation; improves inventory control;
helps sales to focus on demand
Sales & Production:
Sales and R&D
a managerial function
LONG RANGE PLAN 3 TO 5 YEAR PROJECTIONS
ANNUAL OPERATING PLAN REVISED YEAR TO YEAR
SEGMENTWISE PLAN PAST TREND
GEOGRAPHICAL PLAN PREVIOUS YEAR SALES
CUSTOMERWISE PLAN CURRENT YEAR ACHIEVEMENT
PLAN BY VALUE NEXT YEAR PLANS
PLAN BY VOLUME ASSUMPTIONS
PLANNING FOCUS AREAS:
• PROFITABILITY IMPROVEMENT
A REGION OR TERRITORY CEASES TO
DISCONTINUATION OF SALES TO AN ACCOUNT
ACCEPTING A PRIVATE BRAND ORDER
VARIANCE BETWEEN BUDGET AND ACTUAL
VISION MISSION GOALS
Key Deliverables of the Sales
Forecasting a key planning tool
PRODUCT LEVEL –
total sales -
product line sales
product variant sales
Time period forecast
Short term (range)
Cash flow plan
Procurement plan Human resource plan
One of the keys to success in sales is
knowing where customers are located
and being able to predict how much they
Geographic Area forecast
Region ( REGION OR ZONE )
Territory ( BRANCH / DISTRICT )
Top - down / Break –down approach
An SBU level forecast broken down to
region, district, territory, salesperson and
individual customer sales quotas
Bottom –up / Build – up approach
Individual customer to branch to zone to
company level forecast
Methods of sales forecast
Delphi method – prediction by a panel
Sales force composite – ‘grass roots’
Test marketing –controlled or simulated
Customer’s intention and expectation are
specific. (insurance, mobile service)
Customer is contacted over phone
Customer is an organizational buyer
Customer seeking service or solution
Customer in a retail store
Cold calling situation
Creative selling ( ad.campaign)
The sales budget
To the sales department, the budget is a
blue print for making sales. It involves
money invested in distribution facilities,
promotion efforts, and sales personnel. It
is the foundation on which to plan sales
objectives and the means of achieving
them during the coming year.
A budget is a quantitative expression of plans.
Most well managed enterprises use a budget which
is a comprehensive and coordinated plan for the
operations and resources of the enterprise.
It is a formal and intricate process
Approaches are either incremental or zero based.
In a volatile economic climate organizations
estimate optimistic, realistic and pessimistic
Critical factors considered:
1. past trends
2. Sales force estimates
3. Trade prospects
4. Present scenario
5. Customers: existing and potential
6. Government policies
7. Industry environment
Number of sales people
Decision on the size of the sales force is
very complicated because structure of
the customers vary in each territory, the
level of competition varies across
territories, the connectivity for travel
There are 3 generally accepted
approaches: affordability, incremental
and workload methods.
Definition : A sales territory consists of
existing and potential customers
assigned to a sales person. The territory
may or may not have geographic
Reasons for territories
Increase / improve customer coverage
Control selling expenses
Effective evaluation of salesman’s
improve customer relations
Main procedural steps:
1. Selection of a basic geographical control
2. Determination of sales potential present in
3. Combining the basic units into tentative
4. Adjust for differences in coverage difficulty
and readjust the tentative territories ( build
up / break down method )
Build up method:
Decide call frequency
Calculate total no of calls in the unit
Estimate workload capacity of salesman
Make tentative territories
Develop final territories
Break down method:
Estimate company sales potential for
Forecast sales potential for each control
Estimate sales expected from each
Make tentative territories.
Develop final territories.
Routing Scheduling and
Reasons / advantages:
Maintain lines of communication
Improve territory coverage
Minimize wasted time
Closer scrutiny of sales force movement
Journey plans for improving customer
Quotas are quantitative goals assigned
to individual sales persons for a
specified period of time.
One of the most widely used tools in
Should not be confused with sales
potential or sales forecast.
Quotas may be set equal to ,above or
below the sales forecast.
Why Quotas ?
To help management motivate sales
To direct sales people where to put there
To provide standards of performance
Types of Quotas
Sales volume Quotas : Rupee volume /
Profit based Quotas: contribution / gross
Activity Quotas: calls per day; sales
meetings; product demos; ( efforts =
What is Motivation??
Drive to initiate an action.
The intensity of effort in an action
The persistence of effort over
Physical separation from company
Direct influence on quality of sales
Indirect influence on performance
Sales force motivation
“the desire to make an effort to fulfill a
need is motivation”
Motivation includes three dimensions:
Direction, Intensity and persistence.
Motivation may also be Intrinsic or
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs:
Food, clothing, shelter, health
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Intense job challenge, full potential, fullIntense job challenge, full potential, full
expression, creative expansion.expression, creative expansion.
Achievement, respect, recognition,Achievement, respect, recognition,
bility, prestige, independence, attention,bility, prestige, independence, attention,
importance, appreciation.importance, appreciation.
Belonging, acceptance, love, affection,Belonging, acceptance, love, affection,
and group acceptance, friendships.and group acceptance, friendships.
Security, stability, dependency, protection,Security, stability, dependency, protection,
need for structure, order, law, tenure,need for structure, order, law, tenure,
Hunger, thirst, reproduction, shelter,Hunger, thirst, reproduction, shelter,
air, rest.air, rest.
Frederick Herzberg theory
“Two factor theory” of motivation
Hygiene ,maintenance, or job context
factors.( dis satisfiers )
Achievement, challenge, advancement,
growth in the job. (satisfiers )
THE WORD SELL IS DERIVED FROM A Norwegian WORD SELJE
WHICH MEANS TO SERVE
TO SERVE YOUR PROSPECTS YOU MUST UNDERSTAND THEIR
PEOPLE INVARIABLY BUY WHAT THEY WANT, EVEN ABOVE
WHAT THEY NEED
The sales process
Process: a sequential series of decisions
and or actions.
BUYING PROCESS SELLING PROCESS
SELECT HANDLE OBJECTIONS
BUY CLOSE THE SALE
CONSUME FOLLOW UP
The sales process
1. Prospecting & Qualifying
2. Pre approach (pre call planning )
4. Presentation & Demonstration
5. Overcoming Objections
6. Trial close / Closing the sale
7. Follow –up and Service.
Process of identifying potential buyers.
A prospect has a reasonable probability
of buying ,has sufficient need to justify a
profitable sale ,has financial resources to
buy and can be classified as ‘eligible to
MONEY? AUTHORITY? DESIRE?
Without prospects you are out of
Prospecting is a never ending process
A suspect is a name that could be a
A salesman spends time with suspects,
but invests time with prospects
Lead generation – a three step process.
1. Defining the target market :what it
wants; what it buys; where and when it
buys; what it buys; how it buys;
2. Using communication tools to gather
leads –Advertising, Direct mail,
Telemarketing, Trade shows, buying
3. Qualifying the Leads.
Methods of prospecting
Referal from existing customers, friends
Referal from internal company sources
Referal from suppliers, bankers,
Selling first time to Prospects
(pre sale planning)
Adequate knowledge of the product to be sold, company
being represented, the market competition ,category or
segment of customers and selling techniques.
Product knowledge: Evolution-Features-Benefits-
Company knowledge: History-Values-Achievements-
Pre sale plan
Competitors knowledge :structure-share-
Customer knowledge :attitudes-
preferences- behavioural habits
Selling techniques :
Pre approach planning
Focus on understanding customer needs and
characteristics and preparing a proposal on how
the product or service offered can satisfy the
Steps involved are:
Determining call objectives.
Development of customer profile.
Determine customer benefits.
Determine the flow and content of the
the Ziglar method
Focus on Prospects NEEDS and
Sell by design, not by chance.
Follow a proven 4 step formula:
Situational questions: questions about
prospect’s current situation. (who will decide? is
it the first time ? Changing source ?
Problem identification question: Questions to
uncover problems, difficulties or needs
( problems on quality, delivery ?)
Problem impact questions: questions to make
the buyer realise the impact of the problem and
the need to solve it.( what will be the impact on
costs , on customer satisfaction ?)
Solution value questions :questions to
help the buyer asses the value or
usefulness of the solution ( for x benefit
how much would you save ?
Confirmation questions: (how would
an error free system help?)
At this stage you need to THINK
Prospect and Salesperson should both
be aware of the need. (remove blind
Present your product
Time to stop asking questions and start
People don’t buy products, they buy
what the product does for them.
Questions are the answer
Thinking vs. feeling questions.
When you learn how the customer feels
you are more likely to find out what the
person thinks.( the seat belt case)
Tying emotion to logic.
The questioning process
Three basic types of questions enable us
to discover the needs of our potential
The Open Door Questions.-allows the
prospect the freedom to go where ever
they like. the “who, what where ,when,
how and why” questions
The closed door question: “would you
tell me more”; “what do you mean
by…Answers to these give you
information to helping the prospect
and building trust.
“yes or no” questions demand a direct
response. “do you agree..” “would my
proposal..” “are we in agreement..”
They allow you to check on your
progress on the sales process. “trial
Value the speaker – show concern,
Listen to what is not said- e.g “cant use
the product”-what does it mean? Cant
buy? Cant use or how to use or wont
use. Customers are often elusive
Try to hear the truth; focus on the facts
Limit your speaking time.
Don’t think about what you are going to
say after your customer stops speaking
Listen to the customer’s point of view.
Repeat what your customer has said.
Don’t take extensive notes while
Meeting the buyer for the first time
Customer benefit approach
Stimulus response method: also called a
‘canned approach’, a memorised sales
presentation .It assumes that if a right stimuli is
made it will get a favourable response.
Formula method: the AIDA process.
Need-satisfaction method: an interactive
sales presentation. The most challenging and
creative method. The FAB way.
Features, Advantages, Benefits.
Building Desire and conviction
Initiate Action to buy.
Team selling method: a multi person sales
team deals with a multi person buying centre
(or buying committees)
Sales team consists of Account executive,
technical support engineer, logistics expert, IT
or systems executive and Finance executive.
Buying committee consists of materials exec.
manufacturing/operations exec. supply chain
exec. Materials manager and Finance exec.
Consultative selling method: problem-
Knowledge of the industry, clients
company, awareness of key members
Objections , opposition , resistance to
the presentation typically happens during
the presentation or while asking for the
Objections should be welcomed.
Objections indicate that the prospect is
involved and not indifferent.
Objections reflect the prospect’s view.
1. Psychological ( hidden ) – includes pre-
determined ideas or beliefs, preference
for established brands, dislike of
making decisions , anxiety or
resistance to spend money , suspect
about quality etc.
2. Logical or practical or real –delivery
schedule, high price , product
Methods of handling
Ask questions: listen, rephrase,
reconfirm the objection and explain.
Turn objection into a benefit and trial
Deny objections tactfully. (arrogance and
sarcasm to be strictly avoided)
Compensation for valid objections.
Plan – pre determine ‘firm’ and ‘flexible’
factors; define limits.
Ensure an atmosphere of trust ,
understanding and respect.
Define purpose and objective.